Compatibility fixes for dynlookup makefile builder.
[exim.git] / src / README
1 $Cambridge: exim/src/README,v 1.3 2005/08/30 10:07:58 ph10 Exp $
4 --------------------------------------
6 Copyright (c) 1995 - 2005 University of Cambridge.
7 See the file NOTICE for conditions of use and distribution.
9 There is a book about Exim by Philip Hazel called "The Exim SMTP Mail Server",
10 published by UIT Cambridge in May 2003. This is the official guide for Exim 4.
11 The current edition covers release 4.10 and a few later extensions.
13 The O'Reilly book about Exim ("Exim The Mail Transfer Agent" by Philip Hazel)
14 covers Exim 3, which is now deprecated. Exim 4 has a large number of changes
15 from Exim 3, though the basic structure and philosophy remains the same. The
16 older book may be helpful for the background, but a lot of the detail has
17 changed, so it is likely to be confusing to newcomers.
19 There is a web site at; this contains details of the
20 mailing list
22 A copy of the Exim FAQ should be available from the same source that you used
23 to obtain the Exim distribution. Additional formats for the documentation
24 (PostScript, PDF, Texinfo, and HTML) should also be available there.
28 -----------------
30 Unpacking the tar file should produce a single directory called exim-<version>,
31 containing the following files and directories:
33 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS some acknowledgments
34 CHANGES a conventional file name; it indirects to some files in doc/
35 LICENCE the GNU General Public Licence
36 Local/ an empty directory for local configuration files
37 Makefile top level Makefile
38 NOTICE notice about conditions of use
39 OS/ directory containing OS-specific files
40 README this file
41 README.UPDATING special notes about updating from previous versions
42 doc/ directory of documentation files
43 exim_monitor/ directory of source files for the Exim monitor
44 scripts/ directory of scripts used in the build process
45 src/ directory of source files
46 util/ directory of independent utilities
48 Please see the documentation files for full instructions on how to build,
49 install, and run Exim. For straightforward installations on operating systems
50 to which Exim has already been ported, the building process is as follows:
52 . Ensure that the top-level Exim directory (e.g. exim-4.40) is the current
53 directory (containing the files and directories listed above).
55 . Edit the file called src/EDITME and put the result in a new file called
56 Local/Makefile. There are comments in src/EDITME telling you what the various
57 parameters are. You must at least provide values for BIN_DIRECTORY,
58 CONFIGURE_FILE, EXIM_USER and EXIM_GROUP (if EXIM_USER is numeric), and it is
59 recommended that SPOOL_DIRECTORY also be defined here if it is a fixed path.
61 . There are a number of additional parameters whose defaults can also be
62 overridden by additions to Local/Makefile. The basic defaults are in
63 OS/Makefile-Default, but these settings are overridden for some operating
64 systems by values on OS/Makefile-<osname>. The most commonly-required change
65 is probably the setting of CC, which defines the command to run the C
66 compiler, and which defaults to gcc. To change it to cc, add the following
67 line to Local/Makefile:
69 CC=cc
71 If you are running the Berkeley DB package as your dbm library, then it is
72 worth putting USE_DB=yes in Local/Makefile, to get Exim to use the native
73 interface. This is the default for some operating systems. See
74 doc/dbm.discuss.txt for discussion on dbm libraries.
76 . If you want to compile the Exim monitor, edit the file called
77 exim_monitor/EDITME and put the result in a file called Local/eximon.conf.
78 If you are not going to compile the Exim monitor, you should have commented
79 out the line starting EXIM_MONITOR= when creating Local/Makefile. There are
80 comments in exim_monitor/EDITME about the values set therein, but in this
81 case everything can be defaulted if you wish.
83 . If your system is not POSIX compliant by default, then you might experience
84 fewer problems if you help point the build tools to the POSIX variants. For
85 instance, on Solaris:
87 PATH=/usr/xpg4/bin:$PATH make SHELL=/usr/xpg4/bin/sh
89 . Type "make". This will determine what your machine's architecture and
90 operating system are, and create a build directory from those names (e.g.
91 "build-SunOS5-sparc"). Symbolic links are created from the build directory
92 to the source directory. A configured make file called <build-dir>/makefile
93 is then created, and "make" then goes on to use this to build various
94 binaries and scripts inside the build directory.
96 . Type "make install", while running as root, to install the binaries,
97 scripts, and a default configuration file. To see what this command is
98 going to do before risking it, run "../scripts/exim_install -n" (not as
99 root) from within the build directory.
101 . When you are ready to try running Exim, see the section entitled "Testing"
102 in the chapter called "Building and Installing Exim" in doc/spec.txt, or in
103 one of the other forms of the documentation.
105 . Running the install script does NOT replace /usr/sbin/sendmail or
106 /usr/lib/sendmail with a link to Exim. That step you must perform by hand
107 when you are satisfied that Exim is running correctly.
109 . Note that the default configuration refers to an alias file called
110 /etc/aliases. It used to be the case that every Unix had that file, because
111 it was the Sendmail default. These days, there are systems that don't have
112 /etc/aliases, so you might need to set it up. Your aliases should at least
113 include an alias for "postmaster".
115 . Consider notifying users of the change of MTA. Exim has different
116 capabilities, and there are various operational differences, such as stricter
117 adherence to the RFCs than some MTAs, and differences in the text of
118 messages produced by various command-line options.
120 . The default configuration file will use your host's fully qualified name (as
121 obtained from the uname() function) as the only local mail domain and as the
122 domain which is used to qualify unqualified local mail addresses. See the
123 comments in the default configuration file if you want to change these.
125 The operating systems currently supported are: AIX, BSD/OS (aka BSDI), Darwin
126 (Mac OS X), DGUX, FreeBSD, GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, HI-OSF (Hitachi), HP-UX, IRIX,
127 MIPS RISCOS, NetBSD, OpenBSD, QNX, SCO, SCO SVR4.2 (aka UNIX-SV), Solaris (aka
128 SunOS5), SunOS4, Tru64-Unix (formerly Digital Unix, formerly DEC-OSF1), Ultrix,
129 and Unixware. However, code is not available for determining system load
130 averages on Ultrix. There are also configuration files for compiling Exim in
131 the Cygwin environment that can be installed on systems running Windows.
132 However, the documentation supplied with the distribution does not contain any
133 information about running Exim in the Cygwin environment.
136 ******* Modifying the building process ******
138 Instructions for overriding the build-time options for Exim are given in the
139 manual. You should never have to modify any of the supplied files; it should be
140 possible to override everything that is necessary by creating suitable files in
141 the Local directory. This means that you won't need to redo your modifications
142 for the next release of Exim. If you find you can't avoid changing some other
143 file, let me know and I'll see if I can find a way of making that unnecessary.
145 Briefly, the building process concatenates a number of files in order to
146 construct its working makefile. If <ostype> and <archtype> are the operating
147 system and architecture types respectively, the files used are:
149 OS/Makefile-Default
150 OS/Makefile-<ostype>
151 Local/Makefile
152 Local/Makefile-<ostype>
153 Local/Makefile-<archtype>
154 Local/Makefile-<ostype>-<archtype>
155 OS/Makefile-Base
157 Of the Local/* files, only Local/Makefile is required to exist; the rest are
158 optional. Because of the way "make" works, values set in later files override
159 values set in earlier ones. Thus you can set up general options that are
160 overridden for specify operating systems and/or architectures if you wish.
165 Exim 4 won't work with some versions of Linux if you put its spool directory on
166 an NFS partition. You get an error about "directory sync failed". This is
167 because of a bug in Linux NFS. A fix has been promised in due course. It is in
168 any case much better to put Exim's spool directory on local disc.
170 If you get an error complaining about the lack of functions such as dbm_open()
171 when building Exim, the problem is that it hasn't been able to find a DBM
172 library. See the file doc/dbm.discuss.txt for a discussion about the various
173 DBM libraries.
175 Different versions of Linux come with different DBM libraries, stored in
176 different places. As well as setting USE_DB=yes in Local/Makefile if Berkeley
177 DB is in use, it may also be necessary to set a value in DBMLIB to specify the
178 inclusion of the DBM library, for example: DBMLIB=-ldb or DBMLIB=-lgdbm.
180 If you are using RedHat 7.0, which has DB3 as its DBM library, you need to
181 install the db-devel package before building Exim. This will have a name like
182 db3-devel-3.1.14-16.i386.rpm (but check which release of DB3 you have).
184 The building scripts now distinguish between versions of Linux with the older
185 libc5 and the more recent ones that use libc6. In the latter case, USE_DB and
186 -ldb are the default settings, because DB is standard with libc6.
188 It appears that with glibc-2.1.x (a minor libc upgrade), they have standardised
189 on Berkeley DB2 (instead of DB1 in glibc-2.0.x). If you want to get DB1 back,
190 you need to set
192 INCLUDE=-I/usr/include/db1
193 DBMLIB=-ldb1
195 in your Local/Makefile. If you omit DBMLIB=-ldb1 Exim will link successfully
196 using the DB1 compatibility interface to DB2, but it will expect the file
197 format to be that of DB2, and so will not be able to read existing DB1 files.
202 On FreeBSD there is a file called /etc/mail/mailer.conf which selects what to
203 run for various MTA calls. Instead of changing /usr/sbin/sendmail, you should
204 edit this file instead, to read something like this:
206 sendmail /usr/exim/bin/exim
207 send-mail /usr/exim/bin/exim
208 mailq /usr/exim/bin/exim -bp
209 newaliases /usr/bin/true
211 You will most probably need to add the line:
213 daily_status_include_submit_mailq="NO" # No separate 'submit' queue
215 to /etc/periodic.conf. This stops FreeBSD running the command "mailq -Ac"
216 (which Exim doesn't understand) to list a separate submit queue (which Exim
217 doesn't have).
219 If you are using FreeBSD prior to 3.0-RELEASE, and you are not using the ports
220 mechanism to install Exim, then you should install the perl5 package
221 (/usr/local/bin/perl) and use that instead of perl in the base system, which is
222 perl4 up until 3.0-RELEASE. If you are using the ports mechanism, this is
223 handled for you.
225 If you are upgrading from version 2.11 of Exim or earlier, and you are using
226 DBM files, and you did not previously have USE_DB=yes in your Local/Makefile,
227 then you will either have to put USE_DB=no in your Local/Makefile or (better)
228 rebuild your DBM data files. The default for FreeBSD has been changed to
229 USE_DB=yes, since FreeBSD comes with Berkeley DB. However, using the native DB
230 interface means that the data files no longer have the ".db" extension.
234 ******* IMPORTANT FOR Tru64 (aka Digital Unix aka DEC-OSF1) USERS *******
236 The default compiler may not recognize ANSI C by default. You may have to set
238 CC=cc
239 CFLAGS=-std1
241 in Local/Makefile in order to compile Exim. A user reported another small
242 problem with this operating system: In the file /usr/include/net/if.h a
243 semicolon was missing at the end of line 143.
247 ******* IMPORTANT FOR SCO USERS *******
249 The building scripts assume the existence of the "ar" command, which is part of
250 the Development System. However, it is also possible to use the "gar" command
251 that is part of the GNU utilities that are distributed with the 5.0.7 release.
252 If you have "gar" and not "ar" you should include
254 AR=gar
256 in your Local/Makefile.
260 ******* IMPORTANT FOR Unixware 2.x USERS *******
262 Unixware does not include db/dbm/ndbm with its standard compiler (it is
263 available with /usr/ucb/cc, but that has bugs of its own). You should install
264 gcc and Berkeley DB (or another dbm library if you really insist). If you use a
265 different dbm library you will need to override the default setting of DBMLIB.
267 DB 1.85 and 2.x can be found at They have different
268 characteristics. See the discussion of dbm libraries in doc/dbm.discuss.txt. DB
269 needs to be compiled with gcc and you need a 'cc' in your path before the
270 Unixware CC to compile it.
272 Don't bother even starting to install exim on Unixware unless you have
273 installed gcc and use it for everything.
276 ******* IMPORTANT FOR SOLARIS 2.3 (SUNOS 5.3) USERS *******
278 The file /usr/include/sysexits.h does not exist on Solaris 2.3 (and presumably
279 earlier versions), though it is present in 2.4 and later versions. To compile
280 Exim on Solaris 2.3 it is necessary to include the line
284 in your Local/Makefile.
287 ******* IMPORTANT FOR IRIX USERS *******
289 There are problems with some versions of gcc on IRIX, as a result of which all
290 DNS lookups yield either or Releases of gcc after
291 (which works ok) are affected. Specifically, 2.8.* is affected, as are
292 the 2.95 series. From release 3.21 of Exim, a workaround for this problem
293 should automatically be enabled when Exim is compiled on IRIX using gcc.
295 As from version 2.03 there is IRIX-specific code in Exim to obtain a list of
296 all the IP addresses on local interfaces, including alias addresses, because
297 the standard code gives only non-alias addresses in IRIX. The code came from
298 SGI, with the comment:
300 "On 6.2 you need the libc patch to get the sysctl() stub and the networking
301 kernel patch to get the support."
303 It seems that this code doesn't work on at least some earlier versions of IRIX
304 (e.g. IRIX 5.3). If you can't compile under IRIX and the problem appears to
305 relate to sysctl(), try commenting or #ifdef-ing out all the code in the
306 file OS/os.c-IRIX.
309 ******* IMPORTANT FOR HP-UX USERS *******
311 There are two different sets of configuration files for HP-UX. Those ending in
312 HP-UX-9 are used for HP-UX version 9, and have been tested on HP-UX version
313 9.05. Those ending in HP-UX are for later releases, and have been tested on
314 HP-UX version 11.00. If you are using a version of HP-UX between 9.05 and
315 11.00, you may need to edit the file OS/os.h-HP-UX if you encounter problems
316 building Exim.
318 If you want to use the Sieve facility in Exim, the alias iso-8859-1 should be
319 added to the alias definition for iso81 in /usr/lib/nls/iconv/config.iconv. You
320 also need to add a new alias definition: "alias utf8 utf-8".
323 ******* IMPORTANT FOR QNX USERS *******
325 1. Exim makes some assumptions about the shell in the makefiles. The "normal"
326 QNX shell (ksh) will not work. You need to install "bash", which can be
327 obtained from the QNX freeware on QUICS. Install it to /usr/local/bin/bash
328 Then you need to change the SHELL definition at the top of the main Makefile
329 to SHELL=/usr/local/bin/bash. The file OS/Makefile-QNX sets the variable
330 MAKE_SHELL to /usr/local/bin/bash. If you install bash in a different place,
331 you will need to set MAKE_SHELL in your Local/Makefile in order to override
332 this.
334 2. For some strange reason make will fail at building "exim_dbmbuild" when
335 called the first time. However simply calling make a second time will solve
336 the problem. Alternatively, run "make makfile" and then "make".
339 ******* IMPORTANT FOR ULTRIX USERS *******
341 You need to set SHELL explicitly in the make call when building on ULTRIX,
342 that is, type "make SHELL=sh5".
345 ******* IMPORTANT FOR GNU/HURD USERS *******
347 GNU/Hurd doesn't (at the time of writing, June 1999) have the ioctls for
348 finding out the IP addresses of the local interfaces. You therefore have to set
349 local_interfaces yourself. Otherwise it will treat only as local.
351 Philip Hazel