[exim.git] / doc / doc-docbook / spec.xfpt
1 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2 . This is the primary source of the Exim Manual. It is an xfpt document that is
3 . converted into DocBook XML for subsequent conversion into printable and online
4 . formats. The markup used herein is "standard" xfpt markup, with some extras.
5 . The markup is summarized in a file called Markup.txt.
6 .
7 . WARNING: When you use the .new macro, make sure it appears *before* any
8 . adjacent index items; otherwise you get an empty "paragraph" which causes
9 . unwanted vertical space.
10 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
12 .include stdflags
13 .include stdmacs
15 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
16 . This outputs the standard DocBook boilerplate.
17 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
19 .docbook
21 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
22 . These lines are processing instructions for the Simple DocBook Processor that
23 . Philip Hazel has developed as a less cumbersome way of making PostScript and
24 . PDFs than using xmlto and fop. They will be ignored by all other XML
25 . processors.
26 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
28 .literal xml
29 <?sdop
30 foot_right_recto="&chaptertitle; (&chapternumber;)"
31 foot_right_verso="&chaptertitle; (&chapternumber;)"
32 toc_chapter_blanks="yes,yes"
33 table_warn_overflow="overprint"
34 ?>
35 .literal off
37 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
38 . This generates the outermost <book> element that wraps the entire document.
39 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
41 .book
43 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
44 . These definitions set some parameters and save some typing.
45 . Update the Copyright year (only) when changing content.
46 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
48 .set previousversion "4.93"
49 .include ./local_params
51 .set ACL "access control lists (ACLs)"
52 .set I "&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;"
54 .macro copyyear
55 2019
56 .endmacro
58 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
59 . Additional xfpt markup used by this document, over and above the default
60 . provided in the xfpt library.
61 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
63 . --- Override the &$ flag to automatically insert a $ with the variable name.
65 .flag &$ $& "<varname>$" "</varname>"
67 . --- Short flags for daggers in option headings. They will always be inside
68 . --- an italic string, but we want the daggers to be in Roman.
70 .flag &!! "</emphasis>&dagger;<emphasis>"
71 .flag &!? "</emphasis>&Dagger;<emphasis>"
73 . --- A macro for an Exim option definition heading, generating a one-line
74 . --- table with four columns. For cases when the option name is given with
75 . --- a space, so that it can be split, a fifth argument is used for the
76 . --- index entry.
78 .macro option
79 .arg 5
80 .oindex "&%$5%&"
81 .endarg
82 .arg -5
83 .oindex "&%$1%&"
84 .endarg
85 .itable all 0 0 4 8* left 6* center 6* center 6* right
86 .row "&%$1%&" "Use: &'$2'&" "Type: &'$3'&" "Default: &'$4'&"
87 .endtable
88 .endmacro
90 . --- A macro for the common 2-column tables. The width of the first column
91 . --- is suitable for the many tables at the start of the main options chapter;
92 . --- a small number of other 2-column tables override it.
94 .macro table2 196pt 254pt
95 .itable none 0 0 2 $1 left $2 left
96 .endmacro
98 . --- A macro that generates .row, but puts &I; at the start of the first
99 . --- argument, thus indenting it. Assume a minimum of two arguments, and
100 . --- allow up to four arguments, which is as many as we'll ever need.
102 .macro irow
103 .arg 4
104 .row "&I;$1" "$2" "$3" "$4"
105 .endarg
106 .arg -4
107 .arg 3
108 .row "&I;$1" "$2" "$3"
109 .endarg
110 .arg -3
111 .row "&I;$1" "$2"
112 .endarg
113 .endarg
114 .endmacro
116 . --- Macros for option, variable, and concept index entries. For a "range"
117 . --- style of entry, use .scindex for the start and .ecindex for the end. The
118 . --- first argument of .scindex and the only argument of .ecindex must be the
119 . --- ID that ties them together.
121 .macro cindex
122 &<indexterm role="concept">&
123 &<primary>&$1&</primary>&
124 .arg 2
125 &<secondary>&$2&</secondary>&
126 .endarg
127 &</indexterm>&
128 .endmacro
130 .macro scindex
131 &<indexterm role="concept" id="$1" class="startofrange">&
132 &<primary>&$2&</primary>&
133 .arg 3
134 &<secondary>&$3&</secondary>&
135 .endarg
136 &</indexterm>&
137 .endmacro
139 .macro ecindex
140 &<indexterm role="concept" startref="$1" class="endofrange"/>&
141 .endmacro
143 .macro oindex
144 &<indexterm role="option">&
145 &<primary>&$1&</primary>&
146 .arg 2
147 &<secondary>&$2&</secondary>&
148 .endarg
149 &</indexterm>&
150 .endmacro
152 .macro vindex
153 &<indexterm role="variable">&
154 &<primary>&$1&</primary>&
155 .arg 2
156 &<secondary>&$2&</secondary>&
157 .endarg
158 &</indexterm>&
159 .endmacro
161 .macro index
162 .echo "** Don't use .index; use .cindex or .oindex or .vindex"
163 .endmacro
164 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
167 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
168 . The <bookinfo> element is removed from the XML before processing for ASCII
169 . output formats.
170 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
172 .literal xml
173 <bookinfo>
174 <title>Specification of the Exim Mail Transfer Agent</title>
175 <titleabbrev>The Exim MTA</titleabbrev>
176 <date>
177 .fulldate
178 </date>
179 <author><firstname>Exim</firstname><surname>Maintainers</surname></author>
180 <authorinitials>EM</authorinitials>
181 <revhistory><revision>
182 .versiondatexml
183 <authorinitials>EM</authorinitials>
184 </revision></revhistory>
185 <copyright><year>
186 .copyyear
187 </year><holder>University of Cambridge</holder></copyright>
188 </bookinfo>
189 .literal off
192 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
193 . This chunk of literal XML implements index entries of the form "x, see y" and
194 . "x, see also y". However, the DocBook DTD doesn't allow <indexterm> entries
195 . at the top level, so we have to put the .chapter directive first.
196 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
198 .chapter "Introduction" "CHID1"
199 .literal xml
201 <indexterm role="variable">
202 <primary>$1, $2, etc.</primary>
203 <see><emphasis>numerical variables</emphasis></see>
204 </indexterm>
205 <indexterm role="concept">
206 <primary>address</primary>
207 <secondary>rewriting</secondary>
208 <see><emphasis>rewriting</emphasis></see>
209 </indexterm>
210 <indexterm role="concept">
211 <primary>Bounce Address Tag Validation</primary>
212 <see><emphasis>BATV</emphasis></see>
213 </indexterm>
214 <indexterm role="concept">
215 <primary>Client SMTP Authorization</primary>
216 <see><emphasis>CSA</emphasis></see>
217 </indexterm>
218 <indexterm role="concept">
219 <primary>CR character</primary>
220 <see><emphasis>carriage return</emphasis></see>
221 </indexterm>
222 <indexterm role="concept">
223 <primary>CRL</primary>
224 <see><emphasis>certificate revocation list</emphasis></see>
225 </indexterm>
226 <indexterm role="concept">
227 <primary>delivery</primary>
228 <secondary>failure report</secondary>
229 <see><emphasis>bounce message</emphasis></see>
230 </indexterm>
231 <indexterm role="concept">
232 <primary>dialup</primary>
233 <see><emphasis>intermittently connected hosts</emphasis></see>
234 </indexterm>
235 <indexterm role="concept">
236 <primary>exiscan</primary>
237 <see><emphasis>content scanning</emphasis></see>
238 </indexterm>
239 <indexterm role="concept">
240 <primary>failover</primary>
241 <see><emphasis>fallback</emphasis></see>
242 </indexterm>
243 <indexterm role="concept">
244 <primary>fallover</primary>
245 <see><emphasis>fallback</emphasis></see>
246 </indexterm>
247 <indexterm role="concept">
248 <primary>filter</primary>
249 <secondary>Sieve</secondary>
250 <see><emphasis>Sieve filter</emphasis></see>
251 </indexterm>
252 <indexterm role="concept">
253 <primary>ident</primary>
254 <see><emphasis>RFC 1413</emphasis></see>
255 </indexterm>
256 <indexterm role="concept">
257 <primary>LF character</primary>
258 <see><emphasis>linefeed</emphasis></see>
259 </indexterm>
260 <indexterm role="concept">
261 <primary>maximum</primary>
262 <seealso><emphasis>limit</emphasis></seealso>
263 </indexterm>
264 <indexterm role="concept">
265 <primary>monitor</primary>
266 <see><emphasis>Exim monitor</emphasis></see>
267 </indexterm>
268 <indexterm role="concept">
269 <primary>no_<emphasis>xxx</emphasis></primary>
270 <see>entry for xxx</see>
271 </indexterm>
272 <indexterm role="concept">
273 <primary>NUL</primary>
274 <see><emphasis>binary zero</emphasis></see>
275 </indexterm>
276 <indexterm role="concept">
277 <primary>passwd file</primary>
278 <see><emphasis>/etc/passwd</emphasis></see>
279 </indexterm>
280 <indexterm role="concept">
281 <primary>process id</primary>
282 <see><emphasis>pid</emphasis></see>
283 </indexterm>
284 <indexterm role="concept">
285 <primary>RBL</primary>
286 <see><emphasis>DNS list</emphasis></see>
287 </indexterm>
288 <indexterm role="concept">
289 <primary>redirection</primary>
290 <see><emphasis>address redirection</emphasis></see>
291 </indexterm>
292 <indexterm role="concept">
293 <primary>return path</primary>
294 <seealso><emphasis>envelope sender</emphasis></seealso>
295 </indexterm>
296 <indexterm role="concept">
297 <primary>scanning</primary>
298 <see><emphasis>content scanning</emphasis></see>
299 </indexterm>
300 <indexterm role="concept">
301 <primary>SSL</primary>
302 <see><emphasis>TLS</emphasis></see>
303 </indexterm>
304 <indexterm role="concept">
305 <primary>string</primary>
306 <secondary>expansion</secondary>
307 <see><emphasis>expansion</emphasis></see>
308 </indexterm>
309 <indexterm role="concept">
310 <primary>top bit</primary>
311 <see><emphasis>8-bit characters</emphasis></see>
312 </indexterm>
313 <indexterm role="concept">
314 <primary>variables</primary>
315 <see><emphasis>expansion, variables</emphasis></see>
316 </indexterm>
317 <indexterm role="concept">
318 <primary>zero, binary</primary>
319 <see><emphasis>binary zero</emphasis></see>
320 </indexterm>
322 .literal off
325 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
326 . This is the real start of the first chapter. See the comment above as to why
327 . we can't have the .chapter line here.
328 . chapter "Introduction"
329 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
331 Exim is a mail transfer agent (MTA) for hosts that are running Unix or
332 Unix-like operating systems. It was designed on the assumption that it would be
333 run on hosts that are permanently connected to the Internet. However, it can be
334 used on intermittently connected hosts with suitable configuration adjustments.
336 Configuration files currently exist for the following operating systems: AIX,
337 BSD/OS (aka BSDI), Darwin (Mac OS X), DGUX, Dragonfly, FreeBSD, GNU/Hurd,
338 GNU/Linux, HI-OSF (Hitachi), HI-UX, HP-UX, IRIX, MIPS RISCOS, NetBSD, OpenBSD,
339 OpenUNIX, QNX, SCO, SCO SVR4.2 (aka UNIX-SV), Solaris (aka SunOS5), SunOS4,
340 Tru64-Unix (formerly Digital UNIX, formerly DEC-OSF1), Ultrix, and UnixWare.
341 Some of these operating systems are no longer current and cannot easily be
342 tested, so the configuration files may no longer work in practice.
344 There are also configuration files for compiling Exim in the Cygwin environment
345 that can be installed on systems running Windows. However, this document does
346 not contain any information about running Exim in the Cygwin environment.
348 The terms and conditions for the use and distribution of Exim are contained in
349 the file &_NOTICE_&. Exim is distributed under the terms of the GNU General
350 Public Licence, a copy of which may be found in the file &_LICENCE_&.
352 The use, supply, or promotion of Exim for the purpose of sending bulk,
353 unsolicited electronic mail is incompatible with the basic aims of Exim,
354 which revolve around the free provision of a service that enhances the quality
355 of personal communications. The author of Exim regards indiscriminate
356 mass-mailing as an antisocial, irresponsible abuse of the Internet.
358 Exim owes a great deal to Smail 3 and its author, Ron Karr. Without the
359 experience of running and working on the Smail 3 code, I could never have
360 contemplated starting to write a new MTA. Many of the ideas and user interfaces
361 were originally taken from Smail 3, though the actual code of Exim is entirely
362 new, and has developed far beyond the initial concept.
364 Many people, both in Cambridge and around the world, have contributed to the
365 development and the testing of Exim, and to porting it to various operating
366 systems. I am grateful to them all. The distribution now contains a file called
367 &_ACKNOWLEDGMENTS_&, in which I have started recording the names of
368 contributors.
371 .section "Exim documentation" "SECID1"
372 . Keep this example change bar when updating the documentation!
374 .new
375 .cindex "documentation"
376 This edition of the Exim specification applies to version &version() of Exim.
377 Substantive changes from the &previousversion; edition are marked in some
378 renditions of this document; this paragraph is so marked if the rendition is
379 capable of showing a change indicator.
380 .wen
382 This document is very much a reference manual; it is not a tutorial. The reader
383 is expected to have some familiarity with the SMTP mail transfer protocol and
384 with general Unix system administration. Although there are some discussions
385 and examples in places, the information is mostly organized in a way that makes
386 it easy to look up, rather than in a natural order for sequential reading.
387 Furthermore, this manual aims to cover every aspect of Exim in detail, including
388 a number of rarely-used, special-purpose features that are unlikely to be of
389 very wide interest.
391 .cindex "books about Exim"
392 An &"easier"& discussion of Exim which provides more in-depth explanatory,
393 introductory, and tutorial material can be found in a book entitled &'The Exim
394 SMTP Mail Server'& (second edition, 2007), published by UIT Cambridge
395 (&url(https://www.uit.co.uk/exim-book/)).
397 The book also contains a chapter that gives a general introduction to SMTP and
398 Internet mail. Inevitably, however, the book is unlikely to be fully up-to-date
399 with the latest release of Exim. (Note that the earlier book about Exim,
400 published by O'Reilly, covers Exim 3, and many things have changed in Exim 4.)
402 .cindex "Debian" "information sources"
403 If you are using a Debian distribution of Exim, you will find information about
404 Debian-specific features in the file
405 &_/usr/share/doc/exim4-base/README.Debian_&.
406 The command &(man update-exim.conf)& is another source of Debian-specific
407 information.
409 .cindex "&_doc/NewStuff_&"
410 .cindex "&_doc/ChangeLog_&"
411 .cindex "change log"
412 As Exim develops, there may be features in newer versions that have not
413 yet made it into this document, which is updated only when the most significant
414 digit of the fractional part of the version number changes. Specifications of
415 new features that are not yet in this manual are placed in the file
416 &_doc/NewStuff_& in the Exim distribution.
418 Some features may be classified as &"experimental"&. These may change
419 incompatibly while they are developing, or even be withdrawn. For this reason,
420 they are not documented in this manual. Information about experimental features
421 can be found in the file &_doc/experimental.txt_&.
423 All changes to Exim (whether new features, bug fixes, or other kinds of
424 change) are noted briefly in the file called &_doc/ChangeLog_&.
426 .cindex "&_doc/spec.txt_&"
427 This specification itself is available as an ASCII file in &_doc/spec.txt_& so
428 that it can easily be searched with a text editor. Other files in the &_doc_&
429 directory are:
431 .table2 100pt
432 .row &_OptionLists.txt_& "list of all options in alphabetical order"
433 .row &_dbm.discuss.txt_& "discussion about DBM libraries"
434 .row &_exim.8_& "a man page of Exim's command line options"
435 .row &_experimental.txt_& "documentation of experimental features"
436 .row &_filter.txt_& "specification of the filter language"
437 .row &_Exim3.upgrade_& "upgrade notes from release 2 to release 3"
438 .row &_Exim4.upgrade_& "upgrade notes from release 3 to release 4"
439 .row &_openssl.txt_& "installing a current OpenSSL release"
440 .endtable
442 The main specification and the specification of the filtering language are also
443 available in other formats (HTML, PostScript, PDF, and Texinfo). Section
444 &<<SECTavail>>& below tells you how to get hold of these.
448 .section "FTP site and websites" "SECID2"
449 .cindex "website"
450 .cindex "FTP site"
451 The primary site for Exim source distributions is the &%exim.org%& FTP site,
452 available over HTTPS, HTTP and FTP. These services, and the &%exim.org%&
453 website, are hosted at the University of Cambridge.
455 .cindex "wiki"
456 .cindex "FAQ"
457 As well as Exim distribution tar files, the Exim website contains a number of
458 differently formatted versions of the documentation. A recent addition to the
459 online information is the Exim wiki (&url(https://wiki.exim.org)),
460 which contains what used to be a separate FAQ, as well as various other
461 examples, tips, and know-how that have been contributed by Exim users.
462 The wiki site should always redirect to the correct place, which is currently
463 provided by GitHub, and is open to editing by anyone with a GitHub account.
465 .cindex Bugzilla
466 An Exim Bugzilla exists at &url(https://bugs.exim.org). You can use
467 this to report bugs, and also to add items to the wish list. Please search
468 first to check that you are not duplicating a previous entry.
469 Please do not ask for configuration help in the bug-tracker.
472 .section "Mailing lists" "SECID3"
473 .cindex "mailing lists" "for Exim users"
474 The following Exim mailing lists exist:
476 .table2 140pt
477 .row &'exim-announce@exim.org'& "Moderated, low volume announcements list"
478 .row &'exim-users@exim.org'& "General discussion list"
479 .row &'exim-dev@exim.org'& "Discussion of bugs, enhancements, etc."
480 .row &'exim-cvs@exim.org'& "Automated commit messages from the VCS"
481 .endtable
483 You can subscribe to these lists, change your existing subscriptions, and view
484 or search the archives via the mailing lists link on the Exim home page.
485 .cindex "Debian" "mailing list for"
486 If you are using a Debian distribution of Exim, you may wish to subscribe to
487 the Debian-specific mailing list &'pkg-exim4-users@lists.alioth.debian.org'&
488 via this web page:
489 .display
490 &url(https://alioth-lists.debian.net/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/pkg-exim4-users)
491 .endd
492 Please ask Debian-specific questions on that list and not on the general Exim
493 lists.
495 .section "Bug reports" "SECID5"
496 .cindex "bug reports"
497 .cindex "reporting bugs"
498 Reports of obvious bugs can be emailed to &'bugs@exim.org'& or reported
499 via the Bugzilla (&url(https://bugs.exim.org)). However, if you are unsure
500 whether some behaviour is a bug or not, the best thing to do is to post a
501 message to the &'exim-dev'& mailing list and have it discussed.
505 .section "Where to find the Exim distribution" "SECTavail"
506 .cindex "FTP site"
507 .cindex "HTTPS download site"
508 .cindex "distribution" "FTP site"
509 .cindex "distribution" "https site"
510 The master distribution site for the Exim distribution is
511 .display
512 &url(https://downloads.exim.org/)
513 .endd
514 The service is available over HTTPS, HTTP and FTP.
515 We encourage people to migrate to HTTPS.
517 The content served at &url(https://downloads.exim.org/) is identical to the
518 content served at &url(https://ftp.exim.org/pub/exim) and
519 &url(ftp://ftp.exim.org/pub/exim).
521 If accessing via a hostname containing &'ftp'&, then the file references that
522 follow are relative to the &_exim_& directories at these sites.
523 If accessing via the hostname &'downloads'& then the subdirectories described
524 here are top-level directories.
526 There are now quite a number of independent mirror sites around
527 the world. Those that I know about are listed in the file called &_Mirrors_&.
529 Within the top exim directory there are subdirectories called &_exim3_& (for
530 previous Exim 3 distributions), &_exim4_& (for the latest Exim 4
531 distributions), and &_Testing_& for testing versions. In the &_exim4_&
532 subdirectory, the current release can always be found in files called
533 .display
534 &_exim-n.nn.tar.xz_&
535 &_exim-n.nn.tar.gz_&
536 &_exim-n.nn.tar.bz2_&
537 .endd
538 where &'n.nn'& is the highest such version number in the directory. The three
539 files contain identical data; the only difference is the type of compression.
540 The &_.xz_& file is usually the smallest, while the &_.gz_& file is the
541 most portable to old systems.
543 .cindex "distribution" "signing details"
544 .cindex "distribution" "public key"
545 .cindex "public key for signed distribution"
546 The distributions will be PGP signed by an individual key of the Release
547 Coordinator. This key will have a uid containing an email address in the
548 &'exim.org'& domain and will have signatures from other people, including
549 other Exim maintainers. We expect that the key will be in the "strong set" of
550 PGP keys. There should be a trust path to that key from the Exim Maintainer's
551 PGP keys, a version of which can be found in the release directory in the file
552 &_Exim-Maintainers-Keyring.asc_&. All keys used will be available in public keyserver pools,
553 such as &'pool.sks-keyservers.net'&.
555 At the time of the last update, releases were being made by Jeremy Harris and signed
556 with key &'0xBCE58C8CE41F32DF'&. Other recent keys used for signing are those
557 of Heiko Schlittermann, &'0x26101B62F69376CE'&,
558 and of Phil Pennock, &'0x4D1E900E14C1CC04'&.
560 The signatures for the tar bundles are in:
561 .display
562 &_exim-n.nn.tar.xz.asc_&
563 &_exim-n.nn.tar.gz.asc_&
564 &_exim-n.nn.tar.bz2.asc_&
565 .endd
566 For each released version, the log of changes is made available in a
567 separate file in the directory &_ChangeLogs_& so that it is possible to
568 find out what has changed without having to download the entire distribution.
570 .cindex "documentation" "available formats"
571 The main distribution contains ASCII versions of this specification and other
572 documentation; other formats of the documents are available in separate files
573 inside the &_exim4_& directory of the FTP site:
574 .display
575 &_exim-html-n.nn.tar.gz_&
576 &_exim-pdf-n.nn.tar.gz_&
577 &_exim-postscript-n.nn.tar.gz_&
578 &_exim-texinfo-n.nn.tar.gz_&
579 .endd
580 These tar files contain only the &_doc_& directory, not the complete
581 distribution, and are also available in &_.bz2_& and &_.xz_& forms.
584 .section "Limitations" "SECID6"
585 .ilist
586 .cindex "limitations of Exim"
587 .cindex "bang paths" "not handled by Exim"
588 Exim is designed for use as an Internet MTA, and therefore handles addresses in
589 RFC 2822 domain format only. It cannot handle UUCP &"bang paths"&, though
590 simple two-component bang paths can be converted by a straightforward rewriting
591 configuration. This restriction does not prevent Exim from being interfaced to
592 UUCP as a transport mechanism, provided that domain addresses are used.
593 .next
594 .cindex "domainless addresses"
595 .cindex "address" "without domain"
596 Exim insists that every address it handles has a domain attached. For incoming
597 local messages, domainless addresses are automatically qualified with a
598 configured domain value. Configuration options specify from which remote
599 systems unqualified addresses are acceptable. These are then qualified on
600 arrival.
601 .next
602 .cindex "transport" "external"
603 .cindex "external transports"
604 The only external transport mechanisms that are currently implemented are SMTP
605 and LMTP over a TCP/IP network (including support for IPv6). However, a pipe
606 transport is available, and there are facilities for writing messages to files
607 and pipes, optionally in &'batched SMTP'& format; these facilities can be used
608 to send messages to other transport mechanisms such as UUCP, provided they can
609 handle domain-style addresses. Batched SMTP input is also catered for.
610 .next
611 Exim is not designed for storing mail for dial-in hosts. When the volumes of
612 such mail are large, it is better to get the messages &"delivered"& into files
613 (that is, off Exim's queue) and subsequently passed on to the dial-in hosts by
614 other means.
615 .next
616 Although Exim does have basic facilities for scanning incoming messages, these
617 are not comprehensive enough to do full virus or spam scanning. Such operations
618 are best carried out using additional specialized software packages. If you
619 compile Exim with the content-scanning extension, straightforward interfaces to
620 a number of common scanners are provided.
621 .endlist
624 .section "Runtime configuration" "SECID7"
625 Exim's runtime configuration is held in a single text file that is divided
626 into a number of sections. The entries in this file consist of keywords and
627 values, in the style of Smail 3 configuration files. A default configuration
628 file which is suitable for simple online installations is provided in the
629 distribution, and is described in chapter &<<CHAPdefconfil>>& below.
632 .section "Calling interface" "SECID8"
633 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "command line interface"
634 Like many MTAs, Exim has adopted the Sendmail command line interface so that it
635 can be a straight replacement for &_/usr/lib/sendmail_& or
636 &_/usr/sbin/sendmail_& when sending mail, but you do not need to know anything
637 about Sendmail in order to run Exim. For actions other than sending messages,
638 Sendmail-compatible options also exist, but those that produce output (for
639 example, &%-bp%&, which lists the messages in the queue) do so in Exim's own
640 format. There are also some additional options that are compatible with Smail
641 3, and some further options that are new to Exim. Chapter &<<CHAPcommandline>>&
642 documents all Exim's command line options. This information is automatically
643 made into the man page that forms part of the Exim distribution.
645 Control of messages in the queue can be done via certain privileged command
646 line options. There is also an optional monitor program called &'eximon'&,
647 which displays current information in an X window, and which contains a menu
648 interface to Exim's command line administration options.
652 .section "Terminology" "SECID9"
653 .cindex "terminology definitions"
654 .cindex "body of message" "definition of"
655 The &'body'& of a message is the actual data that the sender wants to transmit.
656 It is the last part of a message and is separated from the &'header'& (see
657 below) by a blank line.
659 .cindex "bounce message" "definition of"
660 When a message cannot be delivered, it is normally returned to the sender in a
661 delivery failure message or a &"non-delivery report"& (NDR). The term
662 &'bounce'& is commonly used for this action, and the error reports are often
663 called &'bounce messages'&. This is a convenient shorthand for &"delivery
664 failure error report"&. Such messages have an empty sender address in the
665 message's &'envelope'& (see below) to ensure that they cannot themselves give
666 rise to further bounce messages.
668 The term &'default'& appears frequently in this manual. It is used to qualify a
669 value which is used in the absence of any setting in the configuration. It may
670 also qualify an action which is taken unless a configuration setting specifies
671 otherwise.
673 The term &'defer'& is used when the delivery of a message to a specific
674 destination cannot immediately take place for some reason (a remote host may be
675 down, or a user's local mailbox may be full). Such deliveries are &'deferred'&
676 until a later time.
678 The word &'domain'& is sometimes used to mean all but the first component of a
679 host's name. It is &'not'& used in that sense here, where it normally refers to
680 the part of an email address following the @ sign.
682 .cindex "envelope, definition of"
683 .cindex "sender" "definition of"
684 A message in transit has an associated &'envelope'&, as well as a header and a
685 body. The envelope contains a sender address (to which bounce messages should
686 be delivered), and any number of recipient addresses. References to the
687 sender or the recipients of a message usually mean the addresses in the
688 envelope. An MTA uses these addresses for delivery, and for returning bounce
689 messages, not the addresses that appear in the header lines.
691 .cindex "message" "header, definition of"
692 .cindex "header section" "definition of"
693 The &'header'& of a message is the first part of a message's text, consisting
694 of a number of lines, each of which has a name such as &'From:'&, &'To:'&,
695 &'Subject:'&, etc. Long header lines can be split over several text lines by
696 indenting the continuations. The header is separated from the body by a blank
697 line.
699 .cindex "local part" "definition of"
700 .cindex "domain" "definition of"
701 The term &'local part'&, which is taken from RFC 2822, is used to refer to the
702 part of an email address that precedes the @ sign. The part that follows the
703 @ sign is called the &'domain'& or &'mail domain'&.
705 .cindex "local delivery" "definition of"
706 .cindex "remote delivery, definition of"
707 The terms &'local delivery'& and &'remote delivery'& are used to distinguish
708 delivery to a file or a pipe on the local host from delivery by SMTP over
709 TCP/IP to another host. As far as Exim is concerned, all hosts other than the
710 host it is running on are &'remote'&.
712 .cindex "return path" "definition of"
713 &'Return path'& is another name that is used for the sender address in a
714 message's envelope.
716 .cindex "queue" "definition of"
717 The term &'queue'& is used to refer to the set of messages awaiting delivery
718 because this term is in widespread use in the context of MTAs. However, in
719 Exim's case, the reality is more like a pool than a queue, because there is
720 normally no ordering of waiting messages.
722 .cindex "queue runner" "definition of"
723 The term &'queue runner'& is used to describe a process that scans the queue
724 and attempts to deliver those messages whose retry times have come. This term
725 is used by other MTAs and also relates to the command &%runq%&, but in Exim
726 the waiting messages are normally processed in an unpredictable order.
728 .cindex "spool directory" "definition of"
729 The term &'spool directory'& is used for a directory in which Exim keeps the
730 messages in its queue &-- that is, those that it is in the process of
731 delivering. This should not be confused with the directory in which local
732 mailboxes are stored, which is called a &"spool directory"& by some people. In
733 the Exim documentation, &"spool"& is always used in the first sense.
740 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
741 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
743 .chapter "Incorporated code" "CHID2"
744 .cindex "incorporated code"
745 .cindex "regular expressions" "library"
746 .cindex "PCRE"
747 .cindex "OpenDMARC"
748 A number of pieces of external code are included in the Exim distribution.
750 .ilist
751 Regular expressions are supported in the main Exim program and in the
752 Exim monitor using the freely-distributable PCRE library, copyright
753 &copy; University of Cambridge. The source to PCRE is no longer shipped with
754 Exim, so you will need to use the version of PCRE shipped with your system,
755 or obtain and install the full version of the library from
756 &url(ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre).
757 .next
758 .cindex "cdb" "acknowledgment"
759 Support for the cdb (Constant DataBase) lookup method is provided by code
760 contributed by Nigel Metheringham of (at the time he contributed it) Planet
761 Online Ltd. The implementation is completely contained within the code of Exim.
762 It does not link against an external cdb library. The code contains the
763 following statements:
765 .blockquote
766 Copyright &copy; 1998 Nigel Metheringham, Planet Online Ltd
768 This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
769 the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
770 Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later
771 version.
772 This code implements Dan Bernstein's Constant DataBase (cdb) spec. Information,
773 the spec and sample code for cdb can be obtained from
774 &url(https://cr.yp.to/cdb.html). This implementation borrows
775 some code from Dan Bernstein's implementation (which has no license
776 restrictions applied to it).
777 .endblockquote
778 .next
779 .cindex "SPA authentication"
780 .cindex "Samba project"
781 .cindex "Microsoft Secure Password Authentication"
782 Client support for Microsoft's &'Secure Password Authentication'& is provided
783 by code contributed by Marc Prud'hommeaux. Server support was contributed by
784 Tom Kistner. This includes code taken from the Samba project, which is released
785 under the Gnu GPL.
786 .next
787 .cindex "Cyrus"
788 .cindex "&'pwcheck'& daemon"
789 .cindex "&'pwauthd'& daemon"
790 Support for calling the Cyrus &'pwcheck'& and &'saslauthd'& daemons is provided
791 by code taken from the Cyrus-SASL library and adapted by Alexander S.
792 Sabourenkov. The permission notice appears below, in accordance with the
793 conditions expressed therein.
795 .blockquote
796 Copyright &copy; 2001 Carnegie Mellon University. All rights reserved.
798 Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
799 modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
800 are met:
802 .olist
803 Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
804 notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
805 .next
806 Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
807 notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
808 the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
809 distribution.
810 .next
811 The name &"Carnegie Mellon University"& must not be used to
812 endorse or promote products derived from this software without
813 prior written permission. For permission or any other legal
814 details, please contact
815 .display
816 Office of Technology Transfer
817 Carnegie Mellon University
818 5000 Forbes Avenue
819 Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890
820 (412) 268-4387, fax: (412) 268-7395
821 tech-transfer@andrew.cmu.edu
822 .endd
823 .next
824 Redistributions of any form whatsoever must retain the following
825 acknowledgment:
827 &"This product includes software developed by Computing Services
828 at Carnegie Mellon University (&url(https://www.cmu.edu/computing/)."&
837 .endlist
838 .endblockquote
840 .next
841 .cindex "Exim monitor" "acknowledgment"
842 .cindex "X-windows"
843 .cindex "Athena"
844 The Exim Monitor program, which is an X-Window application, includes
845 modified versions of the Athena StripChart and TextPop widgets.
846 This code is copyright by DEC and MIT, and their permission notice appears
847 below, in accordance with the conditions expressed therein.
849 .blockquote
850 Copyright 1987, 1988 by Digital Equipment Corporation, Maynard, Massachusetts,
851 and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
853 All Rights Reserved
855 Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its
856 documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted,
857 provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that
858 both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in
859 supporting documentation, and that the names of Digital or MIT not be
860 used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the
861 software without specific, written prior permission.
870 .endblockquote
872 .next
873 .cindex "opendmarc" "acknowledgment"
874 The DMARC implementation uses the OpenDMARC library which is Copyrighted by
875 The Trusted Domain Project. Portions of Exim source which use OpenDMARC
876 derived code are indicated in the respective source files. The full OpenDMARC
877 license is provided in the LICENSE.opendmarc file contained in the distributed
878 source code.
880 .next
881 Many people have contributed code fragments, some large, some small, that were
882 not covered by any specific license requirements. It is assumed that the
883 contributors are happy to see their code incorporated into Exim under the GPL.
884 .endlist
890 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
891 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
893 .chapter "How Exim receives and delivers mail" "CHID11" &&&
894 "Receiving and delivering mail"
897 .section "Overall philosophy" "SECID10"
898 .cindex "design philosophy"
899 Exim is designed to work efficiently on systems that are permanently connected
900 to the Internet and are handling a general mix of mail. In such circumstances,
901 most messages can be delivered immediately. Consequently, Exim does not
902 maintain independent queues of messages for specific domains or hosts, though
903 it does try to send several messages in a single SMTP connection after a host
904 has been down, and it also maintains per-host retry information.
907 .section "Policy control" "SECID11"
908 .cindex "policy control" "overview"
909 Policy controls are now an important feature of MTAs that are connected to the
910 Internet. Perhaps their most important job is to stop MTAs from being abused as
911 &"open relays"& by misguided individuals who send out vast amounts of
912 unsolicited junk and want to disguise its source. Exim provides flexible
913 facilities for specifying policy controls on incoming mail:
915 .ilist
916 .cindex "&ACL;" "introduction"
917 Exim 4 (unlike previous versions of Exim) implements policy controls on
918 incoming mail by means of &'Access Control Lists'& (ACLs). Each list is a
919 series of statements that may either grant or deny access. ACLs can be used at
920 several places in the SMTP dialogue while receiving a message from a remote
921 host. However, the most common places are after each RCPT command, and at the
922 very end of the message. The sysadmin can specify conditions for accepting or
923 rejecting individual recipients or the entire message, respectively, at these
924 two points (see chapter &<<CHAPACL>>&). Denial of access results in an SMTP
925 error code.
926 .next
927 An ACL is also available for locally generated, non-SMTP messages. In this
928 case, the only available actions are to accept or deny the entire message.
929 .next
930 When Exim is compiled with the content-scanning extension, facilities are
931 provided in the ACL mechanism for passing the message to external virus and/or
932 spam scanning software. The result of such a scan is passed back to the ACL,
933 which can then use it to decide what to do with the message.
934 .next
935 When a message has been received, either from a remote host or from the local
936 host, but before the final acknowledgment has been sent, a locally supplied C
937 function called &[local_scan()]& can be run to inspect the message and decide
938 whether to accept it or not (see chapter &<<CHAPlocalscan>>&). If the message
939 is accepted, the list of recipients can be modified by the function.
940 .next
941 Using the &[local_scan()]& mechanism is another way of calling external scanner
942 software. The &%SA-Exim%& add-on package works this way. It does not require
943 Exim to be compiled with the content-scanning extension.
944 .next
945 After a message has been accepted, a further checking mechanism is available in
946 the form of the &'system filter'& (see chapter &<<CHAPsystemfilter>>&). This
947 runs at the start of every delivery process.
948 .endlist
952 .section "User filters" "SECID12"
953 .cindex "filter" "introduction"
954 .cindex "Sieve filter"
955 In a conventional Exim configuration, users are able to run private filters by
956 setting up appropriate &_.forward_& files in their home directories. See
957 chapter &<<CHAPredirect>>& (about the &(redirect)& router) for the
958 configuration needed to support this, and the separate document entitled
959 &'Exim's interfaces to mail filtering'& for user details. Two different kinds
960 of filtering are available:
962 .ilist
963 Sieve filters are written in the standard filtering language that is defined
964 by RFC 3028.
965 .next
966 Exim filters are written in a syntax that is unique to Exim, but which is more
967 powerful than Sieve, which it pre-dates.
968 .endlist
970 User filters are run as part of the routing process, described below.
974 .section "Message identification" "SECTmessiden"
975 .cindex "message ids" "details of format"
976 .cindex "format" "of message id"
977 .cindex "id of message"
978 .cindex "base62"
979 .cindex "base36"
980 .cindex "Darwin"
981 .cindex "Cygwin"
982 Every message handled by Exim is given a &'message id'& which is sixteen
983 characters long. It is divided into three parts, separated by hyphens, for
984 example &`16VDhn-0001bo-D3`&. Each part is a sequence of letters and digits,
985 normally encoding numbers in base 62. However, in the Darwin operating
986 system (Mac OS X) and when Exim is compiled to run under Cygwin, base 36
987 (avoiding the use of lower case letters) is used instead, because the message
988 id is used to construct filenames, and the names of files in those systems are
989 not always case-sensitive.
991 .cindex "pid (process id)" "re-use of"
992 The detail of the contents of the message id have changed as Exim has evolved.
993 Earlier versions relied on the operating system not re-using a process id (pid)
994 within one second. On modern operating systems, this assumption can no longer
995 be made, so the algorithm had to be changed. To retain backward compatibility,
996 the format of the message id was retained, which is why the following rules are
997 somewhat eccentric:
999 .ilist
1000 The first six characters of the message id are the time at which the message
1001 started to be received, to a granularity of one second. That is, this field
1002 contains the number of seconds since the start of the epoch (the normal Unix
1003 way of representing the date and time of day).
1004 .next
1005 After the first hyphen, the next six characters are the id of the process that
1006 received the message.
1007 .next
1008 There are two different possibilities for the final two characters:
1009 .olist
1010 .oindex "&%localhost_number%&"
1011 If &%localhost_number%& is not set, this value is the fractional part of the
1012 time of reception, normally in units of 1/2000 of a second, but for systems
1013 that must use base 36 instead of base 62 (because of case-insensitive file
1014 systems), the units are 1/1000 of a second.
1015 .next
1016 If &%localhost_number%& is set, it is multiplied by 200 (100) and added to
1017 the fractional part of the time, which in this case is in units of 1/200
1018 (1/100) of a second.
1019 .endlist
1020 .endlist
1022 After a message has been received, Exim waits for the clock to tick at the
1023 appropriate resolution before proceeding, so that if another message is
1024 received by the same process, or by another process with the same (re-used)
1025 pid, it is guaranteed that the time will be different. In most cases, the clock
1026 will already have ticked while the message was being received.
1029 .section "Receiving mail" "SECID13"
1030 .cindex "receiving mail"
1031 .cindex "message" "reception"
1032 The only way Exim can receive mail from another host is using SMTP over
1033 TCP/IP, in which case the sender and recipient addresses are transferred using
1034 SMTP commands. However, from a locally running process (such as a user's MUA),
1035 there are several possibilities:
1037 .ilist
1038 If the process runs Exim with the &%-bm%& option, the message is read
1039 non-interactively (usually via a pipe), with the recipients taken from the
1040 command line, or from the body of the message if &%-t%& is also used.
1041 .next
1042 If the process runs Exim with the &%-bS%& option, the message is also read
1043 non-interactively, but in this case the recipients are listed at the start of
1044 the message in a series of SMTP RCPT commands, terminated by a DATA
1045 command. This is called &"batch SMTP"& format,
1046 but it isn't really SMTP. The SMTP commands are just another way of passing
1047 envelope addresses in a non-interactive submission.
1048 .next
1049 If the process runs Exim with the &%-bs%& option, the message is read
1050 interactively, using the SMTP protocol. A two-way pipe is normally used for
1051 passing data between the local process and the Exim process.
1052 This is &"real"& SMTP and is handled in the same way as SMTP over TCP/IP. For
1053 example, the ACLs for SMTP commands are used for this form of submission.
1054 .next
1055 A local process may also make a TCP/IP call to the host's loopback address
1056 ( or any other of its IP addresses. When receiving messages, Exim
1057 does not treat the loopback address specially. It treats all such connections
1058 in the same way as connections from other hosts.
1059 .endlist
1062 .cindex "message sender, constructed by Exim"
1063 .cindex "sender" "constructed by Exim"
1064 In the three cases that do not involve TCP/IP, the sender address is
1065 constructed from the login name of the user that called Exim and a default
1066 qualification domain (which can be set by the &%qualify_domain%& configuration
1067 option). For local or batch SMTP, a sender address that is passed using the
1068 SMTP MAIL command is ignored. However, the system administrator may allow
1069 certain users (&"trusted users"&) to specify a different sender addresses
1070 unconditionally, or all users to specify certain forms of different sender
1071 address. The &%-f%& option or the SMTP MAIL command is used to specify these
1072 different addresses. See section &<<SECTtrustedadmin>>& for details of trusted
1073 users, and the &%untrusted_set_sender%& option for a way of allowing untrusted
1074 users to change sender addresses.
1076 Messages received by either of the non-interactive mechanisms are subject to
1077 checking by the non-SMTP ACL if one is defined. Messages received using SMTP
1078 (either over TCP/IP or interacting with a local process) can be checked by a
1079 number of ACLs that operate at different times during the SMTP session. Either
1080 individual recipients or the entire message can be rejected if local policy
1081 requirements are not met. The &[local_scan()]& function (see chapter
1082 &<<CHAPlocalscan>>&) is run for all incoming messages.
1084 Exim can be configured not to start a delivery process when a message is
1085 received; this can be unconditional, or depend on the number of incoming SMTP
1086 connections or the system load. In these situations, new messages wait on the
1087 queue until a queue runner process picks them up. However, in standard
1088 configurations under normal conditions, delivery is started as soon as a
1089 message is received.
1095 .section "Handling an incoming message" "SECID14"
1096 .cindex "spool directory" "files that hold a message"
1097 .cindex "file" "how a message is held"
1098 When Exim accepts a message, it writes two files in its spool directory. The
1099 first contains the envelope information, the current status of the message, and
1100 the header lines, and the second contains the body of the message. The names of
1101 the two spool files consist of the message id, followed by &`-H`& for the
1102 file containing the envelope and header, and &`-D`& for the data file.
1104 .cindex "spool directory" "&_input_& sub-directory"
1105 By default, all these message files are held in a single directory called
1106 &_input_& inside the general Exim spool directory. Some operating systems do
1107 not perform very well if the number of files in a directory gets large; to
1108 improve performance in such cases, the &%split_spool_directory%& option can be
1109 used. This causes Exim to split up the input files into 62 sub-directories
1110 whose names are single letters or digits. When this is done, the queue is
1111 processed one sub-directory at a time instead of all at once, which can improve
1112 overall performance even when there are not enough files in each directory to
1113 affect file system performance.
1115 The envelope information consists of the address of the message's sender and
1116 the addresses of the recipients. This information is entirely separate from
1117 any addresses contained in the header lines. The status of the message includes
1118 a list of recipients who have already received the message. The format of the
1119 first spool file is described in chapter &<<CHAPspool>>&.
1121 .cindex "rewriting" "addresses"
1122 Address rewriting that is specified in the rewrite section of the configuration
1123 (see chapter &<<CHAPrewrite>>&) is done once and for all on incoming addresses,
1124 both in the header lines and the envelope, at the time the message is accepted.
1125 If during the course of delivery additional addresses are generated (for
1126 example, via aliasing), these new addresses are rewritten as soon as they are
1127 generated. At the time a message is actually delivered (transported) further
1128 rewriting can take place; because this is a transport option, it can be
1129 different for different forms of delivery. It is also possible to specify the
1130 addition or removal of certain header lines at the time the message is
1131 delivered (see chapters &<<CHAProutergeneric>>& and
1132 &<<CHAPtransportgeneric>>&).
1136 .section "Life of a message" "SECID15"
1137 .cindex "message" "life of"
1138 .cindex "message" "frozen"
1139 A message remains in the spool directory until it is completely delivered to
1140 its recipients or to an error address, or until it is deleted by an
1141 administrator or by the user who originally created it. In cases when delivery
1142 cannot proceed &-- for example when a message can neither be delivered to its
1143 recipients nor returned to its sender, the message is marked &"frozen"& on the
1144 spool, and no more deliveries are attempted.
1146 .cindex "frozen messages" "thawing"
1147 .cindex "message" "thawing frozen"
1148 An administrator can &"thaw"& such messages when the problem has been
1149 corrected, and can also freeze individual messages by hand if necessary. In
1150 addition, an administrator can force a delivery error, causing a bounce message
1151 to be sent.
1153 .oindex "&%timeout_frozen_after%&"
1154 .oindex "&%ignore_bounce_errors_after%&"
1155 There are options called &%ignore_bounce_errors_after%& and
1156 &%timeout_frozen_after%&, which discard frozen messages after a certain time.
1157 The first applies only to frozen bounces, the second to all frozen messages.
1159 .cindex "message" "log file for"
1160 .cindex "log" "file for each message"
1161 While Exim is working on a message, it writes information about each delivery
1162 attempt to its main log file. This includes successful, unsuccessful, and
1163 delayed deliveries for each recipient (see chapter &<<CHAPlog>>&). The log
1164 lines are also written to a separate &'message log'& file for each message.
1165 These logs are solely for the benefit of the administrator and are normally
1166 deleted along with the spool files when processing of a message is complete.
1167 The use of individual message logs can be disabled by setting
1168 &%no_message_logs%&; this might give an improvement in performance on very busy
1169 systems.
1171 .cindex "journal file"
1172 .cindex "file" "journal"
1173 All the information Exim itself needs to set up a delivery is kept in the first
1174 spool file, along with the header lines. When a successful delivery occurs, the
1175 address is immediately written at the end of a journal file, whose name is the
1176 message id followed by &`-J`&. At the end of a delivery run, if there are some
1177 addresses left to be tried again later, the first spool file (the &`-H`& file)
1178 is updated to indicate which these are, and the journal file is then deleted.
1179 Updating the spool file is done by writing a new file and renaming it, to
1180 minimize the possibility of data loss.
1182 Should the system or Exim crash after a successful delivery but before
1183 the spool file has been updated, the journal is left lying around. The next
1184 time Exim attempts to deliver the message, it reads the journal file and
1185 updates the spool file before proceeding. This minimizes the chances of double
1186 deliveries caused by crashes.
1190 .section "Processing an address for delivery" "SECTprocaddress"
1191 .cindex "drivers" "definition of"
1192 .cindex "router" "definition of"
1193 .cindex "transport" "definition of"
1194 The main delivery processing elements of Exim are called &'routers'& and
1195 &'transports'&, and collectively these are known as &'drivers'&. Code for a
1196 number of them is provided in the source distribution, and compile-time options
1197 specify which ones are included in the binary. Runtime options specify which
1198 ones are actually used for delivering messages.
1200 .cindex "drivers" "instance definition"
1201 Each driver that is specified in the runtime configuration is an &'instance'&
1202 of that particular driver type. Multiple instances are allowed; for example,
1203 you can set up several different &(smtp)& transports, each with different
1204 option values that might specify different ports or different timeouts. Each
1205 instance has its own identifying name. In what follows we will normally use the
1206 instance name when discussing one particular instance (that is, one specific
1207 configuration of the driver), and the generic driver name when discussing
1208 the driver's features in general.
1210 A &'router'& is a driver that operates on an address, either determining how
1211 its delivery should happen, by assigning it to a specific transport, or
1212 converting the address into one or more new addresses (for example, via an
1213 alias file). A router may also explicitly choose to fail an address, causing it
1214 to be bounced.
1216 A &'transport'& is a driver that transmits a copy of the message from Exim's
1217 spool to some destination. There are two kinds of transport: for a &'local'&
1218 transport, the destination is a file or a pipe on the local host, whereas for a
1219 &'remote'& transport the destination is some other host. A message is passed
1220 to a specific transport as a result of successful routing. If a message has
1221 several recipients, it may be passed to a number of different transports.
1223 .cindex "preconditions" "definition of"
1224 An address is processed by passing it to each configured router instance in
1225 turn, subject to certain preconditions, until a router accepts the address or
1226 specifies that it should be bounced. We will describe this process in more
1227 detail shortly. First, as a simple example, we consider how each recipient
1228 address in a message is processed in a small configuration of three routers.
1230 To make this a more concrete example, it is described in terms of some actual
1231 routers, but remember, this is only an example. You can configure Exim's
1232 routers in many different ways, and there may be any number of routers in a
1233 configuration.
1235 The first router that is specified in a configuration is often one that handles
1236 addresses in domains that are not recognized specifically by the local host.
1237 Typically these are addresses for arbitrary domains on the Internet. A precondition
1238 is set up which looks for the special domains known to the host (for example,
1239 its own domain name), and the router is run for addresses that do &'not'&
1240 match. Typically, this is a router that looks up domains in the DNS in order to
1241 find the hosts to which this address routes. If it succeeds, the address is
1242 assigned to a suitable SMTP transport; if it does not succeed, the router is
1243 configured to fail the address.
1245 The second router is reached only when the domain is recognized as one that
1246 &"belongs"& to the local host. This router does redirection &-- also known as
1247 aliasing and forwarding. When it generates one or more new addresses from the
1248 original, each of them is routed independently from the start. Otherwise, the
1249 router may cause an address to fail, or it may simply decline to handle the
1250 address, in which case the address is passed to the next router.
1252 The final router in many configurations is one that checks to see if the
1253 address belongs to a local mailbox. The precondition may involve a check to
1254 see if the local part is the name of a login account, or it may look up the
1255 local part in a file or a database. If its preconditions are not met, or if
1256 the router declines, we have reached the end of the routers. When this happens,
1257 the address is bounced.
1261 .section "Processing an address for verification" "SECID16"
1262 .cindex "router" "for verification"
1263 .cindex "verifying address" "overview"
1264 As well as being used to decide how to deliver to an address, Exim's routers
1265 are also used for &'address verification'&. Verification can be requested as
1266 one of the checks to be performed in an ACL for incoming messages, on both
1267 sender and recipient addresses, and it can be tested using the &%-bv%& and
1268 &%-bvs%& command line options.
1270 When an address is being verified, the routers are run in &"verify mode"&. This
1271 does not affect the way the routers work, but it is a state that can be
1272 detected. By this means, a router can be skipped or made to behave differently
1273 when verifying. A common example is a configuration in which the first router
1274 sends all messages to a message-scanning program unless they have been
1275 previously scanned. Thus, the first router accepts all addresses without any
1276 checking, making it useless for verifying. Normally, the &%no_verify%& option
1277 would be set for such a router, causing it to be skipped in verify mode.
1282 .section "Running an individual router" "SECTrunindrou"
1283 .cindex "router" "running details"
1284 .cindex "preconditions" "checking"
1285 .cindex "router" "result of running"
1286 As explained in the example above, a number of preconditions are checked before
1287 running a router. If any are not met, the router is skipped, and the address is
1288 passed to the next router. When all the preconditions on a router &'are'& met,
1289 the router is run. What happens next depends on the outcome, which is one of
1290 the following:
1292 .ilist
1293 &'accept'&: The router accepts the address, and either assigns it to a
1294 transport or generates one or more &"child"& addresses. Processing the
1295 original address ceases
1296 .oindex "&%unseen%&"
1297 unless the &%unseen%& option is set on the router. This option
1298 can be used to set up multiple deliveries with different routing (for example,
1299 for keeping archive copies of messages). When &%unseen%& is set, the address is
1300 passed to the next router. Normally, however, an &'accept'& return marks the
1301 end of routing.
1303 Any child addresses generated by the router are processed independently,
1304 starting with the first router by default. It is possible to change this by
1305 setting the &%redirect_router%& option to specify which router to start at for
1306 child addresses. Unlike &%pass_router%& (see below) the router specified by
1307 &%redirect_router%& may be anywhere in the router configuration.
1308 .next
1309 &'pass'&: The router recognizes the address, but cannot handle it itself. It
1310 requests that the address be passed to another router. By default, the address
1311 is passed to the next router, but this can be changed by setting the
1312 &%pass_router%& option. However, (unlike &%redirect_router%&) the named router
1313 must be below the current router (to avoid loops).
1314 .next
1315 &'decline'&: The router declines to accept the address because it does not
1316 recognize it at all. By default, the address is passed to the next router, but
1317 this can be prevented by setting the &%no_more%& option. When &%no_more%& is
1318 set, all the remaining routers are skipped. In effect, &%no_more%& converts
1319 &'decline'& into &'fail'&.
1320 .next
1321 &'fail'&: The router determines that the address should fail, and queues it for
1322 the generation of a bounce message. There is no further processing of the
1323 original address unless &%unseen%& is set on the router.
1324 .next
1325 &'defer'&: The router cannot handle the address at the present time. (A
1326 database may be offline, or a DNS lookup may have timed out.) No further
1327 processing of the address happens in this delivery attempt. It is tried again
1328 next time the message is considered for delivery.
1329 .next
1330 &'error'&: There is some error in the router (for example, a syntax error in
1331 its configuration). The action is as for defer.
1332 .endlist
1334 If an address reaches the end of the routers without having been accepted by
1335 any of them, it is bounced as unrouteable. The default error message in this
1336 situation is &"unrouteable address"&, but you can set your own message by
1337 making use of the &%cannot_route_message%& option. This can be set for any
1338 router; the value from the last router that &"saw"& the address is used.
1340 Sometimes while routing you want to fail a delivery when some conditions are
1341 met but others are not, instead of passing the address on for further routing.
1342 You can do this by having a second router that explicitly fails the delivery
1343 when the relevant conditions are met. The &(redirect)& router has a &"fail"&
1344 facility for this purpose.
1347 .section "Duplicate addresses" "SECID17"
1348 .cindex "case of local parts"
1349 .cindex "address duplicate, discarding"
1350 .cindex "duplicate addresses"
1351 Once routing is complete, Exim scans the addresses that are assigned to local
1352 and remote transports and discards any duplicates that it finds. During this
1353 check, local parts are treated case-sensitively. This happens only when
1354 actually delivering a message; when testing routers with &%-bt%&, all the
1355 routed addresses are shown.
1359 .section "Router preconditions" "SECTrouprecon"
1360 .cindex "router" "preconditions, order of processing"
1361 .cindex "preconditions" "order of processing"
1362 The preconditions that are tested for each router are listed below, in the
1363 order in which they are tested. The individual configuration options are
1364 described in more detail in chapter &<<CHAProutergeneric>>&.
1366 .ilist
1367 .cindex affix "router precondition"
1368 The &%local_part_prefix%& and &%local_part_suffix%& options can specify that
1369 the local parts handled by the router may or must have certain prefixes and/or
1370 suffixes. If a mandatory affix (prefix or suffix) is not present, the router is
1371 skipped. These conditions are tested first. When an affix is present, it is
1372 removed from the local part before further processing, including the evaluation
1373 of any other conditions.
1374 .next
1375 Routers can be designated for use only when not verifying an address, that is,
1376 only when routing it for delivery (or testing its delivery routing). If the
1377 &%verify%& option is set false, the router is skipped when Exim is verifying an
1378 address.
1379 Setting the &%verify%& option actually sets two options, &%verify_sender%& and
1380 &%verify_recipient%&, which independently control the use of the router for
1381 sender and recipient verification. You can set these options directly if
1382 you want a router to be used for only one type of verification.
1383 Note that cutthrough delivery is classed as a recipient verification for this purpose.
1384 .next
1385 If the &%address_test%& option is set false, the router is skipped when Exim is
1386 run with the &%-bt%& option to test an address routing. This can be helpful
1387 when the first router sends all new messages to a scanner of some sort; it
1388 makes it possible to use &%-bt%& to test subsequent delivery routing without
1389 having to simulate the effect of the scanner.
1390 .next
1391 Routers can be designated for use only when verifying an address, as
1392 opposed to routing it for delivery. The &%verify_only%& option controls this.
1393 Again, cutthrough delivery counts as a verification.
1394 .next
1395 Individual routers can be explicitly skipped when running the routers to
1396 check an address given in the SMTP EXPN command (see the &%expn%& option).
1397 .next
1398 If the &%domains%& option is set, the domain of the address must be in the set
1399 of domains that it defines.
1400 .next
1401 .vindex "&$local_part_prefix$&"
1402 .vindex "&$local_part$&"
1403 .vindex "&$local_part_suffix$&"
1404 .cindex affix "router precondition"
1405 If the &%local_parts%& option is set, the local part of the address must be in
1406 the set of local parts that it defines. If &%local_part_prefix%& or
1407 &%local_part_suffix%& is in use, the prefix or suffix is removed from the local
1408 part before this check. If you want to do precondition tests on local parts
1409 that include affixes, you can do so by using a &%condition%& option (see below)
1410 that uses the variables &$local_part$&, &$local_part_prefix$&, and
1411 &$local_part_suffix$& as necessary.
1412 .next
1413 .vindex "&$local_user_uid$&"
1414 .vindex "&$local_user_gid$&"
1415 .vindex "&$home$&"
1416 If the &%check_local_user%& option is set, the local part must be the name of
1417 an account on the local host. If this check succeeds, the uid and gid of the
1418 local user are placed in &$local_user_uid$& and &$local_user_gid$& and the
1419 user's home directory is placed in &$home$&; these values can be used in the
1420 remaining preconditions.
1421 .next
1422 If the &%router_home_directory%& option is set, it is expanded at this point,
1423 because it overrides the value of &$home$&. If this expansion were left till
1424 later, the value of &$home$& as set by &%check_local_user%& would be used in
1425 subsequent tests. Having two different values of &$home$& in the same router
1426 could lead to confusion.
1427 .next
1428 If the &%senders%& option is set, the envelope sender address must be in the
1429 set of addresses that it defines.
1430 .next
1431 If the &%require_files%& option is set, the existence or non-existence of
1432 specified files is tested.
1433 .next
1434 .cindex "customizing" "precondition"
1435 If the &%condition%& option is set, it is evaluated and tested. This option
1436 uses an expanded string to allow you to set up your own custom preconditions.
1437 Expanded strings are described in chapter &<<CHAPexpand>>&.
1438 .endlist
1441 Note that &%require_files%& comes near the end of the list, so you cannot use
1442 it to check for the existence of a file in which to lookup up a domain, local
1443 part, or sender. However, as these options are all expanded, you can use the
1444 &%exists%& expansion condition to make such tests within each condition. The
1445 &%require_files%& option is intended for checking files that the router may be
1446 going to use internally, or which are needed by a specific transport (for
1447 example, &_.procmailrc_&).
1451 .section "Delivery in detail" "SECID18"
1452 .cindex "delivery" "in detail"
1453 When a message is to be delivered, the sequence of events is as follows:
1455 .ilist
1456 If a system-wide filter file is specified, the message is passed to it. The
1457 filter may add recipients to the message, replace the recipients, discard the
1458 message, cause a new message to be generated, or cause the message delivery to
1459 fail. The format of the system filter file is the same as for Exim user filter
1460 files, described in the separate document entitled &'Exim's interfaces to mail
1461 filtering'&.
1462 .cindex "Sieve filter" "not available for system filter"
1463 (&*Note*&: Sieve cannot be used for system filter files.)
1465 Some additional features are available in system filters &-- see chapter
1466 &<<CHAPsystemfilter>>& for details. Note that a message is passed to the system
1467 filter only once per delivery attempt, however many recipients it has. However,
1468 if there are several delivery attempts because one or more addresses could not
1469 be immediately delivered, the system filter is run each time. The filter
1470 condition &%first_delivery%& can be used to detect the first run of the system
1471 filter.
1472 .next
1473 Each recipient address is offered to each configured router, in turn, subject to
1474 its preconditions, until one is able to handle it. If no router can handle the
1475 address, that is, if they all decline, the address is failed. Because routers
1476 can be targeted at particular domains, several locally handled domains can be
1477 processed entirely independently of each other.
1478 .next
1479 .cindex "routing" "loops in"
1480 .cindex "loop" "while routing"
1481 A router that accepts an address may assign it to a local or a remote
1482 transport. However, the transport is not run at this time. Instead, the address
1483 is placed on a list for the particular transport, which will be run later.
1484 Alternatively, the router may generate one or more new addresses (typically
1485 from alias, forward, or filter files). New addresses are fed back into this
1486 process from the top, but in order to avoid loops, a router ignores any address
1487 which has an identically-named ancestor that was processed by itself.
1488 .next
1489 When all the routing has been done, addresses that have been successfully
1490 handled are passed to their assigned transports. When local transports are
1491 doing real local deliveries, they handle only one address at a time, but if a
1492 local transport is being used as a pseudo-remote transport (for example, to
1493 collect batched SMTP messages for transmission by some other means) multiple
1494 addresses can be handled. Remote transports can always handle more than one
1495 address at a time, but can be configured not to do so, or to restrict multiple
1496 addresses to the same domain.
1497 .next
1498 Each local delivery to a file or a pipe runs in a separate process under a
1499 non-privileged uid, and these deliveries are run one at a time. Remote
1500 deliveries also run in separate processes, normally under a uid that is private
1501 to Exim (&"the Exim user"&), but in this case, several remote deliveries can be
1502 run in parallel. The maximum number of simultaneous remote deliveries for any
1503 one message is set by the &%remote_max_parallel%& option.
1504 The order in which deliveries are done is not defined, except that all local
1505 deliveries happen before any remote deliveries.
1506 .next
1507 .cindex "queue runner"
1508 When it encounters a local delivery during a queue run, Exim checks its retry
1509 database to see if there has been a previous temporary delivery failure for the
1510 address before running the local transport. If there was a previous failure,
1511 Exim does not attempt a new delivery until the retry time for the address is
1512 reached. However, this happens only for delivery attempts that are part of a
1513 queue run. Local deliveries are always attempted when delivery immediately
1514 follows message reception, even if retry times are set for them. This makes for
1515 better behaviour if one particular message is causing problems (for example,
1516 causing quota overflow, or provoking an error in a filter file).
1517 .next
1518 .cindex "delivery" "retry in remote transports"
1519 Remote transports do their own retry handling, since an address may be
1520 deliverable to one of a number of hosts, each of which may have a different
1521 retry time. If there have been previous temporary failures and no host has
1522 reached its retry time, no delivery is attempted, whether in a queue run or
1523 not. See chapter &<<CHAPretry>>& for details of retry strategies.
1524 .next
1525 If there were any permanent errors, a bounce message is returned to an
1526 appropriate address (the sender in the common case), with details of the error
1527 for each failing address. Exim can be configured to send copies of bounce
1528 messages to other addresses.
1529 .next
1530 .cindex "delivery" "deferral"
1531 If one or more addresses suffered a temporary failure, the message is left on
1532 the queue, to be tried again later. Delivery of these addresses is said to be
1533 &'deferred'&.
1534 .next
1535 When all the recipient addresses have either been delivered or bounced,
1536 handling of the message is complete. The spool files and message log are
1537 deleted, though the message log can optionally be preserved if required.
1538 .endlist
1543 .section "Retry mechanism" "SECID19"
1544 .cindex "delivery" "retry mechanism"
1545 .cindex "retry" "description of mechanism"
1546 .cindex "queue runner"
1547 Exim's mechanism for retrying messages that fail to get delivered at the first
1548 attempt is the queue runner process. You must either run an Exim daemon that
1549 uses the &%-q%& option with a time interval to start queue runners at regular
1550 intervals or use some other means (such as &'cron'&) to start them. If you do
1551 not arrange for queue runners to be run, messages that fail temporarily at the
1552 first attempt will remain in your queue forever. A queue runner process works
1553 its way through the queue, one message at a time, trying each delivery that has
1554 passed its retry time.
1555 You can run several queue runners at once.
1557 Exim uses a set of configured rules to determine when next to retry the failing
1558 address (see chapter &<<CHAPretry>>&). These rules also specify when Exim
1559 should give up trying to deliver to the address, at which point it generates a
1560 bounce message. If no retry rules are set for a particular host, address, and
1561 error combination, no retries are attempted, and temporary errors are treated
1562 as permanent.
1566 .section "Temporary delivery failure" "SECID20"
1567 .cindex "delivery" "temporary failure"
1568 There are many reasons why a message may not be immediately deliverable to a
1569 particular address. Failure to connect to a remote machine (because it, or the
1570 connection to it, is down) is one of the most common. Temporary failures may be
1571 detected during routing as well as during the transport stage of delivery.
1572 Local deliveries may be delayed if NFS files are unavailable, or if a mailbox
1573 is on a file system where the user is over quota. Exim can be configured to
1574 impose its own quotas on local mailboxes; where system quotas are set they will
1575 also apply.
1577 If a host is unreachable for a period of time, a number of messages may be
1578 waiting for it by the time it recovers, and sending them in a single SMTP
1579 connection is clearly beneficial. Whenever a delivery to a remote host is
1580 deferred,
1581 .cindex "hints database" "deferred deliveries"
1582 Exim makes a note in its hints database, and whenever a successful
1583 SMTP delivery has happened, it looks to see if any other messages are waiting
1584 for the same host. If any are found, they are sent over the same SMTP
1585 connection, subject to a configuration limit as to the maximum number in any
1586 one connection.
1590 .section "Permanent delivery failure" "SECID21"
1591 .cindex "delivery" "permanent failure"
1592 .cindex "bounce message" "when generated"
1593 When a message cannot be delivered to some or all of its intended recipients, a
1594 bounce message is generated. Temporary delivery failures turn into permanent
1595 errors when their timeout expires. All the addresses that fail in a given
1596 delivery attempt are listed in a single message. If the original message has
1597 many recipients, it is possible for some addresses to fail in one delivery
1598 attempt and others to fail subsequently, giving rise to more than one bounce
1599 message. The wording of bounce messages can be customized by the administrator.
1600 See chapter &<<CHAPemsgcust>>& for details.
1602 .cindex "&'X-Failed-Recipients:'& header line"
1603 Bounce messages contain an &'X-Failed-Recipients:'& header line that lists the
1604 failed addresses, for the benefit of programs that try to analyse such messages
1605 automatically.
1607 .cindex "bounce message" "recipient of"
1608 A bounce message is normally sent to the sender of the original message, as
1609 obtained from the message's envelope. For incoming SMTP messages, this is the
1610 address given in the MAIL command. However, when an address is expanded via a
1611 forward or alias file, an alternative address can be specified for delivery
1612 failures of the generated addresses. For a mailing list expansion (see section
1613 &<<SECTmailinglists>>&) it is common to direct bounce messages to the manager
1614 of the list.
1618 .section "Failures to deliver bounce messages" "SECID22"
1619 .cindex "bounce message" "failure to deliver"
1620 If a bounce message (either locally generated or received from a remote host)
1621 itself suffers a permanent delivery failure, the message is left in the queue,
1622 but it is frozen, awaiting the attention of an administrator. There are options
1623 that can be used to make Exim discard such failed messages, or to keep them
1624 for only a short time (see &%timeout_frozen_after%& and
1625 &%ignore_bounce_errors_after%&).
1631 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
1632 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
1634 .chapter "Building and installing Exim" "CHID3"
1635 .scindex IIDbuex "building Exim"
1637 .section "Unpacking" "SECID23"
1638 Exim is distributed as a gzipped or bzipped tar file which, when unpacked,
1639 creates a directory with the name of the current release (for example,
1640 &_exim-&version()_&) into which the following files are placed:
1642 .table2 140pt
1643 .irow &_ACKNOWLEDGMENTS_& "contains some acknowledgments"
1644 .irow &_CHANGES_& "contains a reference to where changes are &&&
1645 documented"
1646 .irow &_LICENCE_& "the GNU General Public Licence"
1647 .irow &_Makefile_& "top-level make file"
1648 .irow &_NOTICE_& "conditions for the use of Exim"
1649 .irow &_README_& "list of files, directories and simple build &&&
1650 instructions"
1651 .endtable
1653 Other files whose names begin with &_README_& may also be present. The
1654 following subdirectories are created:
1656 .table2 140pt
1657 .irow &_Local_& "an empty directory for local configuration files"
1658 .irow &_OS_& "OS-specific files"
1659 .irow &_doc_& "documentation files"
1660 .irow &_exim_monitor_& "source files for the Exim monitor"
1661 .irow &_scripts_& "scripts used in the build process"
1662 .irow &_src_& "remaining source files"
1663 .irow &_util_& "independent utilities"
1664 .endtable
1666 The main utility programs are contained in the &_src_& directory and are built
1667 with the Exim binary. The &_util_& directory contains a few optional scripts
1668 that may be useful to some sites.
1671 .section "Multiple machine architectures and operating systems" "SECID24"
1672 .cindex "building Exim" "multiple OS/architectures"
1673 The building process for Exim is arranged to make it easy to build binaries for
1674 a number of different architectures and operating systems from the same set of
1675 source files. Compilation does not take place in the &_src_& directory.
1676 Instead, a &'build directory'& is created for each architecture and operating
1677 system.
1678 .cindex "symbolic link" "to build directory"
1679 Symbolic links to the sources are installed in this directory, which is where
1680 the actual building takes place. In most cases, Exim can discover the machine
1681 architecture and operating system for itself, but the defaults can be
1682 overridden if necessary.
1683 .cindex compiler requirements
1684 .cindex compiler version
1685 A C99-capable compiler will be required for the build.
1688 .section "PCRE library" "SECTpcre"
1689 .cindex "PCRE library"
1690 Exim no longer has an embedded PCRE library as the vast majority of
1691 modern systems include PCRE as a system library, although you may need to
1692 install the PCRE package or the PCRE development package for your operating
1693 system. If your system has a normal PCRE installation the Exim build
1694 process will need no further configuration. If the library or the
1695 headers are in an unusual location you will need to either set the PCRE_LIBS
1696 and INCLUDE directives appropriately,
1697 or set PCRE_CONFIG=yes to use the installed &(pcre-config)& command.
1698 If your operating system has no
1699 PCRE support then you will need to obtain and build the current PCRE
1700 from &url(ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/).
1701 More information on PCRE is available at &url(https://www.pcre.org/).
1703 .section "DBM libraries" "SECTdb"
1704 .cindex "DBM libraries" "discussion of"
1705 .cindex "hints database" "DBM files used for"
1706 Even if you do not use any DBM files in your configuration, Exim still needs a
1707 DBM library in order to operate, because it uses indexed files for its hints
1708 databases. Unfortunately, there are a number of DBM libraries in existence, and
1709 different operating systems often have different ones installed.
1711 .cindex "Solaris" "DBM library for"
1712 .cindex "IRIX, DBM library for"
1713 .cindex "BSD, DBM library for"
1714 .cindex "Linux, DBM library for"
1715 If you are using Solaris, IRIX, one of the modern BSD systems, or a modern
1716 Linux distribution, the DBM configuration should happen automatically, and you
1717 may be able to ignore this section. Otherwise, you may have to learn more than
1718 you would like about DBM libraries from what follows.
1720 .cindex "&'ndbm'& DBM library"
1721 Licensed versions of Unix normally contain a library of DBM functions operating
1722 via the &'ndbm'& interface, and this is what Exim expects by default. Free
1723 versions of Unix seem to vary in what they contain as standard. In particular,
1724 some early versions of Linux have no default DBM library, and different
1725 distributors have chosen to bundle different libraries with their packaged
1726 versions. However, the more recent releases seem to have standardized on the
1727 Berkeley DB library.
1729 Different DBM libraries have different conventions for naming the files they
1730 use. When a program opens a file called &_dbmfile_&, there are several
1731 possibilities:
1733 .olist
1734 A traditional &'ndbm'& implementation, such as that supplied as part of
1735 Solaris, operates on two files called &_dbmfile.dir_& and &_dbmfile.pag_&.
1736 .next
1737 .cindex "&'gdbm'& DBM library"
1738 The GNU library, &'gdbm'&, operates on a single file. If used via its &'ndbm'&
1739 compatibility interface it makes two different hard links to it with names
1740 &_dbmfile.dir_& and &_dbmfile.pag_&, but if used via its native interface, the
1741 filename is used unmodified.
1742 .next
1743 .cindex "Berkeley DB library"
1744 The Berkeley DB package, if called via its &'ndbm'& compatibility interface,
1745 operates on a single file called &_dbmfile.db_&, but otherwise looks to the
1746 programmer exactly the same as the traditional &'ndbm'& implementation.
1747 .next
1748 If the Berkeley package is used in its native mode, it operates on a single
1749 file called &_dbmfile_&; the programmer's interface is somewhat different to
1750 the traditional &'ndbm'& interface.
1751 .next
1752 To complicate things further, there are several very different versions of the
1753 Berkeley DB package. Version 1.85 was stable for a very long time, releases
1754 2.&'x'& and 3.&'x'& were current for a while, but the latest versions when Exim last revamped support were numbered 4.&'x'&.
1755 Maintenance of some of the earlier releases has ceased. All versions of
1756 Berkeley DB could be obtained from
1757 &url(http://www.sleepycat.com/), which is now a redirect to their new owner's
1758 page with far newer versions listed.
1759 It is probably wise to plan to move your storage configurations away from
1760 Berkeley DB format, as today there are smaller and simpler alternatives more
1761 suited to Exim's usage model.
1762 .next
1763 .cindex "&'tdb'& DBM library"
1764 Yet another DBM library, called &'tdb'&, is available from
1765 &url(https://sourceforge.net/projects/tdb/files/). It has its own interface, and also
1766 operates on a single file.
1767 .endlist
1769 .cindex "USE_DB"
1770 .cindex "DBM libraries" "configuration for building"
1771 Exim and its utilities can be compiled to use any of these interfaces. In order
1772 to use any version of the Berkeley DB package in native mode, you must set
1773 USE_DB in an appropriate configuration file (typically
1774 &_Local/Makefile_&). For example:
1775 .code
1776 USE_DB=yes
1777 .endd
1778 Similarly, for gdbm you set USE_GDBM, and for tdb you set USE_TDB. An
1779 error is diagnosed if you set more than one of these.
1781 At the lowest level, the build-time configuration sets none of these options,
1782 thereby assuming an interface of type (1). However, some operating system
1783 configuration files (for example, those for the BSD operating systems and
1784 Linux) assume type (4) by setting USE_DB as their default, and the
1785 configuration files for Cygwin set USE_GDBM. Anything you set in
1786 &_Local/Makefile_&, however, overrides these system defaults.
1788 As well as setting USE_DB, USE_GDBM, or USE_TDB, it may also be
1789 necessary to set DBMLIB, to cause inclusion of the appropriate library, as
1790 in one of these lines:
1791 .code
1792 DBMLIB = -ldb
1793 DBMLIB = -ltdb
1794 .endd
1795 Settings like that will work if the DBM library is installed in the standard
1796 place. Sometimes it is not, and the library's header file may also not be in
1797 the default path. You may need to set INCLUDE to specify where the header
1798 file is, and to specify the path to the library more fully in DBMLIB, as in
1799 this example:
1800 .code
1801 INCLUDE=-I/usr/local/include/db-4.1
1802 DBMLIB=/usr/local/lib/db-4.1/libdb.a
1803 .endd
1804 There is further detailed discussion about the various DBM libraries in the
1805 file &_doc/dbm.discuss.txt_& in the Exim distribution.
1809 .section "Pre-building configuration" "SECID25"
1810 .cindex "building Exim" "pre-building configuration"
1811 .cindex "configuration for building Exim"
1812 .cindex "&_Local/Makefile_&"
1813 .cindex "&_src/EDITME_&"
1814 Before building Exim, a local configuration file that specifies options
1815 independent of any operating system has to be created with the name
1816 &_Local/Makefile_&. A template for this file is supplied as the file
1817 &_src/EDITME_&, and it contains full descriptions of all the option settings
1818 therein. These descriptions are therefore not repeated here. If you are
1819 building Exim for the first time, the simplest thing to do is to copy
1820 &_src/EDITME_& to &_Local/Makefile_&, then read it and edit it appropriately.
1822 There are three settings that you must supply, because Exim will not build
1823 without them. They are the location of the runtime configuration file
1824 (CONFIGURE_FILE), the directory in which Exim binaries will be installed
1825 (BIN_DIRECTORY), and the identity of the Exim user (EXIM_USER and
1826 maybe EXIM_GROUP as well). The value of CONFIGURE_FILE can in fact be
1827 a colon-separated list of filenames; Exim uses the first of them that exists.
1829 There are a few other parameters that can be specified either at build time or
1830 at runtime, to enable the same binary to be used on a number of different
1831 machines. However, if the locations of Exim's spool directory and log file
1832 directory (if not within the spool directory) are fixed, it is recommended that
1833 you specify them in &_Local/Makefile_& instead of at runtime, so that errors
1834 detected early in Exim's execution (such as a malformed configuration file) can
1835 be logged.
1837 .cindex "content scanning" "specifying at build time"
1838 Exim's interfaces for calling virus and spam scanning software directly from
1839 access control lists are not compiled by default. If you want to include these
1840 facilities, you need to set
1841 .code
1843 .endd
1844 in your &_Local/Makefile_&. For details of the facilities themselves, see
1845 chapter &<<CHAPexiscan>>&.
1848 .cindex "&_Local/eximon.conf_&"
1849 .cindex "&_exim_monitor/EDITME_&"
1850 If you are going to build the Exim monitor, a similar configuration process is
1851 required. The file &_exim_monitor/EDITME_& must be edited appropriately for
1852 your installation and saved under the name &_Local/eximon.conf_&. If you are
1853 happy with the default settings described in &_exim_monitor/EDITME_&,
1854 &_Local/eximon.conf_& can be empty, but it must exist.
1856 This is all the configuration that is needed in straightforward cases for known
1857 operating systems. However, the building process is set up so that it is easy
1858 to override options that are set by default or by operating-system-specific
1859 configuration files, for example, to change the C compiler, which
1860 defaults to &%gcc%&. See section &<<SECToverride>>& below for details of how to
1861 do this.
1865 .section "Support for iconv()" "SECID26"
1866 .cindex "&[iconv()]& support"
1867 .cindex "RFC 2047"
1868 The contents of header lines in messages may be encoded according to the rules
1869 described RFC 2047. This makes it possible to transmit characters that are not
1870 in the ASCII character set, and to label them as being in a particular
1871 character set. When Exim is inspecting header lines by means of the &%$h_%&
1872 mechanism, it decodes them, and translates them into a specified character set
1873 (default is set at build time). The translation is possible only if the operating system
1874 supports the &[iconv()]& function.
1876 However, some of the operating systems that supply &[iconv()]& do not support
1877 very many conversions. The GNU &%libiconv%& library (available from
1878 &url(https://www.gnu.org/software/libiconv/)) can be installed on such
1879 systems to remedy this deficiency, as well as on systems that do not supply
1880 &[iconv()]& at all. After installing &%libiconv%&, you should add
1881 .code
1882 HAVE_ICONV=yes
1883 .endd
1884 to your &_Local/Makefile_& and rebuild Exim.
1888 .section "Including TLS/SSL encryption support" "SECTinctlsssl"
1889 .cindex "TLS" "including support for TLS"
1890 .cindex "encryption" "including support for"
1891 .cindex "OpenSSL" "building Exim with"
1892 .cindex "GnuTLS" "building Exim with"
1893 Exim is usually built to support encrypted SMTP connections, using the STARTTLS
1894 command as per RFC 2487. It can also support clients that expect to
1895 start a TLS session immediately on connection to a non-standard port (see the
1896 &%tls_on_connect_ports%& runtime option and the &%-tls-on-connect%& command
1897 line option).
1899 If you want to build Exim with TLS support, you must first install either the
1900 OpenSSL or GnuTLS library. There is no cryptographic code in Exim itself for
1901 implementing SSL.
1903 If you do not want TLS support you should set
1904 .code
1905 DISABLE_TLS=yes
1906 .endd
1907 in &_Local/Makefile_&.
1909 If OpenSSL is installed, you should set
1910 .code
1911 USE_OPENSL=yes
1912 TLS_LIBS=-lssl -lcrypto
1913 .endd
1914 in &_Local/Makefile_&. You may also need to specify the locations of the
1915 OpenSSL library and include files. For example:
1916 .code
1917 USE_OPENSSL=yes
1918 TLS_LIBS=-L/usr/local/openssl/lib -lssl -lcrypto
1919 TLS_INCLUDE=-I/usr/local/openssl/include/
1920 .endd
1921 .cindex "pkg-config" "OpenSSL"
1922 If you have &'pkg-config'& available, then instead you can just use:
1923 .code
1924 USE_OPENSSL=yes
1925 USE_OPENSSL_PC=openssl
1926 .endd
1927 .cindex "USE_GNUTLS"
1928 If GnuTLS is installed, you should set
1929 .code
1930 USE_GNUTLS=yes
1931 TLS_LIBS=-lgnutls -ltasn1 -lgcrypt
1932 .endd
1933 in &_Local/Makefile_&, and again you may need to specify the locations of the
1934 library and include files. For example:
1935 .code
1936 USE_GNUTLS=yes
1937 TLS_LIBS=-L/usr/gnu/lib -lgnutls -ltasn1 -lgcrypt
1938 TLS_INCLUDE=-I/usr/gnu/include
1939 .endd
1940 .cindex "pkg-config" "GnuTLS"
1941 If you have &'pkg-config'& available, then instead you can just use:
1942 .code
1943 USE_GNUTLS=yes
1944 USE_GNUTLS_PC=gnutls
1945 .endd
1947 You do not need to set TLS_INCLUDE if the relevant directory is already
1948 specified in INCLUDE. Details of how to configure Exim to make use of TLS are
1949 given in chapter &<<CHAPTLS>>&.
1954 .section "Use of tcpwrappers" "SECID27"
1956 .cindex "tcpwrappers, building Exim to support"
1957 .cindex "USE_TCP_WRAPPERS"
1959 .cindex "tcp_wrappers_daemon_name"
1960 Exim can be linked with the &'tcpwrappers'& library in order to check incoming
1961 SMTP calls using the &'tcpwrappers'& control files. This may be a convenient
1962 alternative to Exim's own checking facilities for installations that are
1963 already making use of &'tcpwrappers'& for other purposes. To do this, you
1964 should set USE_TCP_WRAPPERS in &_Local/Makefile_&, arrange for the file
1965 &_tcpd.h_& to be available at compile time, and also ensure that the library
1966 &_libwrap.a_& is available at link time, typically by including &%-lwrap%& in
1967 EXTRALIBS_EXIM. For example, if &'tcpwrappers'& is installed in &_/usr/local_&,
1968 you might have
1969 .code
1971 CFLAGS=-O -I/usr/local/include
1972 EXTRALIBS_EXIM=-L/usr/local/lib -lwrap
1973 .endd
1974 in &_Local/Makefile_&. The daemon name to use in the &'tcpwrappers'& control
1975 files is &"exim"&. For example, the line
1976 .code
1977 exim : LOCAL 192.168.1. .friendly.domain.example
1978 .endd
1979 in your &_/etc/hosts.allow_& file allows connections from the local host, from
1980 the subnet, and from all hosts in &'friendly.domain.example'&.
1981 All other connections are denied. The daemon name used by &'tcpwrappers'&
1982 can be changed at build time by setting TCP_WRAPPERS_DAEMON_NAME in
1983 &_Local/Makefile_&, or by setting tcp_wrappers_daemon_name in the
1984 configure file. Consult the &'tcpwrappers'& documentation for
1985 further details.
1988 .section "Including support for IPv6" "SECID28"
1989 .cindex "IPv6" "including support for"
1990 Exim contains code for use on systems that have IPv6 support. Setting
1991 &`HAVE_IPV6=YES`& in &_Local/Makefile_& causes the IPv6 code to be included;
1992 it may also be necessary to set IPV6_INCLUDE and IPV6_LIBS on systems
1993 where the IPv6 support is not fully integrated into the normal include and
1994 library files.
1996 Two different types of DNS record for handling IPv6 addresses have been
1997 defined. AAAA records (analogous to A records for IPv4) are in use, and are
1998 currently seen as the mainstream. Another record type called A6 was proposed
1999 as better than AAAA because it had more flexibility. However, it was felt to be
2000 over-complex, and its status was reduced to &"experimental"&.
2001 Exim used to
2002 have a compile option for including A6 record support but this has now been
2003 withdrawn.
2007 .section "Dynamically loaded lookup module support" "SECTdynamicmodules"
2008 .cindex "lookup modules"
2009 .cindex "dynamic modules"
2010 .cindex ".so building"
2011 On some platforms, Exim supports not compiling all lookup types directly into
2012 the main binary, instead putting some into external modules which can be loaded
2013 on demand.
2014 This permits packagers to build Exim with support for lookups with extensive
2015 library dependencies without requiring all users to install all of those
2016 dependencies.
2017 Most, but not all, lookup types can be built this way.
2019 Set &`LOOKUP_MODULE_DIR`& to the directory into which the modules will be
2020 installed; Exim will only load modules from that directory, as a security
2021 measure. You will need to set &`CFLAGS_DYNAMIC`& if not already defined
2022 for your OS; see &_OS/Makefile-Linux_& for an example.
2023 Some other requirements for adjusting &`EXTRALIBS`& may also be necessary,
2024 see &_src/EDITME_& for details.
2026 Then, for each module to be loaded dynamically, define the relevant
2027 &`LOOKUP_`&<&'lookup_type'&> flags to have the value "2" instead of "yes".
2028 For example, this will build in lsearch but load sqlite and mysql support
2029 on demand:
2030 .code
2034 .endd
2037 .section "The building process" "SECID29"
2038 .cindex "build directory"
2039 Once &_Local/Makefile_& (and &_Local/eximon.conf_&, if required) have been
2040 created, run &'make'& at the top level. It determines the architecture and
2041 operating system types, and creates a build directory if one does not exist.
2042 For example, on a Sun system running Solaris 8, the directory
2043 &_build-SunOS5-5.8-sparc_& is created.
2044 .cindex "symbolic link" "to source files"
2045 Symbolic links to relevant source files are installed in the build directory.
2047 If this is the first time &'make'& has been run, it calls a script that builds
2048 a make file inside the build directory, using the configuration files from the
2049 &_Local_& directory. The new make file is then passed to another instance of
2050 &'make'&. This does the real work, building a number of utility scripts, and
2051 then compiling and linking the binaries for the Exim monitor (if configured), a
2052 number of utility programs, and finally Exim itself. The command &`make
2053 makefile`& can be used to force a rebuild of the make file in the build
2054 directory, should this ever be necessary.
2056 If you have problems building Exim, check for any comments there may be in the
2057 &_README_& file concerning your operating system, and also take a look at the
2058 FAQ, where some common problems are covered.
2062 .section 'Output from &"make"&' "SECID283"
2063 The output produced by the &'make'& process for compile lines is often very
2064 unreadable, because these lines can be very long. For this reason, the normal
2065 output is suppressed by default, and instead output similar to that which
2066 appears when compiling the 2.6 Linux kernel is generated: just a short line for
2067 each module that is being compiled or linked. However, it is still possible to
2068 get the full output, by calling &'make'& like this:
2069 .code
2070 FULLECHO='' make -e
2071 .endd
2072 The value of FULLECHO defaults to &"@"&, the flag character that suppresses
2073 command reflection in &'make'&. When you ask for the full output, it is
2074 given in addition to the short output.
2078 .section "Overriding build-time options for Exim" "SECToverride"
2079 .cindex "build-time options, overriding"
2080 The main make file that is created at the beginning of the building process
2081 consists of the concatenation of a number of files which set configuration
2082 values, followed by a fixed set of &'make'& instructions. If a value is set
2083 more than once, the last setting overrides any previous ones. This provides a
2084 convenient way of overriding defaults. The files that are concatenated are, in
2085 order:
2086 .display
2087 &_OS/Makefile-Default_&
2088 &_OS/Makefile-_&<&'ostype'&>
2089 &_Local/Makefile_&
2090 &_Local/Makefile-_&<&'ostype'&>
2091 &_Local/Makefile-_&<&'archtype'&>
2092 &_Local/Makefile-_&<&'ostype'&>-<&'archtype'&>
2093 &_OS/Makefile-Base_&
2094 .endd
2095 .cindex "&_Local/Makefile_&"
2096 .cindex "building Exim" "operating system type"
2097 .cindex "building Exim" "architecture type"
2098 where <&'ostype'&> is the operating system type and <&'archtype'&> is the
2099 architecture type. &_Local/Makefile_& is required to exist, and the building
2100 process fails if it is absent. The other three &_Local_& files are optional,
2101 and are often not needed.
2103 The values used for <&'ostype'&> and <&'archtype'&> are obtained from scripts
2104 called &_scripts/os-type_& and &_scripts/arch-type_& respectively. If either of
2105 the environment variables EXIM_OSTYPE or EXIM_ARCHTYPE is set, their
2106 values are used, thereby providing a means of forcing particular settings.
2107 Otherwise, the scripts try to get values from the &%uname%& command. If this
2108 fails, the shell variables OSTYPE and ARCHTYPE are inspected. A number
2109 of &'ad hoc'& transformations are then applied, to produce the standard names
2110 that Exim expects. You can run these scripts directly from the shell in order
2111 to find out what values are being used on your system.
2114 &_OS/Makefile-Default_& contains comments about the variables that are set
2115 therein. Some (but not all) are mentioned below. If there is something that
2116 needs changing, review the contents of this file and the contents of the make
2117 file for your operating system (&_OS/Makefile-<ostype>_&) to see what the
2118 default values are.
2121 .cindex "building Exim" "overriding default settings"
2122 If you need to change any of the values that are set in &_OS/Makefile-Default_&
2123 or in &_OS/Makefile-<ostype>_&, or to add any new definitions, you do not
2124 need to change the original files. Instead, you should make the changes by
2125 putting the new values in an appropriate &_Local_& file. For example,
2126 .cindex "Tru64-Unix build-time settings"
2127 when building Exim in many releases of the Tru64-Unix (formerly Digital UNIX,
2128 formerly DEC-OSF1) operating system, it is necessary to specify that the C
2129 compiler is called &'cc'& rather than &'gcc'&. Also, the compiler must be
2130 called with the option &%-std1%&, to make it recognize some of the features of
2131 Standard C that Exim uses. (Most other compilers recognize Standard C by
2132 default.) To do this, you should create a file called &_Local/Makefile-OSF1_&
2133 containing the lines
2134 .code
2135 CC=cc
2136 CFLAGS=-std1
2137 .endd
2138 If you are compiling for just one operating system, it may be easier to put
2139 these lines directly into &_Local/Makefile_&.
2141 Keeping all your local configuration settings separate from the distributed
2142 files makes it easy to transfer them to new versions of Exim simply by copying
2143 the contents of the &_Local_& directory.
2146 .cindex "NIS lookup type" "including support for"
2147 .cindex "NIS+ lookup type" "including support for"
2148 .cindex "LDAP" "including support for"
2149 .cindex "lookup" "inclusion in binary"
2150 Exim contains support for doing LDAP, NIS, NIS+, and other kinds of file
2151 lookup, but not all systems have these components installed, so the default is
2152 not to include the relevant code in the binary. All the different kinds of file
2153 and database lookup that Exim supports are implemented as separate code modules
2154 which are included only if the relevant compile-time options are set. In the
2155 case of LDAP, NIS, and NIS+, the settings for &_Local/Makefile_& are:
2156 .code
2157 LOOKUP_LDAP=yes
2158 LOOKUP_NIS=yes
2160 .endd
2161 and similar settings apply to the other lookup types. They are all listed in
2162 &_src/EDITME_&. In many cases the relevant include files and interface
2163 libraries need to be installed before compiling Exim.
2164 .cindex "cdb" "including support for"
2165 However, there are some optional lookup types (such as cdb) for which
2166 the code is entirely contained within Exim, and no external include
2167 files or libraries are required. When a lookup type is not included in the
2168 binary, attempts to configure Exim to use it cause runtime configuration
2169 errors.
2171 .cindex "pkg-config" "lookups"
2172 .cindex "pkg-config" "authenticators"
2173 Many systems now use a tool called &'pkg-config'& to encapsulate information
2174 about how to compile against a library; Exim has some initial support for
2175 being able to use pkg-config for lookups and authenticators. For any given
2176 makefile variable which starts &`LOOKUP_`& or &`AUTH_`&, you can add a new
2177 variable with the &`_PC`& suffix in the name and assign as the value the
2178 name of the package to be queried. The results of querying via the
2179 &'pkg-config'& command will be added to the appropriate Makefile variables
2180 with &`+=`& directives, so your version of &'make'& will need to support that
2181 syntax. For instance:
2182 .code
2184 LOOKUP_SQLITE_PC=sqlite3
2185 AUTH_GSASL=yes
2186 AUTH_GSASL_PC=libgsasl
2188 AUTH_HEIMDAL_GSSAPI_PC=heimdal-gssapi
2189 .endd
2191 .cindex "Perl" "including support for"
2192 Exim can be linked with an embedded Perl interpreter, allowing Perl
2193 subroutines to be called during string expansion. To enable this facility,
2194 .code
2195 EXIM_PERL=perl.o
2196 .endd
2197 must be defined in &_Local/Makefile_&. Details of this facility are given in
2198 chapter &<<CHAPperl>>&.
2200 .cindex "X11 libraries, location of"
2201 The location of the X11 libraries is something that varies a lot between
2202 operating systems, and there may be different versions of X11 to cope
2203 with. Exim itself makes no use of X11, but if you are compiling the Exim
2204 monitor, the X11 libraries must be available.
2205 The following three variables are set in &_OS/Makefile-Default_&:
2206 .code
2207 X11=/usr/X11R6
2208 XINCLUDE=-I$(X11)/include
2209 XLFLAGS=-L$(X11)/lib
2210 .endd
2211 These are overridden in some of the operating-system configuration files. For
2212 example, in &_OS/Makefile-SunOS5_& there is
2213 .code
2214 X11=/usr/openwin
2215 XINCLUDE=-I$(X11)/include
2216 XLFLAGS=-L$(X11)/lib -R$(X11)/lib
2217 .endd
2218 If you need to override the default setting for your operating system, place a
2219 definition of all three of these variables into your
2220 &_Local/Makefile-<ostype>_& file.
2222 .cindex "EXTRALIBS"
2223 If you need to add any extra libraries to the link steps, these can be put in a
2224 variable called EXTRALIBS, which appears in all the link commands, but by
2225 default is not defined. In contrast, EXTRALIBS_EXIM is used only on the
2226 command for linking the main Exim binary, and not for any associated utilities.
2228 .cindex "DBM libraries" "configuration for building"
2229 There is also DBMLIB, which appears in the link commands for binaries that
2230 use DBM functions (see also section &<<SECTdb>>&). Finally, there is
2231 EXTRALIBS_EXIMON, which appears only in the link step for the Exim monitor
2232 binary, and which can be used, for example, to include additional X11
2233 libraries.
2235 .cindex "configuration file" "editing"
2236 The make file copes with rebuilding Exim correctly if any of the configuration
2237 files are edited. However, if an optional configuration file is deleted, it is
2238 necessary to touch the associated non-optional file (that is,
2239 &_Local/Makefile_& or &_Local/eximon.conf_&) before rebuilding.
2242 .section "OS-specific header files" "SECID30"
2243 .cindex "&_os.h_&"
2244 .cindex "building Exim" "OS-specific C header files"
2245 The &_OS_& directory contains a number of files with names of the form
2246 &_os.h-<ostype>_&. These are system-specific C header files that should not
2247 normally need to be changed. There is a list of macro settings that are
2248 recognized in the file &_OS/os.configuring_&, which should be consulted if you
2249 are porting Exim to a new operating system.
2253 .section "Overriding build-time options for the monitor" "SECID31"
2254 .cindex "building Eximon"
2255 A similar process is used for overriding things when building the Exim monitor,
2256 where the files that are involved are
2257 .display
2258 &_OS/eximon.conf-Default_&
2259 &_OS/eximon.conf-_&<&'ostype'&>
2260 &_Local/eximon.conf_&
2261 &_Local/eximon.conf-_&<&'ostype'&>
2262 &_Local/eximon.conf-_&<&'archtype'&>
2263 &_Local/eximon.conf-_&<&'ostype'&>-<&'archtype'&>
2264 .endd
2265 .cindex "&_Local/eximon.conf_&"
2266 As with Exim itself, the final three files need not exist, and in this case the
2267 &_OS/eximon.conf-<ostype>_& file is also optional. The default values in
2268 &_OS/eximon.conf-Default_& can be overridden dynamically by setting environment
2269 variables of the same name, preceded by EXIMON_. For example, setting
2270 EXIMON_LOG_DEPTH in the environment overrides the value of
2271 LOG_DEPTH at runtime.
2272 .ecindex IIDbuex
2275 .section "Installing Exim binaries and scripts" "SECID32"
2276 .cindex "installing Exim"
2277 .cindex "BIN_DIRECTORY"
2278 The command &`make install`& runs the &(exim_install)& script with no
2279 arguments. The script copies binaries and utility scripts into the directory
2280 whose name is specified by the BIN_DIRECTORY setting in &_Local/Makefile_&.
2281 .cindex "setuid" "installing Exim with"
2282 The install script copies files only if they are newer than the files they are
2283 going to replace. The Exim binary is required to be owned by root and have the
2284 &'setuid'& bit set, for normal configurations. Therefore, you must run &`make
2285 install`& as root so that it can set up the Exim binary in this way. However, in
2286 some special situations (for example, if a host is doing no local deliveries)
2287 it may be possible to run Exim without making the binary setuid root (see
2288 chapter &<<CHAPsecurity>>& for details).
2290 .cindex "CONFIGURE_FILE"
2291 Exim's runtime configuration file is named by the CONFIGURE_FILE setting
2292 in &_Local/Makefile_&. If this names a single file, and the file does not
2293 exist, the default configuration file &_src/configure.default_& is copied there
2294 by the installation script. If a runtime configuration file already exists, it
2295 is left alone. If CONFIGURE_FILE is a colon-separated list, naming several
2296 alternative files, no default is installed.
2298 .cindex "system aliases file"
2299 .cindex "&_/etc/aliases_&"
2300 One change is made to the default configuration file when it is installed: the
2301 default configuration contains a router that references a system aliases file.
2302 The path to this file is set to the value specified by
2303 SYSTEM_ALIASES_FILE in &_Local/Makefile_& (&_/etc/aliases_& by default).
2304 If the system aliases file does not exist, the installation script creates it,
2305 and outputs a comment to the user.
2307 The created file contains no aliases, but it does contain comments about the
2308 aliases a site should normally have. Mail aliases have traditionally been
2309 kept in &_/etc/aliases_&. However, some operating systems are now using
2310 &_/etc/mail/aliases_&. You should check if yours is one of these, and change
2311 Exim's configuration if necessary.
2313 The default configuration uses the local host's name as the only local domain,
2314 and is set up to do local deliveries into the shared directory &_/var/mail_&,
2315 running as the local user. System aliases and &_.forward_& files in users' home
2316 directories are supported, but no NIS or NIS+ support is configured. Domains
2317 other than the name of the local host are routed using the DNS, with delivery
2318 over SMTP.
2320 It is possible to install Exim for special purposes (such as building a binary
2321 distribution) in a private part of the file system. You can do this by a
2322 command such as
2323 .code
2324 make DESTDIR=/some/directory/ install
2325 .endd
2326 This has the effect of pre-pending the specified directory to all the file
2327 paths, except the name of the system aliases file that appears in the default
2328 configuration. (If a default alias file is created, its name &'is'& modified.)
2329 For backwards compatibility, ROOT is used if DESTDIR is not set,
2330 but this usage is deprecated.
2332 .cindex "installing Exim" "what is not installed"
2333 Running &'make install'& does not copy the Exim 4 conversion script
2334 &'convert4r4'&. You will probably run this only once if you are
2335 upgrading from Exim 3. None of the documentation files in the &_doc_&
2336 directory are copied, except for the info files when you have set
2337 INFO_DIRECTORY, as described in section &<<SECTinsinfdoc>>& below.
2339 For the utility programs, old versions are renamed by adding the suffix &_.O_&
2340 to their names. The Exim binary itself, however, is handled differently. It is
2341 installed under a name that includes the version number and the compile number,
2342 for example, &_exim-&version()-1_&. The script then arranges for a symbolic link
2343 called &_exim_& to point to the binary. If you are updating a previous version
2344 of Exim, the script takes care to ensure that the name &_exim_& is never absent
2345 from the directory (as seen by other processes).
2347 .cindex "installing Exim" "testing the script"
2348 If you want to see what the &'make install'& will do before running it for
2349 real, you can pass the &%-n%& option to the installation script by this
2350 command:
2351 .code
2352 make INSTALL_ARG=-n install
2353 .endd
2354 The contents of the variable INSTALL_ARG are passed to the installation
2355 script. You do not need to be root to run this test. Alternatively, you can run
2356 the installation script directly, but this must be from within the build
2357 directory. For example, from the top-level Exim directory you could use this
2358 command:
2359 .code
2360 (cd build-SunOS5-5.5.1-sparc; ../scripts/exim_install -n)
2361 .endd
2362 .cindex "installing Exim" "install script options"
2363 There are two other options that can be supplied to the installation script.
2365 .ilist
2366 &%-no_chown%& bypasses the call to change the owner of the installed binary
2367 to root, and the call to make it a setuid binary.
2368 .next
2369 &%-no_symlink%& bypasses the setting up of the symbolic link &_exim_& to the
2370 installed binary.
2371 .endlist
2373 INSTALL_ARG can be used to pass these options to the script. For example:
2374 .code
2375 make INSTALL_ARG=-no_symlink install
2376 .endd
2377 The installation script can also be given arguments specifying which files are
2378 to be copied. For example, to install just the Exim binary, and nothing else,
2379 without creating the symbolic link, you could use:
2380 .code
2381 make INSTALL_ARG='-no_symlink exim' install
2382 .endd
2386 .section "Installing info documentation" "SECTinsinfdoc"
2387 .cindex "installing Exim" "&'info'& documentation"
2388 Not all systems use the GNU &'info'& system for documentation, and for this
2389 reason, the Texinfo source of Exim's documentation is not included in the main
2390 distribution. Instead it is available separately from the FTP site (see section
2391 &<<SECTavail>>&).
2393 If you have defined INFO_DIRECTORY in &_Local/Makefile_& and the Texinfo
2394 source of the documentation is found in the source tree, running &`make
2395 install`& automatically builds the info files and installs them.
2399 .section "Setting up the spool directory" "SECID33"
2400 .cindex "spool directory" "creating"
2401 When it starts up, Exim tries to create its spool directory if it does not
2402 exist. The Exim uid and gid are used for the owner and group of the spool
2403 directory. Sub-directories are automatically created in the spool directory as
2404 necessary.
2409 .section "Testing" "SECID34"
2410 .cindex "testing" "installation"
2411 Having installed Exim, you can check that the runtime configuration file is
2412 syntactically valid by running the following command, which assumes that the
2413 Exim binary directory is within your PATH environment variable:
2414 .code
2415 exim -bV
2416 .endd
2417 If there are any errors in the configuration file, Exim outputs error messages.
2418 Otherwise it outputs the version number and build date,
2419 the DBM library that is being used, and information about which drivers and
2420 other optional code modules are included in the binary.
2421 Some simple routing tests can be done by using the address testing option. For
2422 example,
2423 .display
2424 &`exim -bt`& <&'local username'&>
2425 .endd
2426 should verify that it recognizes a local mailbox, and
2427 .display
2428 &`exim -bt`& <&'remote address'&>
2429 .endd
2430 a remote one. Then try getting it to deliver mail, both locally and remotely.
2431 This can be done by passing messages directly to Exim, without going through a
2432 user agent. For example:
2433 .code
2434 exim -v postmaster@your.domain.example
2435 From: user@your.domain.example
2436 To: postmaster@your.domain.example
2437 Subject: Testing Exim
2439 This is a test message.
2440 ^D
2441 .endd
2442 The &%-v%& option causes Exim to output some verification of what it is doing.
2443 In this case you should see copies of three log lines, one for the message's
2444 arrival, one for its delivery, and one containing &"Completed"&.
2446 .cindex "delivery" "problems with"
2447 If you encounter problems, look at Exim's log files (&'mainlog'& and
2448 &'paniclog'&) to see if there is any relevant information there. Another source
2449 of information is running Exim with debugging turned on, by specifying the
2450 &%-d%& option. If a message is stuck on Exim's spool, you can force a delivery
2451 with debugging turned on by a command of the form
2452 .display
2453 &`exim -d -M`& <&'exim-message-id'&>
2454 .endd
2455 You must be root or an &"admin user"& in order to do this. The &%-d%& option
2456 produces rather a lot of output, but you can cut this down to specific areas.
2457 For example, if you use &%-d-all+route%& only the debugging information
2458 relevant to routing is included. (See the &%-d%& option in chapter
2459 &<<CHAPcommandline>>& for more details.)
2461 .cindex '&"sticky"& bit'
2462 .cindex "lock files"
2463 One specific problem that has shown up on some sites is the inability to do
2464 local deliveries into a shared mailbox directory, because it does not have the
2465 &"sticky bit"& set on it. By default, Exim tries to create a lock file before
2466 writing to a mailbox file, and if it cannot create the lock file, the delivery
2467 is deferred. You can get round this either by setting the &"sticky bit"& on the
2468 directory, or by setting a specific group for local deliveries and allowing
2469 that group to create files in the directory (see the comments above the
2470 &(local_delivery)& transport in the default configuration file). Another
2471 approach is to configure Exim not to use lock files, but just to rely on
2472 &[fcntl()]& locking instead. However, you should do this only if all user
2473 agents also use &[fcntl()]& locking. For further discussion of locking issues,
2474 see chapter &<<CHAPappendfile>>&.
2476 One thing that cannot be tested on a system that is already running an MTA is
2477 the receipt of incoming SMTP mail on the standard SMTP port. However, the
2478 &%-oX%& option can be used to run an Exim daemon that listens on some other
2479 port, or &'inetd'& can be used to do this. The &%-bh%& option and the
2480 &'exim_checkaccess'& utility can be used to check out policy controls on
2481 incoming SMTP mail.
2483 Testing a new version on a system that is already running Exim can most easily
2484 be done by building a binary with a different CONFIGURE_FILE setting. From
2485 within the runtime configuration, all other file and directory names
2486 that Exim uses can be altered, in order to keep it entirely clear of the
2487 production version.
2490 .section "Replacing another MTA with Exim" "SECID35"
2491 .cindex "replacing another MTA"
2492 Building and installing Exim for the first time does not of itself put it in
2493 general use. The name by which the system's MTA is called by mail user agents
2494 is either &_/usr/sbin/sendmail_&, or &_/usr/lib/sendmail_& (depending on the
2495 operating system), and it is necessary to make this name point to the &'exim'&
2496 binary in order to get the user agents to pass messages to Exim. This is
2497 normally done by renaming any existing file and making &_/usr/sbin/sendmail_&
2498 or &_/usr/lib/sendmail_&
2499 .cindex "symbolic link" "to &'exim'& binary"
2500 a symbolic link to the &'exim'& binary. It is a good idea to remove any setuid
2501 privilege and executable status from the old MTA. It is then necessary to stop
2502 and restart the mailer daemon, if one is running.
2504 .cindex "FreeBSD, MTA indirection"
2505 .cindex "&_/etc/mail/mailer.conf_&"
2506 Some operating systems have introduced alternative ways of switching MTAs. For
2507 example, if you are running FreeBSD, you need to edit the file
2508 &_/etc/mail/mailer.conf_& instead of setting up a symbolic link as just
2509 described. A typical example of the contents of this file for running Exim is
2510 as follows:
2511 .code
2512 sendmail /usr/exim/bin/exim
2513 send-mail /usr/exim/bin/exim
2514 mailq /usr/exim/bin/exim -bp
2515 newaliases /usr/bin/true
2516 .endd
2517 Once you have set up the symbolic link, or edited &_/etc/mail/mailer.conf_&,
2518 your Exim installation is &"live"&. Check it by sending a message from your
2519 favourite user agent.
2521 You should consider what to tell your users about the change of MTA. Exim may
2522 have different capabilities to what was previously running, and there are
2523 various operational differences such as the text of messages produced by
2524 command line options and in bounce messages. If you allow your users to make
2525 use of Exim's filtering capabilities, you should make the document entitled
2526 &'Exim's interface to mail filtering'& available to them.
2530 .section "Upgrading Exim" "SECID36"
2531 .cindex "upgrading Exim"
2532 If you are already running Exim on your host, building and installing a new
2533 version automatically makes it available to MUAs, or any other programs that
2534 call the MTA directly. However, if you are running an Exim daemon, you do need
2535 .cindex restart "on HUP signal"
2536 .cindex signal "HUP, to restart"
2537 to send it a HUP signal, to make it re-execute itself, and thereby pick up the
2538 new binary. You do not need to stop processing mail in order to install a new
2539 version of Exim. The install script does not modify an existing runtime
2540 configuration file.
2545 .section "Stopping the Exim daemon on Solaris" "SECID37"
2546 .cindex "Solaris" "stopping Exim on"
2547 The standard command for stopping the mailer daemon on Solaris is
2548 .code
2549 /etc/init.d/sendmail stop
2550 .endd
2551 If &_/usr/lib/sendmail_& has been turned into a symbolic link, this script
2552 fails to stop Exim because it uses the command &'ps -e'& and greps the output
2553 for the text &"sendmail"&; this is not present because the actual program name
2554 (that is, &"exim"&) is given by the &'ps'& command with these options. A
2555 solution is to replace the line that finds the process id with something like
2556 .code
2557 pid=`cat /var/spool/exim/exim-daemon.pid`
2558 .endd
2559 to obtain the daemon's pid directly from the file that Exim saves it in.
2561 Note, however, that stopping the daemon does not &"stop Exim"&. Messages can
2562 still be received from local processes, and if automatic delivery is configured
2563 (the normal case), deliveries will still occur.
2568 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2569 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2571 .chapter "The Exim command line" "CHAPcommandline"
2572 .scindex IIDclo1 "command line" "options"
2573 .scindex IIDclo2 "options" "command line"
2574 Exim's command line takes the standard Unix form of a sequence of options,
2575 each starting with a hyphen character, followed by a number of arguments. The
2576 options are compatible with the main options of Sendmail, and there are also
2577 some additional options, some of which are compatible with Smail 3. Certain
2578 combinations of options do not make sense, and provoke an error if used.
2579 The form of the arguments depends on which options are set.
2582 .section "Setting options by program name" "SECID38"
2583 .cindex "&'mailq'&"
2584 If Exim is called under the name &'mailq'&, it behaves as if the option &%-bp%&
2585 were present before any other options.
2586 The &%-bp%& option requests a listing of the contents of the mail queue on the
2587 standard output.
2588 This feature is for compatibility with some systems that contain a command of
2589 that name in one of the standard libraries, symbolically linked to
2590 &_/usr/sbin/sendmail_& or &_/usr/lib/sendmail_&.
2592 .cindex "&'rsmtp'&"
2593 If Exim is called under the name &'rsmtp'& it behaves as if the option &%-bS%&
2594 were present before any other options, for compatibility with Smail. The
2595 &%-bS%& option is used for reading in a number of messages in batched SMTP
2596 format.
2598 .cindex "&'rmail'&"
2599 If Exim is called under the name &'rmail'& it behaves as if the &%-i%& and
2600 &%-oee%& options were present before any other options, for compatibility with
2601 Smail. The name &'rmail'& is used as an interface by some UUCP systems.
2603 .cindex "&'runq'&"
2604 .cindex "queue runner"
2605 If Exim is called under the name &'runq'& it behaves as if the option &%-q%&
2606 were present before any other options, for compatibility with Smail. The &%-q%&
2607 option causes a single queue runner process to be started.
2609 .cindex "&'newaliases'&"
2610 .cindex "alias file" "building"
2611 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "calling Exim as &'newaliases'&"
2612 If Exim is called under the name &'newaliases'& it behaves as if the option
2613 &%-bi%& were present before any other options, for compatibility with Sendmail.
2614 This option is used for rebuilding Sendmail's alias file. Exim does not have
2615 the concept of a single alias file, but can be configured to run a given
2616 command if called with the &%-bi%& option.
2619 .section "Trusted and admin users" "SECTtrustedadmin"
2620 Some Exim options are available only to &'trusted users'& and others are
2621 available only to &'admin users'&. In the description below, the phrases &"Exim
2622 user"& and &"Exim group"& mean the user and group defined by EXIM_USER and
2623 EXIM_GROUP in &_Local/Makefile_& or set by the &%exim_user%& and
2624 &%exim_group%& options. These do not necessarily have to use the name &"exim"&.
2626 .ilist
2627 .cindex "trusted users" "definition of"
2628 .cindex "user" "trusted definition of"
2629 The trusted users are root, the Exim user, any user listed in the
2630 &%trusted_users%& configuration option, and any user whose current group or any
2631 supplementary group is one of those listed in the &%trusted_groups%&
2632 configuration option. Note that the Exim group is not automatically trusted.
2634 .cindex '&"From"& line'
2635 .cindex "envelope from"
2636 .cindex "envelope sender"
2637 Trusted users are always permitted to use the &%-f%& option or a leading
2638 &"From&~"& line to specify the envelope sender of a message that is passed to
2639 Exim through the local interface (see the &%-bm%& and &%-f%& options below).
2640 See the &%untrusted_set_sender%& option for a way of permitting non-trusted
2641 users to set envelope senders.
2643 .cindex "&'From:'& header line"
2644 .cindex "&'Sender:'& header line"
2645 .cindex "header lines" "From:"
2646 .cindex "header lines" "Sender:"
2647 For a trusted user, there is never any check on the contents of the &'From:'&
2648 header line, and a &'Sender:'& line is never added. Furthermore, any existing
2649 &'Sender:'& line in incoming local (non-TCP/IP) messages is not removed.
2651 Trusted users may also specify a host name, host address, interface address,
2652 protocol name, ident value, and authentication data when submitting a message
2653 locally. Thus, they are able to insert messages into Exim's queue locally that
2654 have the characteristics of messages received from a remote host. Untrusted
2655 users may in some circumstances use &%-f%&, but can never set the other values
2656 that are available to trusted users.
2657 .next
2658 .cindex "user" "admin definition of"
2659 .cindex "admin user" "definition of"
2660 The admin users are root, the Exim user, and any user that is a member of the
2661 Exim group or of any group listed in the &%admin_groups%& configuration option.
2662 The current group does not have to be one of these groups.
2664 Admin users are permitted to list the queue, and to carry out certain
2665 operations on messages, for example, to force delivery failures. It is also
2666 necessary to be an admin user in order to see the full information provided by
2667 the Exim monitor, and full debugging output.
2669 By default, the use of the &%-M%&, &%-q%&, &%-R%&, and &%-S%& options to cause
2670 Exim to attempt delivery of messages on its queue is restricted to admin users.
2671 However, this restriction can be relaxed by setting the &%prod_requires_admin%&
2672 option false (that is, specifying &%no_prod_requires_admin%&).
2674 Similarly, the use of the &%-bp%& option to list all the messages in the queue
2675 is restricted to admin users unless &%queue_list_requires_admin%& is set
2676 false.
2677 .endlist
2680 &*Warning*&: If you configure your system so that admin users are able to
2681 edit Exim's configuration file, you are giving those users an easy way of
2682 getting root. There is further discussion of this issue at the start of chapter
2683 &<<CHAPconf>>&.
2688 .section "Command line options" "SECID39"
2689 Exim's command line options are described in alphabetical order below. If none
2690 of the options that specifies a specific action (such as starting the daemon or
2691 a queue runner, or testing an address, or receiving a message in a specific
2692 format, or listing the queue) are present, and there is at least one argument
2693 on the command line, &%-bm%& (accept a local message on the standard input,
2694 with the arguments specifying the recipients) is assumed. Otherwise, Exim
2695 outputs a brief message about itself and exits.
2697 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2698 . Insert a stylized XML comment here, to identify the start of the command line
2699 . options. This is for the benefit of the Perl script that automatically
2700 . creates a man page for the options.
2701 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2703 .literal xml
2704 <!-- === Start of command line options === -->
2705 .literal off
2708 .vlist
2709 .vitem &%--%&
2710 .oindex "--"
2711 .cindex "options" "command line; terminating"
2712 This is a pseudo-option whose only purpose is to terminate the options and
2713 therefore to cause subsequent command line items to be treated as arguments
2714 rather than options, even if they begin with hyphens.
2716 .vitem &%--help%&
2717 .oindex "&%--help%&"
2718 This option causes Exim to output a few sentences stating what it is.
2719 The same output is generated if the Exim binary is called with no options and
2720 no arguments.
2722 .vitem &%--version%&
2723 .oindex "&%--version%&"
2724 This option is an alias for &%-bV%& and causes version information to be
2725 displayed.
2727 .vitem &%-Ac%& &&&
2728 &%-Am%&
2729 .oindex "&%-Ac%&"
2730 .oindex "&%-Am%&"
2731 These options are used by Sendmail for selecting configuration files and are
2732 ignored by Exim.
2734 .vitem &%-B%&<&'type'&>
2735 .oindex "&%-B%&"
2736 .cindex "8-bit characters"
2737 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "8-bit characters"
2738 This is a Sendmail option for selecting 7 or 8 bit processing. Exim is 8-bit
2739 clean; it ignores this option.
2741 .vitem &%-bd%&
2742 .oindex "&%-bd%&"
2743 .cindex "daemon"
2744 .cindex "SMTP" "listener"
2745 .cindex "queue runner"
2746 This option runs Exim as a daemon, awaiting incoming SMTP connections. Usually
2747 the &%-bd%& option is combined with the &%-q%&<&'time'&> option, to specify
2748 that the daemon should also initiate periodic queue runs.
2750 The &%-bd%& option can be used only by an admin user. If either of the &%-d%&
2751 (debugging) or &%-v%& (verifying) options are set, the daemon does not
2752 disconnect from the controlling terminal. When running this way, it can be
2753 stopped by pressing ctrl-C.
2755 By default, Exim listens for incoming connections to the standard SMTP port on
2756 all the host's running interfaces. However, it is possible to listen on other
2757 ports, on multiple ports, and only on specific interfaces. Chapter
2758 &<<CHAPinterfaces>>& contains a description of the options that control this.
2760 When a listening daemon
2761 .cindex "daemon" "process id (pid)"
2762 .cindex "pid (process id)" "of daemon"
2763 is started without the use of &%-oX%& (that is, without overriding the normal
2764 configuration), it writes its process id to a file called &_exim-daemon.pid_&
2765 in Exim's spool directory. This location can be overridden by setting
2766 PID_FILE_PATH in &_Local/Makefile_&. The file is written while Exim is still
2767 running as root.
2769 When &%-oX%& is used on the command line to start a listening daemon, the
2770 process id is not written to the normal pid file path. However, &%-oP%& can be
2771 used to specify a path on the command line if a pid file is required.
2773 The SIGHUP signal
2774 .cindex "SIGHUP"
2775 .cindex restart "on HUP signal"
2776 .cindex signal "HUP, to restart"
2777 .cindex "daemon" "restarting"
2778 .cindex signal "to reload configuration"
2779 .cindex daemon "reload configuration"
2780 .cindex reload configuration
2781 can be used to cause the daemon to re-execute itself. This should be done
2782 whenever Exim's configuration file, or any file that is incorporated into it by
2783 means of the &%.include%& facility, is changed, and also whenever a new version
2784 of Exim is installed. It is not necessary to do this when other files that are
2785 referenced from the configuration (for example, alias files) are changed,
2786 because these are reread each time they are used.
2788 .vitem &%-bdf%&
2789 .oindex "&%-bdf%&"
2790 This option has the same effect as &%-bd%& except that it never disconnects
2791 from the controlling terminal, even when no debugging is specified.
2793 .vitem &%-be%&
2794 .oindex "&%-be%&"
2795 .cindex "testing" "string expansion"
2796 .cindex "expansion" "testing"
2797 Run Exim in expansion testing mode. Exim discards its root privilege, to
2798 prevent ordinary users from using this mode to read otherwise inaccessible
2799 files. If no arguments are given, Exim runs interactively, prompting for lines
2800 of data. Otherwise, it processes each argument in turn.
2802 If Exim was built with USE_READLINE=yes in &_Local/Makefile_&, it tries
2803 to load the &%libreadline%& library dynamically whenever the &%-be%& option is
2804 used without command line arguments. If successful, it uses the &[readline()]&
2805 function, which provides extensive line-editing facilities, for reading the
2806 test data. A line history is supported.
2808 Long expansion expressions can be split over several lines by using backslash
2809 continuations. As in Exim's runtime configuration, white space at the start of
2810 continuation lines is ignored. Each argument or data line is passed through the
2811 string expansion mechanism, and the result is output. Variable values from the
2812 configuration file (for example, &$qualify_domain$&) are available, but no
2813 message-specific values (such as &$message_exim_id$&) are set, because no message
2814 is being processed (but see &%-bem%& and &%-Mset%&).
2816 &*Note*&: If you use this mechanism to test lookups, and you change the data
2817 files or databases you are using, you must exit and restart Exim before trying
2818 the same lookup again. Otherwise, because each Exim process caches the results
2819 of lookups, you will just get the same result as before.
2821 Macro processing is done on lines before string-expansion: new macros can be
2822 defined and macros will be expanded.
2823 Because macros in the config file are often used for secrets, those are only
2824 available to admin users.
2826 .vitem &%-bem%&&~<&'filename'&>
2827 .oindex "&%-bem%&"
2828 .cindex "testing" "string expansion"
2829 .cindex "expansion" "testing"
2830 This option operates like &%-be%& except that it must be followed by the name
2831 of a file. For example:
2832 .code
2833 exim -bem /tmp/testmessage
2834 .endd
2835 The file is read as a message (as if receiving a locally-submitted non-SMTP
2836 message) before any of the test expansions are done. Thus, message-specific
2837 variables such as &$message_size$& and &$header_from:$& are available. However,
2838 no &'Received:'& header is added to the message. If the &%-t%& option is set,
2839 recipients are read from the headers in the normal way, and are shown in the
2840 &$recipients$& variable. Note that recipients cannot be given on the command
2841 line, because further arguments are taken as strings to expand (just like
2842 &%-be%&).
2844 .vitem &%-bF%&&~<&'filename'&>
2845 .oindex "&%-bF%&"
2846 .cindex "system filter" "testing"
2847 .cindex "testing" "system filter"
2848 This option is the same as &%-bf%& except that it assumes that the filter being
2849 tested is a system filter. The additional commands that are available only in
2850 system filters are recognized.
2852 .vitem &%-bf%&&~<&'filename'&>
2853 .oindex "&%-bf%&"
2854 .cindex "filter" "testing"
2855 .cindex "testing" "filter file"
2856 .cindex "forward file" "testing"
2857 .cindex "testing" "forward file"
2858 .cindex "Sieve filter" "testing"
2859 This option runs Exim in user filter testing mode; the file is the filter file
2860 to be tested, and a test message must be supplied on the standard input. If
2861 there are no message-dependent tests in the filter, an empty file can be
2862 supplied.
2864 If you want to test a system filter file, use &%-bF%& instead of &%-bf%&. You
2865 can use both &%-bF%& and &%-bf%& on the same command, in order to test a system
2866 filter and a user filter in the same run. For example:
2867 .code
2868 exim -bF /system/filter -bf /user/filter </test/message
2869 .endd
2870 This is helpful when the system filter adds header lines or sets filter
2871 variables that are used by the user filter.
2873 If the test filter file does not begin with one of the special lines
2874 .code
2875 # Exim filter
2876 # Sieve filter
2877 .endd
2878 it is taken to be a normal &_.forward_& file, and is tested for validity under
2879 that interpretation. See sections &<<SECTitenonfilred>>& to
2880 &<<SECTspecitredli>>& for a description of the possible contents of non-filter
2881 redirection lists.
2883 The result of an Exim command that uses &%-bf%&, provided no errors are
2884 detected, is a list of the actions that Exim would try to take if presented
2885 with the message for real. More details of filter testing are given in the
2886 separate document entitled &'Exim's interfaces to mail filtering'&.
2888 When testing a filter file,
2889 .cindex "&""From""& line"
2890 .cindex "envelope from"
2891 .cindex "envelope sender"
2892 .oindex "&%-f%&" "for filter testing"
2893 the envelope sender can be set by the &%-f%& option,
2894 or by a &"From&~"& line at the start of the test message. Various parameters
2895 that would normally be taken from the envelope recipient address of the message
2896 can be set by means of additional command line options (see the next four
2897 options).
2899 .vitem &%-bfd%&&~<&'domain'&>
2900 .oindex "&%-bfd%&"
2901 .vindex "&$qualify_domain$&"
2902 This sets the domain of the recipient address when a filter file is being
2903 tested by means of the &%-bf%& option. The default is the value of
2904 &$qualify_domain$&.
2906 .vitem &%-bfl%&&~<&'local&~part'&>
2907 .oindex "&%-bfl%&"
2908 This sets the local part of the recipient address when a filter file is being
2909 tested by means of the &%-bf%& option. The default is the username of the
2910 process that calls Exim. A local part should be specified with any prefix or
2911 suffix stripped, because that is how it appears to the filter when a message is
2912 actually being delivered.
2914 .vitem &%-bfp%&&~<&'prefix'&>
2915 .oindex "&%-bfp%&"
2916 .cindex affix "filter testing"
2917 This sets the prefix of the local part of the recipient address when a filter
2918 file is being tested by means of the &%-bf%& option. The default is an empty
2919 prefix.
2921 .vitem &%-bfs%&&~<&'suffix'&>
2922 .oindex "&%-bfs%&"
2923 .cindex affix "filter testing"
2924 This sets the suffix of the local part of the recipient address when a filter
2925 file is being tested by means of the &%-bf%& option. The default is an empty
2926 suffix.
2928 .vitem &%-bh%&&~<&'IP&~address'&>
2929 .oindex "&%-bh%&"
2930 .cindex "testing" "incoming SMTP"
2931 .cindex "SMTP" "testing incoming"
2932 .cindex "testing" "relay control"
2933 .cindex "relaying" "testing configuration"
2934 .cindex "policy control" "testing"
2935 .cindex "debugging" "&%-bh%& option"
2936 This option runs a fake SMTP session as if from the given IP address, using the
2937 standard input and output. The IP address may include a port number at the end,
2938 after a full stop. For example:
2939 .code
2940 exim -bh
2941 exim -bh fe80::a00:20ff:fe86:a061.5678
2942 .endd
2943 When an IPv6 address is given, it is converted into canonical form. In the case
2944 of the second example above, the value of &$sender_host_address$& after
2945 conversion to the canonical form is
2946 &`fe80:0000:0000:0a00:20ff:fe86:a061.5678`&.
2948 Comments as to what is going on are written to the standard error file. These
2949 include lines beginning with &"LOG"& for anything that would have been logged.
2950 This facility is provided for testing configuration options for incoming
2951 messages, to make sure they implement the required policy. For example, you can
2952 test your relay controls using &%-bh%&.
2954 &*Warning 1*&:
2955 .cindex "RFC 1413"
2956 You can test features of the configuration that rely on ident (RFC 1413)
2957 information by using the &%-oMt%& option. However, Exim cannot actually perform
2958 an ident callout when testing using &%-bh%& because there is no incoming SMTP
2959 connection.
2961 &*Warning 2*&: Address verification callouts (see section &<<SECTcallver>>&)
2962 are also skipped when testing using &%-bh%&. If you want these callouts to
2963 occur, use &%-bhc%& instead.
2965 Messages supplied during the testing session are discarded, and nothing is
2966 written to any of the real log files. There may be pauses when DNS (and other)
2967 lookups are taking place, and of course these may time out. The &%-oMi%& option
2968 can be used to specify a specific IP interface and port if this is important,
2969 and &%-oMaa%& and &%-oMai%& can be used to set parameters as if the SMTP
2970 session were authenticated.
2972 The &'exim_checkaccess'& utility is a &"packaged"& version of &%-bh%& whose
2973 output just states whether a given recipient address from a given host is
2974 acceptable or not. See section &<<SECTcheckaccess>>&.
2976 Features such as authentication and encryption, where the client input is not
2977 plain text, cannot easily be tested with &%-bh%&. Instead, you should use a
2978 specialized SMTP test program such as
2979 &url(https://www.jetmore.org/john/code/swaks/,swaks).
2981 .vitem &%-bhc%&&~<&'IP&~address'&>
2982 .oindex "&%-bhc%&"
2983 This option operates in the same way as &%-bh%&, except that address
2984 verification callouts are performed if required. This includes consulting and
2985 updating the callout cache database.
2987 .vitem &%-bi%&
2988 .oindex "&%-bi%&"
2989 .cindex "alias file" "building"
2990 .cindex "building alias file"
2991 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&%-bi%& option"
2992 Sendmail interprets the &%-bi%& option as a request to rebuild its alias file.
2993 Exim does not have the concept of a single alias file, and so it cannot mimic
2994 this behaviour. However, calls to &_/usr/lib/sendmail_& with the &%-bi%& option
2995 tend to appear in various scripts such as NIS make files, so the option must be
2996 recognized.
2998 If &%-bi%& is encountered, the command specified by the &%bi_command%&
2999 configuration option is run, under the uid and gid of the caller of Exim. If
3000 the &%-oA%& option is used, its value is passed to the command as an argument.
3001 The command set by &%bi_command%& may not contain arguments. The command can
3002 use the &'exim_dbmbuild'& utility, or some other means, to rebuild alias files
3003 if this is required. If the &%bi_command%& option is not set, calling Exim with
3004 &%-bi%& is a no-op.
3006 . // Keep :help first, then the rest in alphabetical order
3007 .vitem &%-bI:help%&
3008 .oindex "&%-bI:help%&"
3009 .cindex "querying exim information"
3010 We shall provide various options starting &`-bI:`& for querying Exim for
3011 information. The output of many of these will be intended for machine
3012 consumption. This one is not. The &%-bI:help%& option asks Exim for a
3013 synopsis of supported options beginning &`-bI:`&. Use of any of these
3014 options shall cause Exim to exit after producing the requested output.
3016 .vitem &%-bI:dscp%&
3017 .oindex "&%-bI:dscp%&"
3018 .cindex "DSCP" "values"
3019 This option causes Exim to emit an alphabetically sorted list of all
3020 recognised DSCP names.
3022 .vitem &%-bI:sieve%&
3023 .oindex "&%-bI:sieve%&"
3024 .cindex "Sieve filter" "capabilities"
3025 This option causes Exim to emit an alphabetically sorted list of all supported
3026 Sieve protocol extensions on stdout, one per line. This is anticipated to be
3027 useful for ManageSieve (RFC 5804) implementations, in providing that protocol's
3028 &`SIEVE`& capability response line. As the precise list may depend upon
3029 compile-time build options, which this option will adapt to, this is the only
3030 way to guarantee a correct response.
3032 .vitem &%-bm%&
3033 .oindex "&%-bm%&"
3034 .cindex "local message reception"
3035 This option runs an Exim receiving process that accepts an incoming,
3036 locally-generated message on the standard input. The recipients are given as the
3037 command arguments (except when &%-t%& is also present &-- see below). Each
3038 argument can be a comma-separated list of RFC 2822 addresses. This is the
3039 default option for selecting the overall action of an Exim call; it is assumed
3040 if no other conflicting option is present.
3042 If any addresses in the message are unqualified (have no domain), they are
3043 qualified by the values of the &%qualify_domain%& or &%qualify_recipient%&
3044 options, as appropriate. The &%-bnq%& option (see below) provides a way of
3045 suppressing this for special cases.
3047 Policy checks on the contents of local messages can be enforced by means of
3048 the non-SMTP ACL. See chapter &<<CHAPACL>>& for details.
3050 .cindex "return code" "for &%-bm%&"
3051 The return code is zero if the message is successfully accepted. Otherwise, the
3052 action is controlled by the &%-oe%&&'x'& option setting &-- see below.
3054 The format
3055 .cindex "message" "format"
3056 .cindex "format" "message"
3057 .cindex "&""From""& line"
3058 .cindex "UUCP" "&""From""& line"
3059 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&""From""& line"
3060 of the message must be as defined in RFC 2822, except that, for
3061 compatibility with Sendmail and Smail, a line in one of the forms
3062 .code
3063 From sender Fri Jan 5 12:55 GMT 1997
3064 From sender Fri, 5 Jan 97 12:55:01
3065 .endd
3066 (with the weekday optional, and possibly with additional text after the date)
3067 is permitted to appear at the start of the message. There appears to be no
3068 authoritative specification of the format of this line. Exim recognizes it by
3069 matching against the regular expression defined by the &%uucp_from_pattern%&
3070 option, which can be changed if necessary.
3072 .oindex "&%-f%&" "overriding &""From""& line"
3073 The specified sender is treated as if it were given as the argument to the
3074 &%-f%& option, but if a &%-f%& option is also present, its argument is used in
3075 preference to the address taken from the message. The caller of Exim must be a
3076 trusted user for the sender of a message to be set in this way.
3078 .vitem &%-bmalware%&&~<&'filename'&>
3079 .oindex "&%-bmalware%&"
3080 .cindex "testing", "malware"
3081 .cindex "malware scan test"
3082 This debugging option causes Exim to scan the given file or directory
3083 (depending on the used scanner interface),
3084 using the malware scanning framework. The option of &%av_scanner%& influences
3085 this option, so if &%av_scanner%&'s value is dependent upon an expansion then
3086 the expansion should have defaults which apply to this invocation. ACLs are
3087 not invoked, so if &%av_scanner%& references an ACL variable then that variable
3088 will never be populated and &%-bmalware%& will fail.
3090 Exim will have changed working directory before resolving the filename, so
3091 using fully qualified pathnames is advisable. Exim will be running as the Exim
3092 user when it tries to open the file, rather than as the invoking user.
3093 This option requires admin privileges.
3095 The &%-bmalware%& option will not be extended to be more generally useful,
3096 there are better tools for file-scanning. This option exists to help
3097 administrators verify their Exim and AV scanner configuration.
3099 .vitem &%-bnq%&
3100 .oindex "&%-bnq%&"
3101 .cindex "address qualification, suppressing"
3102 By default, Exim automatically qualifies unqualified addresses (those
3103 without domains) that appear in messages that are submitted locally (that
3104 is, not over TCP/IP). This qualification applies both to addresses in
3105 envelopes, and addresses in header lines. Sender addresses are qualified using
3106 &%qualify_domain%&, and recipient addresses using &%qualify_recipient%& (which
3107 defaults to the value of &%qualify_domain%&).
3109 Sometimes, qualification is not wanted. For example, if &%-bS%& (batch SMTP) is
3110 being used to re-submit messages that originally came from remote hosts after
3111 content scanning, you probably do not want to qualify unqualified addresses in
3112 header lines. (Such lines will be present only if you have not enabled a header
3113 syntax check in the appropriate ACL.)
3115 The &%-bnq%& option suppresses all qualification of unqualified addresses in
3116 messages that originate on the local host. When this is used, unqualified
3117 addresses in the envelope provoke errors (causing message rejection) and
3118 unqualified addresses in header lines are left alone.
3121 .vitem &%-bP%&
3122 .oindex "&%-bP%&"
3123 .cindex "configuration options" "extracting"
3124 .cindex "options" "configuration &-- extracting"
3125 If this option is given with no arguments, it causes the values of all Exim's
3126 main configuration options to be written to the standard output. The values
3127 of one or more specific options can be requested by giving their names as
3128 arguments, for example:
3129 .code
3130 exim -bP qualify_domain hold_domains
3131 .endd
3132 .cindex "hiding configuration option values"
3133 .cindex "configuration options" "hiding value of"
3134 .cindex "options" "hiding value of"
3135 However, any option setting that is preceded by the word &"hide"& in the
3136 configuration file is not shown in full, except to an admin user. For other
3137 users, the output is as in this example:
3138 .code
3139 mysql_servers = <value not displayable>
3140 .endd
3141 If &%config%& is given as an argument, the config is
3142 output, as it was parsed, any include file resolved, any comment removed.
3144 If &%config_file%& is given as an argument, the name of the runtime
3145 configuration file is output. (&%configure_file%& works too, for
3146 backward compatibility.)
3147 If a list of configuration files was supplied, the value that is output here
3148 is the name of the file that was actually used.
3150 .cindex "options" "hiding name of"
3151 If the &%-n%& flag is given, then for most modes of &%-bP%& operation the
3152 name will not be output.
3154 .cindex "daemon" "process id (pid)"
3155 .cindex "pid (process id)" "of daemon"
3156 If &%log_file_path%& or &%pid_file_path%& are given, the names of the
3157 directories where log files and daemon pid files are written are output,
3158 respectively. If these values are unset, log files are written in a
3159 sub-directory of the spool directory called &%log%&, and the pid file is
3160 written directly into the spool directory.
3162 If &%-bP%& is followed by a name preceded by &`+`&, for example,
3163 .code
3164 exim -bP +local_domains
3165 .endd
3166 it searches for a matching named list of any type (domain, host, address, or
3167 local part) and outputs what it finds.
3169 .cindex "options" "router &-- extracting"
3170 .cindex "options" "transport &-- extracting"
3171 .cindex "options" "authenticator &-- extracting"
3172 If one of the words &%router%&, &%transport%&, or &%authenticator%& is given,
3173 followed by the name of an appropriate driver instance, the option settings for
3174 that driver are output. For example:
3175 .code
3176 exim -bP transport local_delivery
3177 .endd
3178 The generic driver options are output first, followed by the driver's private
3179 options. A list of the names of drivers of a particular type can be obtained by
3180 using one of the words &%router_list%&, &%transport_list%&, or
3181 &%authenticator_list%&, and a complete list of all drivers with their option
3182 settings can be obtained by using &%routers%&, &%transports%&, or
3183 &%authenticators%&.
3185 .cindex "environment"
3186 If &%environment%& is given as an argument, the set of environment
3187 variables is output, line by line. Using the &%-n%& flag suppresses the value of the
3188 variables.
3190 .cindex "options" "macro &-- extracting"
3191 If invoked by an admin user, then &%macro%&, &%macro_list%& and &%macros%&
3192 are available, similarly to the drivers. Because macros are sometimes used
3193 for storing passwords, this option is restricted.
3194 The output format is one item per line.
3195 For the "-bP macro <name>" form, if no such macro is found
3196 the exit status will be nonzero.
3198 .vitem &%-bp%&
3199 .oindex "&%-bp%&"
3200 .cindex "queue" "listing messages in"
3201 .cindex "listing" "messages in the queue"
3202 This option requests a listing of the contents of the mail queue on the
3203 standard output. If the &%-bp%& option is followed by a list of message ids,
3204 just those messages are listed. By default, this option can be used only by an
3205 admin user. However, the &%queue_list_requires_admin%& option can be set false
3206 to allow any user to see the queue.
3208 Each message in the queue is displayed as in the following example:
3209 .code
3210 25m 2.9K 0t5C6f-0000c8-00 <alice@wonderland.fict.example>
3211 red.king@looking-glass.fict.example
3212 <other addresses>
3213 .endd
3214 .cindex "message" "size in queue listing"
3215 .cindex "size" "of message"
3216 The first line contains the length of time the message has been in the queue
3217 (in this case 25 minutes), the size of the message (2.9K), the unique local
3218 identifier for the message, and the message sender, as contained in the
3219 envelope. For bounce messages, the sender address is empty, and appears as
3220 &"<>"&. If the message was submitted locally by an untrusted user who overrode
3221 the default sender address, the user's login name is shown in parentheses
3222 before the sender address.
3224 .cindex "frozen messages" "in queue listing"
3225 If the message is frozen (attempts to deliver it are suspended) then the text
3226 &"*** frozen ***"& is displayed at the end of this line.
3228 The recipients of the message (taken from the envelope, not the headers) are
3229 displayed on subsequent lines. Those addresses to which the message has already
3230 been delivered are marked with the letter D. If an original address gets
3231 expanded into several addresses via an alias or forward file, the original is
3232 displayed with a D only when deliveries for all of its child addresses are
3233 complete.
3236 .vitem &%-bpa%&
3237 .oindex "&%-bpa%&"
3238 This option operates like &%-bp%&, but in addition it shows delivered addresses
3239 that were generated from the original top level address(es) in each message by
3240 alias or forwarding operations. These addresses are flagged with &"+D"& instead
3241 of just &"D"&.
3244 .vitem &%-bpc%&
3245 .oindex "&%-bpc%&"
3246 .cindex "queue" "count of messages on"
3247 This option counts the number of messages in the queue, and writes the total
3248 to the standard output. It is restricted to admin users, unless
3249 &%queue_list_requires_admin%& is set false.
3252 .vitem &%-bpr%&
3253 .oindex "&%-bpr%&"
3254 This option operates like &%-bp%&, but the output is not sorted into
3255 chronological order of message arrival. This can speed it up when there are
3256 lots of messages in the queue, and is particularly useful if the output is
3257 going to be post-processed in a way that doesn't need the sorting.
3259 .vitem &%-bpra%&
3260 .oindex "&%-bpra%&"
3261 This option is a combination of &%-bpr%& and &%-bpa%&.
3263 .vitem &%-bpru%&
3264 .oindex "&%-bpru%&"
3265 This option is a combination of &%-bpr%& and &%-bpu%&.
3268 .vitem &%-bpu%&
3269 .oindex "&%-bpu%&"
3270 This option operates like &%-bp%& but shows only undelivered top-level
3271 addresses for each message displayed. Addresses generated by aliasing or
3272 forwarding are not shown, unless the message was deferred after processing by a
3273 router with the &%one_time%& option set.
3276 .vitem &%-brt%&
3277 .oindex "&%-brt%&"
3278 .cindex "testing" "retry configuration"
3279 .cindex "retry" "configuration testing"
3280 This option is for testing retry rules, and it must be followed by up to three
3281 arguments. It causes Exim to look for a retry rule that matches the values
3282 and to write it to the standard output. For example:
3283 .code
3284 exim -brt bach.comp.mus.example
3285 Retry rule: *.comp.mus.example F,2h,15m; F,4d,30m;
3286 .endd
3287 See chapter &<<CHAPretry>>& for a description of Exim's retry rules. The first
3288 argument, which is required, can be a complete address in the form
3289 &'local_part@domain'&, or it can be just a domain name. If the second argument
3290 contains a dot, it is interpreted as an optional second domain name; if no
3291 retry rule is found for the first argument, the second is tried. This ties in
3292 with Exim's behaviour when looking for retry rules for remote hosts &-- if no
3293 rule is found that matches the host, one that matches the mail domain is
3294 sought. Finally, an argument that is the name of a specific delivery error, as
3295 used in setting up retry rules, can be given. For example:
3296 .code
3297 exim -brt haydn.comp.mus.example quota_3d
3298 Retry rule: *@haydn.comp.mus.example quota_3d F,1h,15m
3299 .endd
3301 .vitem &%-brw%&
3302 .oindex "&%-brw%&"
3303 .cindex "testing" "rewriting"
3304 .cindex "rewriting" "testing"
3305 This option is for testing address rewriting rules, and it must be followed by
3306 a single argument, consisting of either a local part without a domain, or a
3307 complete address with a fully qualified domain. Exim outputs how this address
3308 would be rewritten for each possible place it might appear. See chapter
3309 &<<CHAPrewrite>>& for further details.
3311 .vitem &%-bS%&
3312 .oindex "&%-bS%&"
3313 .cindex "SMTP" "batched incoming"
3314 .cindex "batched SMTP input"
3315 This option is used for batched SMTP input, which is an alternative interface
3316 for non-interactive local message submission. A number of messages can be
3317 submitted in a single run. However, despite its name, this is not really SMTP
3318 input. Exim reads each message's envelope from SMTP commands on the standard
3319 input, but generates no responses. If the caller is trusted, or
3320 &%untrusted_set_sender%& is set, the senders in the SMTP MAIL commands are
3321 believed; otherwise the sender is always the caller of Exim.
3323 The message itself is read from the standard input, in SMTP format (leading
3324 dots doubled), terminated by a line containing just a single dot. An error is
3325 provoked if the terminating dot is missing. A further message may then follow.
3327 As for other local message submissions, the contents of incoming batch SMTP
3328 messages can be checked using the non-SMTP ACL (see chapter &<<CHAPACL>>&).
3329 Unqualified addresses are automatically qualified using &%qualify_domain%& and
3330 &%qualify_recipient%&, as appropriate, unless the &%-bnq%& option is used.
3332 Some other SMTP commands are recognized in the input. HELO and EHLO act
3333 as RSET; VRFY, EXPN, ETRN, and HELP act as NOOP;
3334 QUIT quits, ignoring the rest of the standard input.
3336 .cindex "return code" "for &%-bS%&"
3337 If any error is encountered, reports are written to the standard output and
3338 error streams, and Exim gives up immediately. The return code is 0 if no error
3339 was detected; it is 1 if one or more messages were accepted before the error
3340 was detected; otherwise it is 2.
3342 More details of input using batched SMTP are given in section
3343 &<<SECTincomingbatchedSMTP>>&.
3345 .vitem &%-bs%&
3346 .oindex "&%-bs%&"
3347 .cindex "SMTP" "local input"
3348 .cindex "local SMTP input"
3349 This option causes Exim to accept one or more messages by reading SMTP commands
3350 on the standard input, and producing SMTP replies on the standard output. SMTP
3351 policy controls, as defined in ACLs (see chapter &<<CHAPACL>>&) are applied.
3352 Some user agents use this interface as a way of passing locally-generated
3353 messages to the MTA.
3355 In
3356 .cindex "sender" "source of"
3357 this usage, if the caller of Exim is trusted, or &%untrusted_set_sender%& is
3358 set, the senders of messages are taken from the SMTP MAIL commands.
3359 Otherwise the content of these commands is ignored and the sender is set up as
3360 the calling user. Unqualified addresses are automatically qualified using
3361 &%qualify_domain%& and &%qualify_recipient%&, as appropriate, unless the
3362 &%-bnq%& option is used.
3364 .cindex "inetd"
3365 The
3366 &%-bs%& option is also used to run Exim from &'inetd'&, as an alternative to
3367 using a listening daemon. Exim can distinguish the two cases by checking
3368 whether the standard input is a TCP/IP socket. When Exim is called from
3369 &'inetd'&, the source of the mail is assumed to be remote, and the comments
3370 above concerning senders and qualification do not apply. In this situation,
3371 Exim behaves in exactly the same way as it does when receiving a message via
3372 the listening daemon.
3374 .vitem &%-bt%&
3375 .oindex "&%-bt%&"
3376 .cindex "testing" "addresses"
3377 .cindex "address" "testing"
3378 This option runs Exim in address testing mode, in which each argument is taken
3379 as a recipient address to be tested for deliverability. The results are
3380 written to the standard output. If a test fails, and the caller is not an admin
3381 user, no details of the failure are output, because these might contain
3382 sensitive information such as usernames and passwords for database lookups.
3384 If no arguments are given, Exim runs in an interactive manner, prompting with a
3385 right angle bracket for addresses to be tested.
3387 Unlike the &%-be%& test option, you cannot arrange for Exim to use the
3388 &[readline()]& function, because it is running as &'root'& and there are
3389 security issues.
3391 Each address is handled as if it were the recipient address of a message
3392 (compare the &%-bv%& option). It is passed to the routers and the result is
3393 written to the standard output. However, any router that has
3394 &%no_address_test%& set is bypassed. This can make &%-bt%& easier to use for
3395 genuine routing tests if your first router passes everything to a scanner
3396 program.
3398 .cindex "return code" "for &%-bt%&"
3399 The return code is 2 if any address failed outright; it is 1 if no address
3400 failed outright but at least one could not be resolved for some reason. Return
3401 code 0 is given only when all addresses succeed.
3403 .cindex "duplicate addresses"
3404 &*Note*&: When actually delivering a message, Exim removes duplicate recipient
3405 addresses after routing is complete, so that only one delivery takes place.
3406 This does not happen when testing with &%-bt%&; the full results of routing are
3407 always shown.
3409 &*Warning*&: &%-bt%& can only do relatively simple testing. If any of the
3410 routers in the configuration makes any tests on the sender address of a
3411 message,
3412 .oindex "&%-f%&" "for address testing"
3413 you can use the &%-f%& option to set an appropriate sender when running
3414 &%-bt%& tests. Without it, the sender is assumed to be the calling user at the
3415 default qualifying domain. However, if you have set up (for example) routers
3416 whose behaviour depends on the contents of an incoming message, you cannot test
3417 those conditions using &%-bt%&. The &%-N%& option provides a possible way of
3418 doing such tests.
3420 .vitem &%-bV%&
3421 .oindex "&%-bV%&"
3422 .cindex "version number of Exim"
3423 This option causes Exim to write the current version number, compilation
3424 number, and compilation date of the &'exim'& binary to the standard output.
3425 It also lists the DBM library that is being used, the optional modules (such as
3426 specific lookup types), the drivers that are included in the binary, and the
3427 name of the runtime configuration file that is in use.
3429 As part of its operation, &%-bV%& causes Exim to read and syntax check its
3430 configuration file. However, this is a static check only. It cannot check
3431 values that are to be expanded. For example, although a misspelt ACL verb is
3432 detected, an error in the verb's arguments is not. You cannot rely on &%-bV%&
3433 alone to discover (for example) all the typos in the configuration; some
3434 realistic testing is needed. The &%-bh%& and &%-N%& options provide more
3435 dynamic testing facilities.
3437 .vitem &%-bv%&
3438 .oindex "&%-bv%&"
3439 .cindex "verifying address" "using &%-bv%&"
3440 .cindex "address" "verification"
3441 This option runs Exim in address verification mode, in which each argument is
3442 taken as a recipient address to be verified by the routers. (This does
3443 not involve any verification callouts). During normal operation, verification
3444 happens mostly as a consequence processing a &%verify%& condition in an ACL
3445 (see chapter &<<CHAPACL>>&). If you want to test an entire ACL, possibly
3446 including callouts, see the &%-bh%& and &%-bhc%& options.
3448 If verification fails, and the caller is not an admin user, no details of the
3449 failure are output, because these might contain sensitive information such as
3450 usernames and passwords for database lookups.
3452 If no arguments are given, Exim runs in an interactive manner, prompting with a
3453 right angle bracket for addresses to be verified.
3455 Unlike the &%-be%& test option, you cannot arrange for Exim to use the
3456 &[readline()]& function, because it is running as &'exim'& and there are
3457 security issues.
3459 Verification differs from address testing (the &%-bt%& option) in that routers
3460 that have &%no_verify%& set are skipped, and if the address is accepted by a
3461 router that has &%fail_verify%& set, verification fails. The address is
3462 verified as a recipient if &%-bv%& is used; to test verification for a sender
3463 address, &%-bvs%& should be used.
3465 If the &%-v%& option is not set, the output consists of a single line for each
3466 address, stating whether it was verified or not, and giving a reason in the
3467 latter case. Without &%-v%&, generating more than one address by redirection
3468 causes verification to end successfully, without considering the generated
3469 addresses. However, if just one address is generated, processing continues,
3470 and the generated address must verify successfully for the overall verification
3471 to succeed.
3473 When &%-v%& is set, more details are given of how the address has been handled,
3474 and in the case of address redirection, all the generated addresses are also
3475 considered. Verification may succeed for some and fail for others.
3477 The
3478 .cindex "return code" "for &%-bv%&"
3479 return code is 2 if any address failed outright; it is 1 if no address
3480 failed outright but at least one could not be resolved for some reason. Return
3481 code 0 is given only when all addresses succeed.
3483 If any of the routers in the configuration makes any tests on the sender
3484 address of a message, you should use the &%-f%& option to set an appropriate
3485 sender when running &%-bv%& tests. Without it, the sender is assumed to be the
3486 calling user at the default qualifying domain.
3488 .vitem &%-bvs%&
3489 .oindex "&%-bvs%&"
3490 This option acts like &%-bv%&, but verifies the address as a sender rather
3491 than a recipient address. This affects any rewriting and qualification that
3492 might happen.
3494 .vitem &%-bw%&
3495 .oindex "&%-bw%&"
3496 .cindex "daemon"
3497 .cindex "inetd"
3498 .cindex "inetd" "wait mode"
3499 This option runs Exim as a daemon, awaiting incoming SMTP connections,
3500 similarly to the &%-bd%& option. All port specifications on the command-line
3501 and in the configuration file are ignored. Queue-running may not be specified.
3503 In this mode, Exim expects to be passed a socket as fd 0 (stdin) which is
3504 listening for connections. This permits the system to start up and have
3505 inetd (or equivalent) listen on the SMTP ports, starting an Exim daemon for
3506 each port only when the first connection is received.
3508 If the option is given as &%-bw%&<&'time'&> then the time is a timeout, after
3509 which the daemon will exit, which should cause inetd to listen once more.
3511 .vitem &%-C%&&~<&'filelist'&>
3512 .oindex "&%-C%&"
3513 .cindex "configuration file" "alternate"
3514 .cindex "CONFIGURE_FILE"
3515 .cindex "alternate configuration file"
3516 This option causes Exim to find the runtime configuration file from the given
3517 list instead of from the list specified by the CONFIGURE_FILE
3518 compile-time setting. Usually, the list will consist of just a single filename,
3519 but it can be a colon-separated list of names. In this case, the first
3520 file that exists is used. Failure to open an existing file stops Exim from
3521 proceeding any further along the list, and an error is generated.
3523 When this option is used by a caller other than root, and the list is different
3524 from the compiled-in list, Exim gives up its root privilege immediately, and
3525 runs with the real and effective uid and gid set to those of the caller.
3526 However, if a TRUSTED_CONFIG_LIST file is defined in &_Local/Makefile_&, that
3527 file contains a list of full pathnames, one per line, for configuration files
3528 which are trusted. Root privilege is retained for any configuration file so
3529 listed, as long as the caller is the Exim user (or the user specified in the
3530 CONFIGURE_OWNER option, if any), and as long as the configuration file is
3531 not writeable by inappropriate users or groups.
3533 Leaving TRUSTED_CONFIG_LIST unset precludes the possibility of testing a
3534 configuration using &%-C%& right through message reception and delivery,
3535 even if the caller is root. The reception works, but by that time, Exim is
3536 running as the Exim user, so when it re-executes to regain privilege for the
3537 delivery, the use of &%-C%& causes privilege to be lost. However, root can
3538 test reception and delivery using two separate commands (one to put a message
3539 in the queue, using &%-odq%&, and another to do the delivery, using &%-M%&).
3541 If ALT_CONFIG_PREFIX is defined &_in Local/Makefile_&, it specifies a
3542 prefix string with which any file named in a &%-C%& command line option
3543 must start. In addition, the filename must not contain the sequence &`/../`&.
3544 However, if the value of the &%-C%& option is identical to the value of
3545 CONFIGURE_FILE in &_Local/Makefile_&, Exim ignores &%-C%& and proceeds as
3546 usual. There is no default setting for ALT_CONFIG_PREFIX; when it is
3547 unset, any filename can be used with &%-C%&.
3549 ALT_CONFIG_PREFIX can be used to confine alternative configuration files
3550 to a directory to which only root has access. This prevents someone who has
3551 broken into the Exim account from running a privileged Exim with an arbitrary
3552 configuration file.
3554 The &%-C%& facility is useful for ensuring that configuration files are
3555 syntactically correct, but cannot be used for test deliveries, unless the
3556 caller is privileged, or unless it is an exotic configuration that does not
3557 require privilege. No check is made on the owner or group of the files
3558 specified by this option.
3561 .vitem &%-D%&<&'macro'&>=<&'value'&>
3562 .oindex "&%-D%&"
3563 .cindex "macro" "setting on command line"
3564 This option can be used to override macro definitions in the configuration file
3565 (see section &<<SECTmacrodefs>>&). However, like &%-C%&, if it is used by an
3566 unprivileged caller, it causes Exim to give up its root privilege.
3567 If DISABLE_D_OPTION is defined in &_Local/Makefile_&, the use of &%-D%& is
3568 completely disabled, and its use causes an immediate error exit.
3570 If WHITELIST_D_MACROS is defined in &_Local/Makefile_& then it should be a
3571 colon-separated list of macros which are considered safe and, if &%-D%& only
3572 supplies macros from this list, and the values are acceptable, then Exim will
3573 not give up root privilege if the caller is root, the Exim run-time user, or
3574 the CONFIGURE_OWNER, if set. This is a transition mechanism and is expected
3575 to be removed in the future. Acceptable values for the macros satisfy the
3576 regexp: &`^[A-Za-z0-9_/.-]*$`&
3578 The entire option (including equals sign if present) must all be within one
3579 command line item. &%-D%& can be used to set the value of a macro to the empty
3580 string, in which case the equals sign is optional. These two commands are
3581 synonymous:
3582 .code
3583 exim -DABC ...
3584 exim -DABC= ...
3585 .endd
3586 To include spaces in a macro definition item, quotes must be used. If you use
3587 quotes, spaces are permitted around the macro name and the equals sign. For
3588 example:
3589 .code
3590 exim '-D ABC = something' ...
3591 .endd
3592 &%-D%& may be repeated up to 10 times on a command line.
3593 Only macro names up to 22 letters long can be set.
3596 .vitem &%-d%&<&'debug&~options'&>
3597 .oindex "&%-d%&"
3598 .cindex "debugging" "list of selectors"
3599 .cindex "debugging" "&%-d%& option"
3600 This option causes debugging information to be written to the standard
3601 error stream. It is restricted to admin users because debugging output may show
3602 database queries that contain password information. Also, the details of users'
3603 filter files should be protected. If a non-admin user uses &%-d%&, Exim
3604 writes an error message to the standard error stream and exits with a non-zero
3605 return code.
3607 When &%-d%& is used, &%-v%& is assumed. If &%-d%& is given on its own, a lot of
3608 standard debugging data is output. This can be reduced, or increased to include
3609 some more rarely needed information, by directly following &%-d%& with a string
3610 made up of names preceded by plus or minus characters. These add or remove sets
3611 of debugging data, respectively. For example, &%-d+filter%& adds filter
3612 debugging, whereas &%-d-all+filter%& selects only filter debugging. Note that
3613 no spaces are allowed in the debug setting. The available debugging categories
3614 are:
3615 .display
3616 &`acl `& ACL interpretation
3617 &`auth `& authenticators
3618 &`deliver `& general delivery logic
3619 &`dns `& DNS lookups (see also resolver)
3620 &`dnsbl `& DNS black list (aka RBL) code
3621 &`exec `& arguments for &[execv()]& calls
3622 &`expand `& detailed debugging for string expansions
3623 &`filter `& filter handling
3624 &`hints_lookup `& hints data lookups
3625 &`host_lookup `& all types of name-to-IP address handling
3626 &`ident `& ident lookup
3627 &`interface `& lists of local interfaces
3628 &`lists `& matching things in lists
3629 &`load `& system load checks
3630 &`local_scan `& can be used by &[local_scan()]& (see chapter &&&
3631 &<<CHAPlocalscan>>&)
3632 &`lookup `& general lookup code and all lookups
3633 &`memory `& memory handling
3634 &`noutf8 `& modifier: avoid UTF-8 line-drawing
3635 &`pid `& modifier: add pid to debug output lines
3636 &`process_info `& setting info for the process log
3637 &`queue_run `& queue runs
3638 &`receive `& general message reception logic
3639 &`resolver `& turn on the DNS resolver's debugging output
3640 &`retry `& retry handling
3641 &`rewrite `& address rewriting
3642 &`route `& address routing
3643 &`timestamp `& modifier: add timestamp to debug output lines
3644 &`tls `& TLS logic
3645 &`transport `& transports
3646 &`uid `& changes of uid/gid and looking up uid/gid
3647 &`verify `& address verification logic
3648 &`all `& almost all of the above (see below), and also &%-v%&
3649 .endd
3650 The &`all`& option excludes &`memory`& when used as &`+all`&, but includes it
3651 for &`-all`&. The reason for this is that &`+all`& is something that people
3652 tend to use when generating debug output for Exim maintainers. If &`+memory`&
3653 is included, an awful lot of output that is very rarely of interest is
3654 generated, so it now has to be explicitly requested. However, &`-all`& does
3655 turn everything off.
3657 .cindex "resolver, debugging output"
3658 .cindex "DNS resolver, debugging output"
3659 The &`resolver`& option produces output only if the DNS resolver was compiled
3660 with DEBUG enabled. This is not the case in some operating systems. Also,
3661 unfortunately, debugging output from the DNS resolver is written to stdout
3662 rather than stderr.
3664 The default (&%-d%& with no argument) omits &`expand`&, &`filter`&,
3665 &`interface`&, &`load`&, &`memory`&, &`pid`&, &`resolver`&, and &`timestamp`&.
3666 However, the &`pid`& selector is forced when debugging is turned on for a
3667 daemon, which then passes it on to any re-executed Exims. Exim also
3668 automatically adds the pid to debug lines when several remote deliveries are
3669 run in parallel.
3671 The &`timestamp`& selector causes the current time to be inserted at the start
3672 of all debug output lines. This can be useful when trying to track down delays
3673 in processing.
3675 .cindex debugging "UTF-8 in"
3676 .cindex UTF-8 "in debug output"
3677 The &`noutf8`& selector disables the use of
3678 UTF-8 line-drawing characters to group related information.
3679 When disabled. ascii-art is used instead.
3680 Using the &`+all`& option does not set this modifier,
3682 If the &%debug_print%& option is set in any driver, it produces output whenever
3683 any debugging is selected, or if &%-v%& is used.
3685 .vitem &%-dd%&<&'debug&~options'&>
3686 .oindex "&%-dd%&"
3687 This option behaves exactly like &%-d%& except when used on a command that
3688 starts a daemon process. In that case, debugging is turned off for the
3689 subprocesses that the daemon creates. Thus, it is useful for monitoring the
3690 behaviour of the daemon without creating as much output as full debugging does.
3692 .vitem &%-dropcr%&
3693 .oindex "&%-dropcr%&"
3694 This is an obsolete option that is now a no-op. It used to affect the way Exim
3695 handled CR and LF characters in incoming messages. What happens now is
3696 described in section &<<SECTlineendings>>&.
3698 .vitem &%-E%&
3699 .oindex "&%-E%&"
3700 .cindex "bounce message" "generating"
3701 This option specifies that an incoming message is a locally-generated delivery
3702 failure report. It is used internally by Exim when handling delivery failures
3703 and is not intended for external use. Its only effect is to stop Exim
3704 generating certain messages to the postmaster, as otherwise message cascades
3705 could occur in some situations. As part of the same option, a message id may
3706 follow the characters &%-E%&. If it does, the log entry for the receipt of the
3707 new message contains the id, following &"R="&, as a cross-reference.
3709 .vitem &%-e%&&'x'&
3710 .oindex "&%-e%&&'x'&"
3711 There are a number of Sendmail options starting with &%-oe%& which seem to be
3712 called by various programs without the leading &%o%& in the option. For
3713 example, the &%vacation%& program uses &%-eq%&. Exim treats all options of the
3714 form &%-e%&&'x'& as synonymous with the corresponding &%-oe%&&'x'& options.
3716 .vitem &%-F%&&~<&'string'&>
3717 .oindex "&%-F%&"
3718 .cindex "sender" "name"
3719 .cindex "name" "of sender"
3720 This option sets the sender's full name for use when a locally-generated
3721 message is being accepted. In the absence of this option, the user's &'gecos'&
3722 entry from the password data is used. As users are generally permitted to alter
3723 their &'gecos'& entries, no security considerations are involved. White space
3724 between &%-F%& and the <&'string'&> is optional.
3726 .vitem &%-f%&&~<&'address'&>
3727 .oindex "&%-f%&"
3728 .cindex "sender" "address"
3729 .cindex "address" "sender"
3730 .cindex "trusted users"
3731 .cindex "envelope from"
3732 .cindex "envelope sender"
3733 .cindex "user" "trusted"
3734 This option sets the address of the envelope sender of a locally-generated
3735 message (also known as the return path). The option can normally be used only
3736 by a trusted user, but &%untrusted_set_sender%& can be set to allow untrusted
3737 users to use it.
3739 Processes running as root or the Exim user are always trusted. Other
3740 trusted users are defined by the &%trusted_users%& or &%trusted_groups%&
3741 options. In the absence of &%-f%&, or if the caller is not trusted, the sender
3742 of a local message is set to the caller's login name at the default qualify
3743 domain.
3745 There is one exception to the restriction on the use of &%-f%&: an empty sender
3746 can be specified by any user, trusted or not, to create a message that can
3747 never provoke a bounce. An empty sender can be specified either as an empty
3748 string, or as a pair of angle brackets with nothing between them, as in these
3749 examples of shell commands:
3750 .code
3751 exim -f '<>' user@domain
3752 exim -f "" user@domain
3753 .endd
3754 In addition, the use of &%-f%& is not restricted when testing a filter file
3755 with &%-bf%& or when testing or verifying addresses using the &%-bt%& or
3756 &%-bv%& options.
3758 Allowing untrusted users to change the sender address does not of itself make
3759 it possible to send anonymous mail. Exim still checks that the &'From:'& header
3760 refers to the local user, and if it does not, it adds a &'Sender:'& header,
3761 though this can be overridden by setting &%no_local_from_check%&.
3763 White
3764 .cindex "&""From""& line"
3765 space between &%-f%& and the <&'address'&> is optional (that is, they can be
3766 given as two arguments or one combined argument). The sender of a
3767 locally-generated message can also be set (when permitted) by an initial
3768 &"From&~"& line in the message &-- see the description of &%-bm%& above &-- but
3769 if &%-f%& is also present, it overrides &"From&~"&.
3771 .vitem &%-G%&
3772 .oindex "&%-G%&"
3773 .cindex "submission fixups, suppressing (command-line)"
3774 This option is equivalent to an ACL applying:
3775 .code
3776 control = suppress_local_fixups
3777 .endd
3778 for every message received. Note that Sendmail will complain about such
3779 bad formatting, where Exim silently just does not fix it up. This may change
3780 in future.
3782 As this affects audit information, the caller must be a trusted user to use
3783 this option.
3785 .vitem &%-h%&&~<&'number'&>
3786 .oindex "&%-h%&"
3787 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&%-h%& option ignored"
3788 This option is accepted for compatibility with Sendmail, but has no effect. (In
3789 Sendmail it overrides the &"hop count"& obtained by counting &'Received:'&
3790 headers.)
3792 .vitem &%-i%&
3793 .oindex "&%-i%&"
3794 .cindex "Solaris" "&'mail'& command"
3795 .cindex "dot" "in incoming non-SMTP message"
3796 This option, which has the same effect as &%-oi%&, specifies that a dot on a
3797 line by itself should not terminate an incoming, non-SMTP message. I can find
3798 no documentation for this option in Solaris 2.4 Sendmail, but the &'mailx'&
3799 command in Solaris 2.4 uses it. See also &%-ti%&.
3801 .vitem &%-L%&&~<&'tag'&>
3802 .oindex "&%-L%&"
3803 .cindex "syslog" "process name; set with flag"
3804 This option is equivalent to setting &%syslog_processname%& in the config
3805 file and setting &%log_file_path%& to &`syslog`&.
3806 Its use is restricted to administrators. The configuration file has to be
3807 read and parsed, to determine access rights, before this is set and takes
3808 effect, so early configuration file errors will not honour this flag.
3810 The tag should not be longer than 32 characters.
3812 .vitem &%-M%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3813 .oindex "&%-M%&"
3814 .cindex "forcing delivery"
3815 .cindex "delivery" "forcing attempt"
3816 .cindex "frozen messages" "forcing delivery"
3817 This option requests Exim to run a delivery attempt on each message in turn. If
3818 any of the messages are frozen, they are automatically thawed before the
3819 delivery attempt. The settings of &%queue_domains%&, &%queue_smtp_domains%&,
3820 and &%hold_domains%& are ignored.
3822 Retry
3823 .cindex "hints database" "overriding retry hints"
3824 hints for any of the addresses are overridden &-- Exim tries to deliver even if
3825 the normal retry time has not yet been reached. This option requires the caller
3826 to be an admin user. However, there is an option called &%prod_requires_admin%&
3827 which can be set false to relax this restriction (and also the same requirement
3828 for the &%-q%&, &%-R%&, and &%-S%& options).
3830 The deliveries happen synchronously, that is, the original Exim process does
3831 not terminate until all the delivery attempts have finished. No output is
3832 produced unless there is a serious error. If you want to see what is happening,
3833 use the &%-v%& option as well, or inspect Exim's main log.
3835 .vitem &%-Mar%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'address'&>&~<&'address'&>&~...
3836 .oindex "&%-Mar%&"
3837 .cindex "message" "adding recipients"
3838 .cindex "recipient" "adding"
3839 This option requests Exim to add the addresses to the list of recipients of the
3840 message (&"ar"& for &"add recipients"&). The first argument must be a message
3841 id, and the remaining ones must be email addresses. However, if the message is
3842 active (in the middle of a delivery attempt), it is not altered. This option
3843 can be used only by an admin user.
3845 .vitem "&%-MC%&&~<&'transport'&>&~<&'hostname'&>&~<&'sequence&~number'&>&&&
3846 &~<&'message&~id'&>"
3847 .oindex "&%-MC%&"
3848 .cindex "SMTP" "passed connection"
3849 .cindex "SMTP" "multiple deliveries"
3850 .cindex "multiple SMTP deliveries"
3851 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3852 by Exim to invoke another instance of itself to deliver a waiting message using
3853 an existing SMTP connection, which is passed as the standard input. Details are
3854 given in chapter &<<CHAPSMTP>>&. This must be the final option, and the caller
3855 must be root or the Exim user in order to use it.
3857 .vitem &%-MCA%&
3858 .oindex "&%-MCA%&"
3859 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3860 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option. It signifies that the
3861 connection to the remote host has been authenticated.
3863 .vitem &%-MCD%&
3864 .oindex "&%-MCD%&"
3865 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3866 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option. It signifies that the
3867 remote host supports the ESMTP &_DSN_& extension.
3869 .vitem &%-MCG%&&~<&'queue&~name'&>
3870 .oindex "&%-MCG%&"
3871 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3872 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option. It signifies that an
3873 alternate queue is used, named by the following argument.
3875 .vitem &%-MCK%&
3876 .oindex "&%-MCK%&"
3877 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3878 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option. It signifies that a
3879 remote host supports the ESMTP &_CHUNKING_& extension.
3881 .vitem &%-MCP%&
3882 .oindex "&%-MCP%&"
3883 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3884 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option. It signifies that the server to
3885 which Exim is connected supports pipelining.
3887 .vitem &%-MCQ%&&~<&'process&~id'&>&~<&'pipe&~fd'&>
3888 .oindex "&%-MCQ%&"
3889 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3890 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option when the original delivery was
3891 started by a queue runner. It passes on the process id of the queue runner,
3892 together with the file descriptor number of an open pipe. Closure of the pipe
3893 signals the final completion of the sequence of processes that are passing
3894 messages through the same SMTP connection.
3896 .vitem &%-MCS%&
3897 .oindex "&%-MCS%&"
3898 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3899 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option, and passes on the fact that the
3900 SMTP SIZE option should be used on messages delivered down the existing
3901 connection.
3903 .vitem &%-MCT%&
3904 .oindex "&%-MCT%&"
3905 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3906 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option, and passes on the fact that the
3907 host to which Exim is connected supports TLS encryption.
3909 .vitem &%-MCt%&&~<&'IP&~address'&>&~<&'port'&>&~<&'cipher'&>
3910 .oindex "&%-MCt%&"
3911 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3912 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option, and passes on the fact that the
3913 connection is being proxied by a parent process for handling TLS encryption.
3914 The arguments give the local address and port being proxied, and the TLS cipher.
3916 .vitem &%-Mc%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3917 .oindex "&%-Mc%&"
3918 .cindex "hints database" "not overridden by &%-Mc%&"
3919 .cindex "delivery" "manually started &-- not forced"
3920 This option requests Exim to run a delivery attempt on each message, in turn,
3921 but unlike the &%-M%& option, it does check for retry hints, and respects any
3922 that are found. This option is not very useful to external callers. It is
3923 provided mainly for internal use by Exim when it needs to re-invoke itself in
3924 order to regain root privilege for a delivery (see chapter &<<CHAPsecurity>>&).
3925 However, &%-Mc%& can be useful when testing, in order to run a delivery that
3926 respects retry times and other options such as &%hold_domains%& that are
3927 overridden when &%-M%& is used. Such a delivery does not count as a queue run.
3928 If you want to run a specific delivery as if in a queue run, you should use
3929 &%-q%& with a message id argument. A distinction between queue run deliveries
3930 and other deliveries is made in one or two places.
3932 .vitem &%-Mes%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'address'&>
3933 .oindex "&%-Mes%&"
3934 .cindex "message" "changing sender"
3935 .cindex "sender" "changing"
3936 This option requests Exim to change the sender address in the message to the
3937 given address, which must be a fully qualified address or &"<>"& (&"es"& for
3938 &"edit sender"&). There must be exactly two arguments. The first argument must
3939 be a message id, and the second one an email address. However, if the message
3940 is active (in the middle of a delivery attempt), its status is not altered.
3941 This option can be used only by an admin user.
3943 .vitem &%-Mf%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3944 .oindex "&%-Mf%&"
3945 .cindex "freezing messages"
3946 .cindex "message" "manually freezing"
3947 This option requests Exim to mark each listed message as &"frozen"&. This
3948 prevents any delivery attempts taking place until the message is &"thawed"&,
3949 either manually or as a result of the &%auto_thaw%& configuration option.
3950 However, if any of the messages are active (in the middle of a delivery
3951 attempt), their status is not altered. This option can be used only by an admin
3952 user.
3954 .vitem &%-Mg%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3955 .oindex "&%-Mg%&"
3956 .cindex "giving up on messages"
3957 .cindex "message" "abandoning delivery attempts"
3958 .cindex "delivery" "abandoning further attempts"
3959 This option requests Exim to give up trying to deliver the listed messages,
3960 including any that are frozen. However, if any of the messages are active,
3961 their status is not altered. For non-bounce messages, a delivery error message
3962 is sent to the sender, containing the text &"cancelled by administrator"&.
3963 Bounce messages are just discarded. This option can be used only by an admin
3964 user.
3966 .vitem &%-MG%&&~<&'queue&~name'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3967 .oindex "&%-MG%&"
3968 .cindex queue named
3969 .cindex "named queues"
3970 .cindex "queue" "moving messages"
3971 This option requests that each listed message be moved from its current
3972 queue to the given named queue.
3973 The destination queue name argument is required, but can be an empty
3974 string to define the default queue.
3975 If the messages are not currently located in the default queue,
3976 a &%-qG<name>%& option will be required to define the source queue.
3978 .vitem &%-Mmad%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3979 .oindex "&%-Mmad%&"
3980 .cindex "delivery" "cancelling all"
3981 This option requests Exim to mark all the recipient addresses in the messages
3982 as already delivered (&"mad"& for &"mark all delivered"&). However, if any
3983 message is active (in the middle of a delivery attempt), its status is not
3984 altered. This option can be used only by an admin user.
3986 .vitem &%-Mmd%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'address'&>&~<&'address'&>&~...
3987 .oindex "&%-Mmd%&"
3988 .cindex "delivery" "cancelling by address"
3989 .cindex "recipient" "removing"
3990 .cindex "removing recipients"
3991 This option requests Exim to mark the given addresses as already delivered
3992 (&"md"& for &"mark delivered"&). The first argument must be a message id, and
3993 the remaining ones must be email addresses. These are matched to recipient
3994 addresses in the message in a case-sensitive manner. If the message is active
3995 (in the middle of a delivery attempt), its status is not altered. This option
3996 can be used only by an admin user.
3998 .vitem &%-Mrm%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3999 .oindex "&%-Mrm%&"
4000 .cindex "removing messages"
4001 .cindex "abandoning mail"
4002 .cindex "message" "manually discarding"
4003 This option requests Exim to remove the given messages from the queue. No
4004 bounce messages are sent; each message is simply forgotten. However, if any of
4005 the messages are active, their status is not altered. This option can be used
4006 only by an admin user or by the user who originally caused the message to be
4007 placed in the queue.
4009 . .new
4010 . .vitem &%-MS%&
4011 . .oindex "&%-MS%&"
4012 . .cindex REQUIRETLS
4013 . This option is used to request REQUIRETLS processing on the message.
4014 . It is used internally by Exim in conjunction with -E when generating
4015 . a bounce message.
4016 . .wen
4018 .vitem &%-Mset%&&~<&'message&~id'&>
4019 .oindex "&%-Mset%&"
4020 .cindex "testing" "string expansion"
4021 .cindex "expansion" "testing"
4022 This option is useful only in conjunction with &%-be%& (that is, when testing
4023 string expansions). Exim loads the given message from its spool before doing
4024 the test expansions, thus setting message-specific variables such as
4025 &$message_size$& and the header variables. The &$recipients$& variable is made
4026 available. This feature is provided to make it easier to test expansions that
4027 make use of these variables. However, this option can be used only by an admin
4028 user. See also &%-bem%&.
4030 .vitem &%-Mt%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
4031 .oindex "&%-Mt%&"
4032 .cindex "thawing messages"
4033 .cindex "unfreezing messages"
4034 .cindex "frozen messages" "thawing"
4035 .cindex "message" "thawing frozen"
4036 This option requests Exim to &"thaw"& any of the listed messages that are
4037 &"frozen"&, so that delivery attempts can resume. However, if any of the
4038 messages are active, their status is not altered. This option can be used only
4039 by an admin user.
4041 .vitem &%-Mvb%&&~<&'message&~id'&>
4042 .oindex "&%-Mvb%&"
4043 .cindex "listing" "message body"
4044 .cindex "message" "listing body of"
4045 This option causes the contents of the message body (-D) spool file to be
4046 written to the standard output. This option can be used only by an admin user.
4048 .vitem &%-Mvc%&&~<&'message&~id'&>
4049 .oindex "&%-Mvc%&"
4050 .cindex "message" "listing in RFC 2822 format"
4051 .cindex "listing" "message in RFC 2822 format"
4052 This option causes a copy of the complete message (header lines plus body) to
4053 be written to the standard output in RFC 2822 format. This option can be used
4054 only by an admin user.
4056 .vitem &%-Mvh%&&~<&'message&~id'&>
4057 .oindex "&%-Mvh%&"
4058 .cindex "listing" "message headers"
4059 .cindex "header lines" "listing"
4060 .cindex "message" "listing header lines"
4061 This option causes the contents of the message headers (-H) spool file to be
4062 written to the standard output. This option can be used only by an admin user.
4064 .vitem &%-Mvl%&&~<&'message&~id'&>
4065 .oindex "&%-Mvl%&"
4066 .cindex "listing" "message log"
4067 .cindex "message" "listing message log"
4068 This option causes the contents of the message log spool file to be written to
4069 the standard output. This option can be used only by an admin user.
4071 .vitem &%-m%&
4072 .oindex "&%-m%&"
4073 This is apparently a synonym for &%-om%& that is accepted by Sendmail, so Exim
4074 treats it that way too.
4076 .vitem &%-N%&
4077 .oindex "&%-N%&"
4078 .cindex "debugging" "&%-N%& option"
4079 .cindex "debugging" "suppressing delivery"
4080 This is a debugging option that inhibits delivery of a message at the transport
4081 level. It implies &%-v%&. Exim goes through many of the motions of delivery &--
4082 it just doesn't actually transport the message, but instead behaves as if it
4083 had successfully done so. However, it does not make any updates to the retry
4084 database, and the log entries for deliveries are flagged with &"*>"& rather
4085 than &"=>"&.
4087 Because &%-N%& discards any message to which it applies, only root or the Exim
4088 user are allowed to use it with &%-bd%&, &%-q%&, &%-R%& or &%-M%&. In other
4089 words, an ordinary user can use it only when supplying an incoming message to
4090 which it will apply. Although transportation never fails when &%-N%& is set, an
4091 address may be deferred because of a configuration problem on a transport, or a
4092 routing problem. Once &%-N%& has been used for a delivery attempt, it sticks to
4093 the message, and applies to any subsequent delivery attempts that may happen
4094 for that message.
4096 .vitem &%-n%&
4097 .oindex "&%-n%&"
4098 This option is interpreted by Sendmail to mean &"no aliasing"&.
4099 For normal modes of operation, it is ignored by Exim.
4100 When combined with &%-bP%& it makes the output more terse (suppresses
4101 option names, environment values and config pretty printing).
4103 .vitem &%-O%&&~<&'data'&>
4104 .oindex "&%-O%&"
4105 This option is interpreted by Sendmail to mean &`set option`&. It is ignored by
4106 Exim.
4108 .vitem &%-oA%&&~<&'file&~name'&>
4109 .oindex "&%-oA%&"
4110 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&%-oA%& option"
4111 This option is used by Sendmail in conjunction with &%-bi%& to specify an
4112 alternative alias filename. Exim handles &%-bi%& differently; see the
4113 description above.
4115 .vitem &%-oB%&&~<&'n'&>
4116 .oindex "&%-oB%&"
4117 .cindex "SMTP" "passed connection"
4118 .cindex "SMTP" "multiple deliveries"
4119 .cindex "multiple SMTP deliveries"
4120 This is a debugging option which limits the maximum number of messages that can
4121 be delivered down one SMTP connection, overriding the value set in any &(smtp)&
4122 transport. If <&'n'&> is omitted, the limit is set to 1.
4124 .vitem &%-odb%&
4125 .oindex "&%-odb%&"
4126 .cindex "background delivery"
4127 .cindex "delivery" "in the background"
4128 This option applies to all modes in which Exim accepts incoming messages,
4129 including the listening daemon. It requests &"background"& delivery of such
4130 messages, which means that the accepting process automatically starts a
4131 delivery process for each message received, but does not wait for the delivery
4132 processes to finish.
4134 When all the messages have been received, the reception process exits,
4135 leaving the delivery processes to finish in their own time. The standard output
4136 and error streams are closed at the start of each delivery process.
4137 This is the default action if none of the &%-od%& options are present.
4139 If one of the queueing options in the configuration file
4140 (&%queue_only%& or &%queue_only_file%&, for example) is in effect, &%-odb%&
4141 overrides it if &%queue_only_override%& is set true, which is the default
4142 setting. If &%queue_only_override%& is set false, &%-odb%& has no effect.
4144 .vitem &%-odf%&
4145 .oindex "&%-odf%&"
4146 .cindex "foreground delivery"
4147 .cindex "delivery" "in the foreground"
4148 This option requests &"foreground"& (synchronous) delivery when Exim has
4149 accepted a locally-generated message. (For the daemon it is exactly the same as
4150 &%-odb%&.) A delivery process is automatically started to deliver the message,
4151 and Exim waits for it to complete before proceeding.
4153 The original Exim reception process does not finish until the delivery
4154 process for the final message has ended. The standard error stream is left open
4155 during deliveries.
4157 However, like &%-odb%&, this option has no effect if &%queue_only_override%& is
4158 false and one of the queueing options in the configuration file is in effect.
4160 If there is a temporary delivery error during foreground delivery, the
4161 message is left in the queue for later delivery, and the original reception
4162 process exits. See chapter &<<CHAPnonqueueing>>& for a way of setting up a
4163 restricted configuration that never queues messages.
4166 .vitem &%-odi%&
4167 .oindex "&%-odi%&"
4168 This option is synonymous with &%-odf%&. It is provided for compatibility with
4169 Sendmail.
4171 .vitem &%-odq%&
4172 .oindex "&%-odq%&"
4173 .cindex "non-immediate delivery"
4174 .cindex "delivery" "suppressing immediate"
4175 .cindex "queueing incoming messages"
4176 This option applies to all modes in which Exim accepts incoming messages,
4177 including the listening daemon. It specifies that the accepting process should
4178 not automatically start a delivery process for each message received. Messages
4179 are placed in the queue, and remain there until a subsequent queue runner
4180 process encounters them. There are several configuration options (such as
4181 &%queue_only%&) that can be used to queue incoming messages under certain
4182 conditions. This option overrides all of them and also &%-odqs%&. It always
4183 forces queueing.
4185 .vitem &%-odqs%&
4186 .oindex "&%-odqs%&"
4187 .cindex "SMTP" "delaying delivery"
4188 This option is a hybrid between &%-odb%&/&%-odi%& and &%-odq%&.
4189 However, like &%-odb%& and &%-odi%&, this option has no effect if
4190 &%queue_only_override%& is false and one of the queueing options in the
4191 configuration file is in effect.
4193 When &%-odqs%& does operate, a delivery process is started for each incoming
4194 message, in the background by default, but in the foreground if &%-odi%& is
4195 also present. The recipient addresses are routed, and local deliveries are done
4196 in the normal way. However, if any SMTP deliveries are required, they are not
4197 done at this time, so the message remains in the queue until a subsequent queue
4198 runner process encounters it. Because routing was done, Exim knows which
4199 messages are waiting for which hosts, and so a number of messages for the same
4200 host can be sent in a single SMTP connection. The &%queue_smtp_domains%&
4201 configuration option has the same effect for specific domains. See also the
4202 &%-qq%& option.
4204 .vitem &%-oee%&
4205 .oindex "&%-oee%&"
4206 .cindex "error" "reporting"
4207 If an error is detected while a non-SMTP message is being received (for
4208 example, a malformed address), the error is reported to the sender in a mail
4209 message.
4211 .cindex "return code" "for &%-oee%&"
4212 Provided
4213 this error message is successfully sent, the Exim receiving process
4214 exits with a return code of zero. If not, the return code is 2 if the problem
4215 is that the original message has no recipients, or 1 for any other error.
4216 This is the default &%-oe%&&'x'& option if Exim is called as &'rmail'&.
4218 .vitem &%-oem%&
4219 .oindex "&%-oem%&"
4220 .cindex "error" "reporting"
4221 .cindex "return code" "for &%-oem%&"
4222 This is the same as &%-oee%&, except that Exim always exits with a non-zero
4223 return code, whether or not the error message was successfully sent.
4224 This is the default &%-oe%&&'x'& option, unless Exim is called as &'rmail'&.
4226 .vitem &%-oep%&
4227 .oindex "&%-oep%&"
4228 .cindex "error" "reporting"
4229 If an error is detected while a non-SMTP message is being received, the
4230 error is reported by writing a message to the standard error file (stderr).
4231 .cindex "return code" "for &%-oep%&"
4232 The return code is 1 for all errors.
4234 .vitem &%-oeq%&
4235 .oindex "&%-oeq%&"
4236 .cindex "error" "reporting"
4237 This option is supported for compatibility with Sendmail, but has the same
4238 effect as &%-oep%&.
4240 .vitem &%-oew%&
4241 .oindex "&%-oew%&"
4242 .cindex "error" "reporting"
4243 This option is supported for compatibility with Sendmail, but has the same
4244 effect as &%-oem%&.
4246 .vitem &%-oi%&
4247 .oindex "&%-oi%&"
4248 .cindex "dot" "in incoming non-SMTP message"
4249 This option, which has the same effect as &%-i%&, specifies that a dot on a
4250 line by itself should not terminate an incoming, non-SMTP message. Otherwise, a
4251 single dot does terminate, though Exim does no special processing for other
4252 lines that start with a dot. This option is set by default if Exim is called as
4253 &'rmail'&. See also &%-ti%&.
4255 .vitem &%-oitrue%&
4256 .oindex "&%-oitrue%&"
4257 This option is treated as synonymous with &%-oi%&.
4259 .vitem &%-oMa%&&~<&'host&~address'&>
4260 .oindex "&%-oMa%&"
4261 .cindex "sender" "host address, specifying for local message"
4262 A number of options starting with &%-oM%& can be used to set values associated
4263 with remote hosts on locally-submitted messages (that is, messages not received
4264 over TCP/IP). These options can be used by any caller in conjunction with the
4265 &%-bh%&, &%-be%&, &%-bf%&, &%-bF%&, &%-bt%&, or &%-bv%& testing options. In
4266 other circumstances, they are ignored unless the caller is trusted.
4268 The &%-oMa%& option sets the sender host address. This may include a port
4269 number at the end, after a full stop (period). For example:
4270 .code
4271 exim -bs -oMa
4272 .endd
4273 An alternative syntax is to enclose the IP address in square brackets,
4274 followed by a colon and the port number:
4275 .code
4276 exim -bs -oMa []:1234
4277 .endd
4278 The IP address is placed in the &$sender_host_address$& variable, and the
4279 port, if present, in &$sender_host_port$&. If both &%-oMa%& and &%-bh%&
4280 are present on the command line, the sender host IP address is taken from
4281 whichever one is last.
4283 .vitem &%-oMaa%&&~<&'name'&>
4284 .oindex "&%-oMaa%&"
4285 .cindex "authentication" "name, specifying for local message"
4286 See &%-oMa%& above for general remarks about the &%-oM%& options. The &%-oMaa%&
4287 option sets the value of &$sender_host_authenticated$& (the authenticator
4288 name). See chapter &<<CHAPSMTPAUTH>>& for a discussion of SMTP authentication.
4289 This option can be used with &%-bh%& and &%-bs%& to set up an
4290 authenticated SMTP session without actually using the SMTP AUTH command.
4292 .vitem &%-oMai%&&~<&'string'&>
4293 .oindex "&%-oMai%&"
4294 .cindex "authentication" "id, specifying for local message"
4295 See &%-oMa%& above for general remarks about the &%-oM%& options. The &%-oMai%&
4296 option sets the value of &$authenticated_id$& (the id that was authenticated).
4297 This overrides the default value (the caller's login id, except with &%-bh%&,
4298 where there is no default) for messages from local sources. See chapter
4299 &<<CHAPSMTPAUTH>>& for a discussion of authenticated ids.
4301 .vitem &%-oMas%&&~<&'address'&>
4302 .oindex "&%-oMas%&"
4303 .cindex "authentication" "sender, specifying for local message"
4304 See &%-oMa%& above for general remarks about the &%-oM%& options. The &%-oMas%&
4305 option sets the authenticated sender value in &$authenticated_sender$&. It
4306 overrides the sender address that is created from the caller's login id for
4307 messages from local sources, except when &%-bh%& is used, when there is no
4308 default. For both &%-bh%& and &%-bs%&, an authenticated sender that is
4309 specified on a MAIL command overrides this value. See chapter
4310 &<<CHAPSMTPAUTH>>& for a discussion of authenticated senders.
4312 .vitem &%-oMi%&&~<&'interface&~address'&>
4313 .oindex "&%-oMi%&"
4314 .cindex "interface" "address, specifying for local message"
4315 See &%-oMa%& above for general remarks about the &%-oM%& options. The &%-oMi%&
4316 option sets the IP interface address value. A port number may be included,
4317 using the same syntax as for &%-oMa%&. The interface address is placed in
4318 &$received_ip_address$& and the port number, if present, in &$received_port$&.
4320 .vitem &%-oMm%&&~<&'message&~reference'&>
4321 .oindex "&%-oMm%&"
4322 .cindex "message reference" "message reference, specifying for local message"
4323 See &%-oMa%& above for general remarks about the &%-oM%& options. The &%-oMm%&
4324 option sets the message reference, e.g. message-id, and is logged during
4325 delivery. This is useful when some kind of audit trail is required to tie
4326 messages together. The format of the message reference is checked and will
4327 abort if the format is invalid. The option will only be accepted if exim is
4328 running in trusted mode, not as any regular user.
4330 The best example of a message reference is when Exim sends a bounce message.
4331 The message reference is the message-id of the original message for which Exim
4332 is sending the bounce.
4334 .vitem &%-oMr%&&~<&'protocol&~name'&>
4335 .oindex "&%-oMr%&"
4336 .cindex "protocol, specifying for local message"
4337 .vindex "&$received_protocol$&"
4338 See &%-oMa%& above for general remarks about the &%-oM%& options. The &%-oMr%&
4339 option sets the received protocol value that is stored in
4340 &$received_protocol$&. However, it does not apply (and is ignored) when &%-bh%&
4341 or &%-bs%& is used. For &%-bh%&, the protocol is forced to one of the standard
4342 SMTP protocol names (see the description of &$received_protocol$& in section
4343 &<<SECTexpvar>>&). For &%-bs%&, the protocol is always &"local-"& followed by
4344 one of those same names. For &%-bS%& (batched SMTP) however, the protocol can
4345 be set by &%-oMr%&. Repeated use of this option is not supported.
4347 .vitem &%-oMs%&&~<&'host&~name'&>
4348 .oindex "&%-oMs%&"
4349 .cindex "sender" "host name, specifying for local message"
4350 See &%-oMa%& above for general remarks about the &%-oM%& options. The &%-oMs%&
4351 option sets the sender host name in &$sender_host_name$&. When this option is
4352 present, Exim does not attempt to look up a host name from an IP address; it
4353 uses the name it is given.
4355 .vitem &%-oMt%&&~<&'ident&~string'&>
4356 .oindex "&%-oMt%&"
4357 .cindex "sender" "ident string, specifying for local message"
4358 See &%-oMa%& above for general remarks about the &%-oM%& options. The &%-oMt%&
4359 option sets the sender ident value in &$sender_ident$&. The default setting for
4360 local callers is the login id of the calling process, except when &%-bh%& is
4361 used, when there is no default.
4363 .vitem &%-om%&
4364 .oindex "&%-om%&"
4365 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&%-om%& option ignored"
4366 In Sendmail, this option means &"me too"&, indicating that the sender of a
4367 message should receive a copy of the message if the sender appears in an alias
4368 expansion. Exim always does this, so the option does nothing.
4370 .vitem &%-oo%&
4371 .oindex "&%-oo%&"
4372 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&%-oo%& option ignored"
4373 This option is ignored. In Sendmail it specifies &"old style headers"&,
4374 whatever that means.
4376 .vitem &%-oP%&&~<&'path'&>
4377 .oindex "&%-oP%&"
4378 .cindex "pid (process id)" "of daemon"
4379 .cindex "daemon" "process id (pid)"
4380 This option is useful only in conjunction with &%-bd%& or &%-q%& with a time
4381 value. The option specifies the file to which the process id of the daemon is
4382 written. When &%-oX%& is used with &%-bd%&, or when &%-q%& with a time is used
4383 without &%-bd%&, this is the only way of causing Exim to write a pid file,
4384 because in those cases, the normal pid file is not used.
4386 .new
4387 .vitem &%-oPX%&
4388 .oindex "&%-oPX%&"
4389 .cindex "pid (process id)" "of daemon"
4390 .cindex "daemon" "process id (pid)"
4391 This option is not intended for general use.
4392 The daemon uses it when terminating due to a SIGTEM, possibly in
4393 combination with &%-oP%&&~<&'path'&>.
4394 It causes the pid file to be removed.
4395 .wen
4397 .vitem &%-or%&&~<&'time'&>
4398 .oindex "&%-or%&"
4399 .cindex "timeout" "for non-SMTP input"
4400 This option sets a timeout value for incoming non-SMTP messages. If it is not
4401 set, Exim will wait forever for the standard input. The value can also be set
4402 by the &%receive_timeout%& option. The format used for specifying times is
4403 described in section &<<SECTtimeformat>>&.
4405 .vitem &%-os%&&~<&'time'&>
4406 .oindex "&%-os%&"
4407 .cindex "timeout" "for SMTP input"
4408 .cindex "SMTP" "input timeout"
4409 This option sets a timeout value for incoming SMTP messages. The timeout
4410 applies to each SMTP command and block of data. The value can also be set by
4411 the &%smtp_receive_timeout%& option; it defaults to 5 minutes. The format used
4412 for specifying times is described in section &<<SECTtimeformat>>&.
4414 .vitem &%-ov%&
4415 .oindex "&%-ov%&"
4416 This option has exactly the same effect as &%-v%&.
4418 .vitem &%-oX%&&~<&'number&~or&~string'&>
4419 .oindex "&%-oX%&"
4420 .cindex "TCP/IP" "setting listening ports"
4421 .cindex "TCP/IP" "setting listening interfaces"
4422 .cindex "port" "receiving TCP/IP"
4423 This option is relevant only when the &%-bd%& (start listening daemon) option
4424 is also given. It controls which ports and interfaces the daemon uses. Details
4425 of the syntax, and how it interacts with configuration file options, are given
4426 in chapter &<<CHAPinterfaces>>&. When &%-oX%& is used to start a daemon, no pid
4427 file is written unless &%-oP%& is also present to specify a pid filename.
4429 .vitem &%-pd%&
4430 .oindex "&%-pd%&"
4431 .cindex "Perl" "starting the interpreter"
4432 This option applies when an embedded Perl interpreter is linked with Exim (see
4433 chapter &<<CHAPperl>>&). It overrides the setting of the &%perl_at_start%&
4434 option, forcing the starting of the interpreter to be delayed until it is
4435 needed.
4437 .vitem &%-ps%&
4438 .oindex "&%-ps%&"
4439 .cindex "Perl" "starting the interpreter"
4440 This option applies when an embedded Perl interpreter is linked with Exim (see
4441 chapter &<<CHAPperl>>&). It overrides the setting of the &%perl_at_start%&
4442 option, forcing the starting of the interpreter to occur as soon as Exim is
4443 started.
4445 .vitem &%-p%&<&'rval'&>:<&'sval'&>
4446 .oindex "&%-p%&"
4447 For compatibility with Sendmail, this option is equivalent to
4448 .display
4449 &`-oMr`& <&'rval'&> &`-oMs`& <&'sval'&>
4450 .endd
4451 It sets the incoming protocol and host name (for trusted callers). The
4452 host name and its colon can be omitted when only the protocol is to be set.
4453 Note the Exim already has two private options, &%-pd%& and &%-ps%&, that refer
4454 to embedded Perl. It is therefore impossible to set a protocol value of &`d`&
4455 or &`s`& using this option (but that does not seem a real limitation).
4456 Repeated use of this option is not supported.
4458 .vitem &%-q%&
4459 .oindex "&%-q%&"
4460 .cindex "queue runner" "starting manually"
4461 This option is normally restricted to admin users. However, there is a
4462 configuration option called &%prod_requires_admin%& which can be set false to
4463 relax this restriction (and also the same requirement for the &%-M%&, &%-R%&,
4464 and &%-S%& options).
4466 .cindex "queue runner" "description of operation"
4467 If other commandline options do not specify an action,
4468 the &%-q%& option starts one queue runner process. This scans the queue of
4469 waiting messages, and runs a delivery process for each one in turn. It waits
4470 for each delivery process to finish before starting the next one. A delivery
4471 process may not actually do any deliveries if the retry times for the addresses
4472 have not been reached. Use &%-qf%& (see below) if you want to override this.
4474 If
4475 .cindex "SMTP" "passed connection"
4476 .cindex "SMTP" "multiple deliveries"
4477 .cindex "multiple SMTP deliveries"
4478 the delivery process spawns other processes to deliver other messages down
4479 passed SMTP connections, the queue runner waits for these to finish before
4480 proceeding.
4482 When all the queued messages have been considered, the original queue runner
4483 process terminates. In other words, a single pass is made over the waiting
4484 mail, one message at a time. Use &%-q%& with a time (see below) if you want
4485 this to be repeated periodically.
4487 Exim processes the waiting messages in an unpredictable order. It isn't very
4488 random, but it is likely to be different each time, which is all that matters.
4489 If one particular message screws up a remote MTA, other messages to the same
4490 MTA have a chance of getting through if they get tried first.
4492 It is possible to cause the messages to be processed in lexical message id
4493 order, which is essentially the order in which they arrived, by setting the
4494 &%queue_run_in_order%& option, but this is not recommended for normal use.
4496 .vitem &%-q%&<&'qflags'&>
4497 The &%-q%& option may be followed by one or more flag letters that change its
4498 behaviour. They are all optional, but if more than one is present, they must
4499 appear in the correct order. Each flag is described in a separate item below.
4501 .vitem &%-qq...%&
4502 .oindex "&%-qq%&"
4503 .cindex "queue" "double scanning"
4504 .cindex "queue" "routing"
4505 .cindex "routing" "whole queue before delivery"
4506 An option starting with &%-qq%& requests a two-stage queue run. In the first
4507 stage, the queue is scanned as if the &%queue_smtp_domains%& option matched
4508 every domain. Addresses are routed, local deliveries happen, but no remote
4509 transports are run.
4511 .cindex "hints database" "remembering routing"
4512 The hints database that remembers which messages are waiting for specific hosts
4513 is updated, as if delivery to those hosts had been deferred. After this is
4514 complete, a second, normal queue scan happens, with routing and delivery taking
4515 place as normal. Messages that are routed to the same host should mostly be
4516 delivered down a single SMTP
4517 .cindex "SMTP" "passed connection"
4518 .cindex "SMTP" "multiple deliveries"
4519 .cindex "multiple SMTP deliveries"
4520 connection because of the hints that were set up during the first queue scan.
4521 This option may be useful for hosts that are connected to the Internet
4522 intermittently.
4524 .vitem &%-q[q]i...%&
4525 .oindex "&%-qi%&"
4526 .cindex "queue" "initial delivery"
4527 If the &'i'& flag is present, the queue runner runs delivery processes only for
4528 those messages that haven't previously been tried. (&'i'& stands for &"initial
4529 delivery"&.) This can be helpful if you are putting messages in the queue using
4530 &%-odq%& and want a queue runner just to process the new messages.
4532 .vitem &%-q[q][i]f...%&
4533 .oindex "&%-qf%&"
4534 .cindex "queue" "forcing delivery"
4535 .cindex "delivery" "forcing in queue run"
4536 If one &'f'& flag is present, a delivery attempt is forced for each non-frozen
4537 message, whereas without &'f'& only those non-frozen addresses that have passed
4538 their retry times are tried.
4540 .vitem &%-q[q][i]ff...%&
4541 .oindex "&%-qff%&"
4542 .cindex "frozen messages" "forcing delivery"
4543 If &'ff'& is present, a delivery attempt is forced for every message, whether
4544 frozen or not.
4546 .vitem &%-q[q][i][f[f]]l%&
4547 .oindex "&%-ql%&"
4548 .cindex "queue" "local deliveries only"
4549 The &'l'& (the letter &"ell"&) flag specifies that only local deliveries are to
4550 be done. If a message requires any remote deliveries, it remains in the queue
4551 for later delivery.
4553 .vitem &%-q[q][i][f[f]][l][G<name>[/<time>]]]%&
4554 .oindex "&%-qG%&"
4555 .cindex queue named
4556 .cindex "named queues"
4557 .cindex "queue" "delivering specific messages"
4558 If the &'G'& flag and a name is present, the queue runner operates on the
4559 queue with the given name rather than the default queue.
4560 The name should not contain a &'/'& character.
4561 For a periodic queue run (see below)
4562 append to the name a slash and a time value.
4564 If other commandline options specify an action, a &'-qG<name>'& option
4565 will specify a queue to operate on.
4566 For example:
4567 .code
4568 exim -bp -qGquarantine
4569 mailq -qGquarantine
4570 exim -qGoffpeak -Rf @special.domain.example
4571 .endd
4573 .vitem &%-q%&<&'qflags'&>&~<&'start&~id'&>&~<&'end&~id'&>
4574 When scanning the queue, Exim can be made to skip over messages whose ids are
4575 lexically less than a given value by following the &%-q%& option with a
4576 starting message id. For example:
4577 .code
4578 exim -q 0t5C6f-0000c8-00
4579 .endd
4580 Messages that arrived earlier than &`0t5C6f-0000c8-00`& are not inspected. If a
4581 second message id is given, messages whose ids are lexically greater than it
4582 are also skipped. If the same id is given twice, for example,
4583 .code
4584 exim -q 0t5C6f-0000c8-00 0t5C6f-0000c8-00
4585 .endd
4586 just one delivery process is started, for that message. This differs from
4587 &%-M%& in that retry data is respected, and it also differs from &%-Mc%& in
4588 that it counts as a delivery from a queue run. Note that the selection
4589 mechanism does not affect the order in which the messages are scanned. There
4590 are also other ways of selecting specific sets of messages for delivery in a
4591 queue run &-- see &%-R%& and &%-S%&.
4593 .vitem &%-q%&<&'qflags'&><&'time'&>
4594 .cindex "queue runner" "starting periodically"
4595 .cindex "periodic queue running"
4596 When a time value is present, the &%-q%& option causes Exim to run as a daemon,
4597 starting a queue runner process at intervals specified by the given time value
4598 (whose format is described in section &<<SECTtimeformat>>&). This form of the
4599 &%-q%& option is commonly combined with the &%-bd%& option, in which case a
4600 single daemon process handles both functions. A common way of starting up a
4601 combined daemon at system boot time is to use a command such as
4602 .code
4603 /usr/exim/bin/exim -bd -q30m
4604 .endd
4605 Such a daemon listens for incoming SMTP calls, and also starts a queue runner
4606 process every 30 minutes.
4608 When a daemon is started by &%-q%& with a time value, but without &%-bd%&, no
4609 pid file is written unless one is explicitly requested by the &%-oP%& option.
4611 .vitem &%-qR%&<&'rsflags'&>&~<&'string'&>
4612 .oindex "&%-qR%&"
4613 This option is synonymous with &%-R%&. It is provided for Sendmail
4614 compatibility.
4616 .vitem &%-qS%&<&'rsflags'&>&~<&'string'&>
4617 .oindex "&%-qS%&"
4618 This option is synonymous with &%-S%&.
4620 .vitem &%-R%&<&'rsflags'&>&~<&'string'&>
4621 .oindex "&%-R%&"
4622 .cindex "queue runner" "for specific recipients"
4623 .cindex "delivery" "to given domain"
4624 .cindex "domain" "delivery to"
4625 The <&'rsflags'&> may be empty, in which case the white space before the string
4626 is optional, unless the string is &'f'&, &'ff'&, &'r'&, &'rf'&, or &'rff'&,
4627 which are the possible values for <&'rsflags'&>. White space is required if
4628 <&'rsflags'&> is not empty.
4630 This option is similar to &%-q%& with no time value, that is, it causes Exim to
4631 perform a single queue run, except that, when scanning the messages on the
4632 queue, Exim processes only those that have at least one undelivered recipient
4633 address containing the given string, which is checked in a case-independent
4634 way. If the <&'rsflags'&> start with &'r'&, <&'string'&> is interpreted as a
4635 regular expression; otherwise it is a literal string.
4637 If you want to do periodic queue runs for messages with specific recipients,
4638 you can combine &%-R%& with &%-q%& and a time value. For example:
4639 .code
4640 exim -q25m -R @special.domain.example
4641 .endd
4642 This example does a queue run for messages with recipients in the given domain
4643 every 25 minutes. Any additional flags that are specified with &%-q%& are
4644 applied to each queue run.
4646 Once a message is selected for delivery by this mechanism, all its addresses
4647 are processed. For the first selected message, Exim overrides any retry
4648 information and forces a delivery attempt for each undelivered address. This
4649 means that if delivery of any address in the first message is successful, any
4650 existing retry information is deleted, and so delivery attempts for that
4651 address in subsequently selected messages (which are processed without forcing)
4652 will run. However, if delivery of any address does not succeed, the retry
4653 information is updated, and in subsequently selected messages, the failing
4654 address will be skipped.
4656 .cindex "frozen messages" "forcing delivery"
4657 If the <&'rsflags'&> contain &'f'& or &'ff'&, the delivery forcing applies to
4658 all selected messages, not just the first; frozen messages are included when
4659 &'ff'& is present.
4661 The &%-R%& option makes it straightforward to initiate delivery of all messages
4662 to a given domain after a host has been down for some time. When the SMTP
4663 command ETRN is accepted by its ACL (see chapter &<<CHAPACL>>&), its default
4664 effect is to run Exim with the &%-R%& option, but it can be configured to run
4665 an arbitrary command instead.
4667 .vitem &%-r%&
4668 .oindex "&%-r%&"
4669 This is a documented (for Sendmail) obsolete alternative name for &%-f%&.
4671 .vitem &%-S%&<&'rsflags'&>&~<&'string'&>
4672 .oindex "&%-S%&"
4673 .cindex "delivery" "from given sender"
4674 .cindex "queue runner" "for specific senders"
4675 This option acts like &%-R%& except that it checks the string against each
4676 message's sender instead of against the recipients. If &%-R%& is also set, both
4677 conditions must be met for a message to be selected. If either of the options
4678 has &'f'& or &'ff'& in its flags, the associated action is taken.
4680 .vitem &%-Tqt%&&~<&'times'&>
4681 .oindex "&%-Tqt%&"
4682 This is an option that is exclusively for use by the Exim testing suite. It is not
4683 recognized when Exim is run normally. It allows for the setting up of explicit
4684 &"queue times"& so that various warning/retry features can be tested.
4686 .vitem &%-t%&
4687 .oindex "&%-t%&"
4688 .cindex "recipient" "extracting from header lines"
4689 .cindex "&'Bcc:'& header line"
4690 .cindex "&'Cc:'& header line"
4691 .cindex "&'To:'& header line"
4692 When Exim is receiving a locally-generated, non-SMTP message on its standard
4693 input, the &%-t%& option causes the recipients of the message to be obtained
4694 from the &'To:'&, &'Cc:'&, and &'Bcc:'& header lines in the message instead of
4695 from the command arguments. The addresses are extracted before any rewriting
4696 takes place and the &'Bcc:'& header line, if present, is then removed.
4698 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&%-t%& option"
4699 If the command has any arguments, they specify addresses to which the message
4700 is &'not'& to be delivered. That is, the argument addresses are removed from
4701 the recipients list obtained from the headers. This is compatible with Smail 3
4702 and in accordance with the documented behaviour of several versions of
4703 Sendmail, as described in man pages on a number of operating systems (e.g.
4704 Solaris 8, IRIX 6.5, HP-UX 11). However, some versions of Sendmail &'add'&
4705 argument addresses to those obtained from the headers, and the O'Reilly
4706 Sendmail book documents it that way. Exim can be made to add argument addresses
4707 instead of subtracting them by setting the option
4708 &%extract_addresses_remove_arguments%& false.
4710 .cindex "&%Resent-%& header lines" "with &%-t%&"
4711 If there are any &%Resent-%& header lines in the message, Exim extracts
4712 recipients from all &'Resent-To:'&, &'Resent-Cc:'&, and &'Resent-Bcc:'& header
4713 lines instead of from &'To:'&, &'Cc:'&, and &'Bcc:'&. This is for compatibility
4714 with Sendmail and other MTAs. (Prior to release 4.20, Exim gave an error if
4715 &%-t%& was used in conjunction with &%Resent-%& header lines.)
4717 RFC 2822 talks about different sets of &%Resent-%& header lines (for when a
4718 message is resent several times). The RFC also specifies that they should be
4719 added at the front of the message, and separated by &'Received:'& lines. It is
4720 not at all clear how &%-t%& should operate in the present of multiple sets,
4721 nor indeed exactly what constitutes a &"set"&.
4722 In practice, it seems that MUAs do not follow the RFC. The &%Resent-%& lines
4723 are often added at the end of the header, and if a message is resent more than
4724 once, it is common for the original set of &%Resent-%& headers to be renamed as
4725 &%X-Resent-%& when a new set is added. This removes any possible ambiguity.
4727 .vitem &%-ti%&
4728 .oindex "&%-ti%&"
4729 This option is exactly equivalent to &%-t%& &%-i%&. It is provided for
4730 compatibility with Sendmail.
4732 .vitem &%-tls-on-connect%&
4733 .oindex "&%-tls-on-connect%&"
4734 .cindex "TLS" "use without STARTTLS"
4735 .cindex "TLS" "automatic start"
4736 This option is available when Exim is compiled with TLS support. It forces all
4737 incoming SMTP connections to behave as if the incoming port is listed in the
4738 &%tls_on_connect_ports%& option. See section &<<SECTsupobssmt>>& and chapter
4739 &<<CHAPTLS>>& for further details.
4742 .vitem &%-U%&
4743 .oindex "&%-U%&"
4744 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&%-U%& option ignored"
4745 Sendmail uses this option for &"initial message submission"&, and its
4746 documentation states that in future releases, it may complain about
4747 syntactically invalid messages rather than fixing them when this flag is not
4748 set. Exim ignores this option.
4750 .vitem &%-v%&
4751 .oindex "&%-v%&"
4752 This option causes Exim to write information to the standard error stream,
4753 describing what it is doing. In particular, it shows the log lines for
4754 receiving and delivering a message, and if an SMTP connection is made, the SMTP
4755 dialogue is shown. Some of the log lines shown may not actually be written to
4756 the log if the setting of &%log_selector%& discards them. Any relevant
4757 selectors are shown with each log line. If none are shown, the logging is
4758 unconditional.
4760 .vitem &%-x%&
4761 .oindex "&%-x%&"
4762 AIX uses &%-x%& for a private purpose (&"mail from a local mail program has
4763 National Language Support extended characters in the body of the mail item"&).
4764 It sets &%-x%& when calling the MTA from its &%mail%& command. Exim ignores
4765 this option.
4767 .vitem &%-X%&&~<&'logfile'&>
4768 .oindex "&%-X%&"
4769 This option is interpreted by Sendmail to cause debug information to be sent
4770 to the named file. It is ignored by Exim.
4772 .vitem &%-z%&&~<&'log-line'&>
4773 .oindex "&%-z%&"
4774 This option writes its argument to Exim's logfile.
4775 Use is restricted to administrators; the intent is for operational notes.
4776 Quotes should be used to maintain a multi-word item as a single argument,
4777 under most shells.
4778 .endlist
4780 .ecindex IIDclo1
4781 .ecindex IIDclo2
4784 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
4785 . Insert a stylized DocBook comment here, to identify the end of the command
4786 . line options. This is for the benefit of the Perl script that automatically
4787 . creates a man page for the options.
4788 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
4790 .literal xml
4791 <!-- === End of command line options === -->
4792 .literal off
4798 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
4799 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
4802 .chapter "The Exim runtime configuration file" "CHAPconf" &&&
4803 "The runtime configuration file"
4805 .cindex "runtime configuration"
4806 .cindex "configuration file" "general description"
4807 .cindex "CONFIGURE_FILE"
4808 .cindex "configuration file" "errors in"
4809 .cindex "error" "in configuration file"
4810 .cindex "return code" "for bad configuration"
4811 Exim uses a single runtime configuration file that is read whenever an Exim
4812 binary is executed. Note that in normal operation, this happens frequently,