Docs: copyright year
[exim.git] / doc / doc-docbook / spec.xfpt
1 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2 . This is the primary source of the Exim Manual. It is an xfpt document that is
3 . converted into DocBook XML for subsequent conversion into printing and online
4 . formats. The markup used herein is "standard" xfpt markup, with some extras.
5 . The markup is summarized in a file called Markup.txt.
6 .
7 . WARNING: When you use the .new macro, make sure it appears *before* any
8 . adjacent index items; otherwise you get an empty "paragraph" which causes
9 . unwanted vertical space.
10 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
12 .include stdflags
13 .include stdmacs
15 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
16 . This outputs the standard DocBook boilerplate.
17 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
19 .docbook
21 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
22 . These lines are processing instructions for the Simple DocBook Processor that
23 . Philip Hazel has developed as a less cumbersome way of making PostScript and
24 . PDFs than using xmlto and fop. They will be ignored by all other XML
25 . processors.
26 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
28 .literal xml
29 <?sdop
30 foot_right_recto="&chaptertitle; (&chapternumber;)"
31 foot_right_verso="&chaptertitle; (&chapternumber;)"
32 toc_chapter_blanks="yes,yes"
33 table_warn_overflow="overprint"
34 ?>
35 .literal off
37 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
38 . This generate the outermost <book> element that wraps then entire document.
39 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
41 .book
43 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
44 . These definitions set some parameters and save some typing.
45 . Update the Copyright year (only) when changing content.
46 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
48 .set previousversion "4.90"
49 .include ./local_params
51 .set ACL "access control lists (ACLs)"
52 .set I "&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;"
54 .macro copyyear
55 2018
56 .endmacro
58 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
59 . Additional xfpt markup used by this document, over and above the default
60 . provided in the xfpt library.
61 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
63 . --- Override the &$ flag to automatically insert a $ with the variable name
65 .flag &$ $& "<varname>$" "</varname>"
67 . --- Short flags for daggers in option headings. They will always be inside
68 . --- an italic string, but we want the daggers to be roman.
70 .flag &!! "</emphasis>&dagger;<emphasis>"
71 .flag &!? "</emphasis>&Dagger;<emphasis>"
73 . --- A macro for an Exim option definition heading, generating a one-line
74 . --- table with four columns. For cases when the option name is given with
75 . --- a space, so that it can be split, a fifth argument is used for the
76 . --- index entry.
78 .macro option
79 .arg 5
80 .oindex "&%$5%&"
81 .endarg
82 .arg -5
83 .oindex "&%$1%&"
84 .endarg
85 .itable all 0 0 4 8* left 6* center 6* center 6* right
86 .row "&%$1%&" "Use: &'$2'&" "Type: &'$3'&" "Default: &'$4'&"
87 .endtable
88 .endmacro
90 . --- A macro for the common 2-column tables. The width of the first column
91 . --- is suitable for the many tables at the start of the main options chapter;
92 . --- the small number of other 2-column tables override it.
94 .macro table2 196pt 254pt
95 .itable none 0 0 2 $1 left $2 left
96 .endmacro
98 . --- A macro that generates .row, but puts &I; at the start of the first
99 . --- argument, thus indenting it. Assume a minimum of two arguments, and
100 . --- allow up to four arguments, which is as many as we'll ever need.
102 .macro irow
103 .arg 4
104 .row "&I;$1" "$2" "$3" "$4"
105 .endarg
106 .arg -4
107 .arg 3
108 .row "&I;$1" "$2" "$3"
109 .endarg
110 .arg -3
111 .row "&I;$1" "$2"
112 .endarg
113 .endarg
114 .endmacro
116 . --- Macros for option, variable, and concept index entries. For a "range"
117 . --- style of entry, use .scindex for the start and .ecindex for the end. The
118 . --- first argument of .scindex and the only argument of .ecindex must be the
119 . --- ID that ties them together.
121 .macro cindex
122 &<indexterm role="concept">&
123 &<primary>&$1&</primary>&
124 .arg 2
125 &<secondary>&$2&</secondary>&
126 .endarg
127 &</indexterm>&
128 .endmacro
130 .macro scindex
131 &<indexterm role="concept" id="$1" class="startofrange">&
132 &<primary>&$2&</primary>&
133 .arg 3
134 &<secondary>&$3&</secondary>&
135 .endarg
136 &</indexterm>&
137 .endmacro
139 .macro ecindex
140 &<indexterm role="concept" startref="$1" class="endofrange"/>&
141 .endmacro
143 .macro oindex
144 &<indexterm role="option">&
145 &<primary>&$1&</primary>&
146 .arg 2
147 &<secondary>&$2&</secondary>&
148 .endarg
149 &</indexterm>&
150 .endmacro
152 .macro vindex
153 &<indexterm role="variable">&
154 &<primary>&$1&</primary>&
155 .arg 2
156 &<secondary>&$2&</secondary>&
157 .endarg
158 &</indexterm>&
159 .endmacro
161 .macro index
162 .echo "** Don't use .index; use .cindex or .oindex or .vindex"
163 .endmacro
164 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
167 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
168 . The <bookinfo> element is removed from the XML before processing for Ascii
169 . output formats.
170 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
172 .literal xml
173 <bookinfo>
174 <title>Specification of the Exim Mail Transfer Agent</title>
175 <titleabbrev>The Exim MTA</titleabbrev>
176 <date>
177 .fulldate
178 </date>
179 <author><firstname>Exim</firstname><surname>Maintainers</surname></author>
180 <authorinitials>EM</authorinitials>
181 <revhistory><revision>
182 .versiondatexml
183 <authorinitials>EM</authorinitials>
184 </revision></revhistory>
185 <copyright><year>
186 .copyyear
187 </year><holder>University of Cambridge</holder></copyright>
188 </bookinfo>
189 .literal off
192 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
193 . This chunk of literal XML implements index entries of the form "x, see y" and
194 . "x, see also y". However, the DocBook DTD doesn't allow <indexterm> entries
195 . at the top level, so we have to put the .chapter directive first.
196 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
198 .chapter "Introduction" "CHID1"
199 .literal xml
201 <indexterm role="variable">
202 <primary>$1, $2, etc.</primary>
203 <see><emphasis>numerical variables</emphasis></see>
204 </indexterm>
205 <indexterm role="concept">
206 <primary>address</primary>
207 <secondary>rewriting</secondary>
208 <see><emphasis>rewriting</emphasis></see>
209 </indexterm>
210 <indexterm role="concept">
211 <primary>Bounce Address Tag Validation</primary>
212 <see><emphasis>BATV</emphasis></see>
213 </indexterm>
214 <indexterm role="concept">
215 <primary>Client SMTP Authorization</primary>
216 <see><emphasis>CSA</emphasis></see>
217 </indexterm>
218 <indexterm role="concept">
219 <primary>CR character</primary>
220 <see><emphasis>carriage return</emphasis></see>
221 </indexterm>
222 <indexterm role="concept">
223 <primary>CRL</primary>
224 <see><emphasis>certificate revocation list</emphasis></see>
225 </indexterm>
226 <indexterm role="concept">
227 <primary>delivery</primary>
228 <secondary>failure report</secondary>
229 <see><emphasis>bounce message</emphasis></see>
230 </indexterm>
231 <indexterm role="concept">
232 <primary>dialup</primary>
233 <see><emphasis>intermittently connected hosts</emphasis></see>
234 </indexterm>
235 <indexterm role="concept">
236 <primary>exiscan</primary>
237 <see><emphasis>content scanning</emphasis></see>
238 </indexterm>
239 <indexterm role="concept">
240 <primary>failover</primary>
241 <see><emphasis>fallback</emphasis></see>
242 </indexterm>
243 <indexterm role="concept">
244 <primary>fallover</primary>
245 <see><emphasis>fallback</emphasis></see>
246 </indexterm>
247 <indexterm role="concept">
248 <primary>filter</primary>
249 <secondary>Sieve</secondary>
250 <see><emphasis>Sieve filter</emphasis></see>
251 </indexterm>
252 <indexterm role="concept">
253 <primary>ident</primary>
254 <see><emphasis>RFC 1413</emphasis></see>
255 </indexterm>
256 <indexterm role="concept">
257 <primary>LF character</primary>
258 <see><emphasis>linefeed</emphasis></see>
259 </indexterm>
260 <indexterm role="concept">
261 <primary>maximum</primary>
262 <seealso><emphasis>limit</emphasis></seealso>
263 </indexterm>
264 <indexterm role="concept">
265 <primary>monitor</primary>
266 <see><emphasis>Exim monitor</emphasis></see>
267 </indexterm>
268 <indexterm role="concept">
269 <primary>no_<emphasis>xxx</emphasis></primary>
270 <see>entry for xxx</see>
271 </indexterm>
272 <indexterm role="concept">
273 <primary>NUL</primary>
274 <see><emphasis>binary zero</emphasis></see>
275 </indexterm>
276 <indexterm role="concept">
277 <primary>passwd file</primary>
278 <see><emphasis>/etc/passwd</emphasis></see>
279 </indexterm>
280 <indexterm role="concept">
281 <primary>process id</primary>
282 <see><emphasis>pid</emphasis></see>
283 </indexterm>
284 <indexterm role="concept">
285 <primary>RBL</primary>
286 <see><emphasis>DNS list</emphasis></see>
287 </indexterm>
288 <indexterm role="concept">
289 <primary>redirection</primary>
290 <see><emphasis>address redirection</emphasis></see>
291 </indexterm>
292 <indexterm role="concept">
293 <primary>return path</primary>
294 <seealso><emphasis>envelope sender</emphasis></seealso>
295 </indexterm>
296 <indexterm role="concept">
297 <primary>scanning</primary>
298 <see><emphasis>content scanning</emphasis></see>
299 </indexterm>
300 <indexterm role="concept">
301 <primary>SSL</primary>
302 <see><emphasis>TLS</emphasis></see>
303 </indexterm>
304 <indexterm role="concept">
305 <primary>string</primary>
306 <secondary>expansion</secondary>
307 <see><emphasis>expansion</emphasis></see>
308 </indexterm>
309 <indexterm role="concept">
310 <primary>top bit</primary>
311 <see><emphasis>8-bit characters</emphasis></see>
312 </indexterm>
313 <indexterm role="concept">
314 <primary>variables</primary>
315 <see><emphasis>expansion, variables</emphasis></see>
316 </indexterm>
317 <indexterm role="concept">
318 <primary>zero, binary</primary>
319 <see><emphasis>binary zero</emphasis></see>
320 </indexterm>
322 .literal off
325 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
326 . This is the real start of the first chapter. See the comment above as to why
327 . we can't have the .chapter line here.
328 . chapter "Introduction"
329 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
331 Exim is a mail transfer agent (MTA) for hosts that are running Unix or
332 Unix-like operating systems. It was designed on the assumption that it would be
333 run on hosts that are permanently connected to the Internet. However, it can be
334 used on intermittently connected hosts with suitable configuration adjustments.
336 Configuration files currently exist for the following operating systems: AIX,
337 BSD/OS (aka BSDI), Darwin (Mac OS X), DGUX, Dragonfly, FreeBSD, GNU/Hurd,
338 GNU/Linux, HI-OSF (Hitachi), HI-UX, HP-UX, IRIX, MIPS RISCOS, NetBSD, OpenBSD,
339 OpenUNIX, QNX, SCO, SCO SVR4.2 (aka UNIX-SV), Solaris (aka SunOS5), SunOS4,
340 Tru64-Unix (formerly Digital UNIX, formerly DEC-OSF1), Ultrix, and Unixware.
341 Some of these operating systems are no longer current and cannot easily be
342 tested, so the configuration files may no longer work in practice.
344 There are also configuration files for compiling Exim in the Cygwin environment
345 that can be installed on systems running Windows. However, this document does
346 not contain any information about running Exim in the Cygwin environment.
348 The terms and conditions for the use and distribution of Exim are contained in
349 the file &_NOTICE_&. Exim is distributed under the terms of the GNU General
350 Public Licence, a copy of which may be found in the file &_LICENCE_&.
352 The use, supply or promotion of Exim for the purpose of sending bulk,
353 unsolicited electronic mail is incompatible with the basic aims of the program,
354 which revolve around the free provision of a service that enhances the quality
355 of personal communications. The author of Exim regards indiscriminate
356 mass-mailing as an antisocial, irresponsible abuse of the Internet.
358 Exim owes a great deal to Smail 3 and its author, Ron Karr. Without the
359 experience of running and working on the Smail 3 code, I could never have
360 contemplated starting to write a new MTA. Many of the ideas and user interfaces
361 were originally taken from Smail 3, though the actual code of Exim is entirely
362 new, and has developed far beyond the initial concept.
364 Many people, both in Cambridge and around the world, have contributed to the
365 development and the testing of Exim, and to porting it to various operating
366 systems. I am grateful to them all. The distribution now contains a file called
367 &_ACKNOWLEDGMENTS_&, in which I have started recording the names of
368 contributors.
371 .section "Exim documentation" "SECID1"
372 . Keep this example change bar when updating the documentation!
374 .new
375 .cindex "documentation"
376 This edition of the Exim specification applies to version &version() of Exim.
377 Substantive changes from the &previousversion; edition are marked in some
378 renditions of the document; this paragraph is so marked if the rendition is
379 capable of showing a change indicator.
380 .wen
382 This document is very much a reference manual; it is not a tutorial. The reader
383 is expected to have some familiarity with the SMTP mail transfer protocol and
384 with general Unix system administration. Although there are some discussions
385 and examples in places, the information is mostly organized in a way that makes
386 it easy to look up, rather than in a natural order for sequential reading.
387 Furthermore, the manual aims to cover every aspect of Exim in detail, including
388 a number of rarely-used, special-purpose features that are unlikely to be of
389 very wide interest.
391 .cindex "books about Exim"
392 An &"easier"& discussion of Exim which provides more in-depth explanatory,
393 introductory, and tutorial material can be found in a book entitled &'The Exim
394 SMTP Mail Server'& (second edition, 2007), published by UIT Cambridge
395 (&url(
397 This book also contains a chapter that gives a general introduction to SMTP and
398 Internet mail. Inevitably, however, the book is unlikely to be fully up-to-date
399 with the latest release of Exim. (Note that the earlier book about Exim,
400 published by O'Reilly, covers Exim 3, and many things have changed in Exim 4.)
402 .cindex "Debian" "information sources"
403 If you are using a Debian distribution of Exim, you will find information about
404 Debian-specific features in the file
405 &_/usr/share/doc/exim4-base/README.Debian_&.
406 The command &(man update-exim.conf)& is another source of Debian-specific
407 information.
409 .cindex "&_doc/NewStuff_&"
410 .cindex "&_doc/ChangeLog_&"
411 .cindex "change log"
412 As the program develops, there may be features in newer versions that have not
413 yet made it into this document, which is updated only when the most significant
414 digit of the fractional part of the version number changes. Specifications of
415 new features that are not yet in this manual are placed in the file
416 &_doc/NewStuff_& in the Exim distribution.
418 Some features may be classified as &"experimental"&. These may change
419 incompatibly while they are developing, or even be withdrawn. For this reason,
420 they are not documented in this manual. Information about experimental features
421 can be found in the file &_doc/experimental.txt_&.
423 All changes to the program (whether new features, bug fixes, or other kinds of
424 change) are noted briefly in the file called &_doc/ChangeLog_&.
426 .cindex "&_doc/spec.txt_&"
427 This specification itself is available as an ASCII file in &_doc/spec.txt_& so
428 that it can easily be searched with a text editor. Other files in the &_doc_&
429 directory are:
431 .table2 100pt
432 .row &_OptionLists.txt_& "list of all options in alphabetical order"
433 .row &_dbm.discuss.txt_& "discussion about DBM libraries"
434 .row &_exim.8_& "a man page of Exim's command line options"
435 .row &_experimental.txt_& "documentation of experimental features"
436 .row &_filter.txt_& "specification of the filter language"
437 .row &_Exim3.upgrade_& "upgrade notes from release 2 to release 3"
438 .row &_Exim4.upgrade_& "upgrade notes from release 3 to release 4"
439 .row &_openssl.txt_& "installing a current OpenSSL release"
440 .endtable
442 The main specification and the specification of the filtering language are also
443 available in other formats (HTML, PostScript, PDF, and Texinfo). Section
444 &<<SECTavail>>& below tells you how to get hold of these.
448 .section "FTP and web sites" "SECID2"
449 .cindex "web site"
450 .cindex "FTP site"
451 The primary site for Exim source distributions is currently the University of
452 Cambridge's FTP site, whose contents are described in &'Where to find the Exim
453 distribution'& below. In addition, there is a web site and an FTP site at
454 & These are now also hosted at the University of Cambridge. The
455 & site was previously hosted for a number of years by Energis
456 Squared, formerly Planet Online Ltd, whose support I gratefully acknowledge.
458 .cindex "wiki"
459 .cindex "FAQ"
460 As well as Exim distribution tar files, the Exim web site contains a number of
461 differently formatted versions of the documentation. A recent addition to the
462 online information is the Exim wiki (&url(,
463 which contains what used to be a separate FAQ, as well as various other
464 examples, tips, and know-how that have been contributed by Exim users.
466 .cindex Bugzilla
467 An Exim Bugzilla exists at &url( You can use
468 this to report bugs, and also to add items to the wish list. Please search
469 first to check that you are not duplicating a previous entry.
473 .section "Mailing lists" "SECID3"
474 .cindex "mailing lists" "for Exim users"
475 The following Exim mailing lists exist:
477 .table2 140pt
478 .row &''& "Moderated, low volume announcements list"
479 .row &''& "General discussion list"
480 .row &''& "Discussion of bugs, enhancements, etc."
481 .row &''& "Automated commit messages from the VCS"
482 .endtable
484 You can subscribe to these lists, change your existing subscriptions, and view
485 or search the archives via the mailing lists link on the Exim home page.
486 .cindex "Debian" "mailing list for"
487 If you are using a Debian distribution of Exim, you may wish to subscribe to
488 the Debian-specific mailing list &''&
489 via this web page:
490 .display
491 &url(
492 .endd
493 Please ask Debian-specific questions on this list and not on the general Exim
494 lists.
496 .section "Bug reports" "SECID5"
497 .cindex "bug reports"
498 .cindex "reporting bugs"
499 Reports of obvious bugs can be emailed to &''& or reported
500 via the Bugzilla (&url( However, if you are unsure
501 whether some behaviour is a bug or not, the best thing to do is to post a
502 message to the &'exim-dev'& mailing list and have it discussed.
506 .section "Where to find the Exim distribution" "SECTavail"
507 .cindex "FTP site"
508 .cindex "distribution" "ftp site"
509 The master ftp site for the Exim distribution is
510 .display
511 &**&
512 .endd
513 The file references that follow are relative to the &_exim_& directories at
514 these sites. There are now quite a number of independent mirror sites around
515 the world. Those that I know about are listed in the file called &_Mirrors_&.
517 Within the &_exim_& directory there are subdirectories called &_exim3_& (for
518 previous Exim 3 distributions), &_exim4_& (for the latest Exim 4
519 distributions), and &_Testing_& for testing versions. In the &_exim4_&
520 subdirectory, the current release can always be found in files called
521 .display
522 &_exim-n.nn.tar.gz_&
523 &_exim-n.nn.tar.bz2_&
524 .endd
525 where &'n.nn'& is the highest such version number in the directory. The two
526 files contain identical data; the only difference is the type of compression.
527 The &_.bz2_& file is usually a lot smaller than the &_.gz_& file.
529 .cindex "distribution" "signing details"
530 .cindex "distribution" "public key"
531 .cindex "public key for signed distribution"
532 The distributions will be PGP signed by an individual key of the Release
533 Coordinator. This key will have a uid containing an email address in the
534 &''& domain and will have signatures from other people, including
535 other Exim maintainers. We expect that the key will be in the "strong set" of
536 PGP keys. There should be a trust path to that key from Nigel Metheringham's
537 PGP key, a version of which can be found in the release directory in the file
538 &_nigel-pubkey.asc_&. All keys used will be available in public keyserver pools,
539 such as &''&.
541 At time of last update, releases were being made by Phil Pennock and signed with
542 key &'0x403043153903637F'&, although that key is expected to be replaced in 2013.
543 A trust path from Nigel's key to Phil's can be observed at
544 &url(
546 Releases have also been authorized to be performed by Todd Lyons who signs with
547 key &'0xC4F4F94804D29EBA'&. A direct trust path exists between previous RE Phil
548 Pennock and Todd Lyons through a common associate.
550 The signatures for the tar bundles are in:
551 .display
552 &_exim-n.nn.tar.gz.asc_&
553 &_exim-n.nn.tar.bz2.asc_&
554 .endd
555 For each released version, the log of changes is made separately available in a
556 separate file in the directory &_ChangeLogs_& so that it is possible to
557 find out what has changed without having to download the entire distribution.
559 .cindex "documentation" "available formats"
560 The main distribution contains ASCII versions of this specification and other
561 documentation; other formats of the documents are available in separate files
562 inside the &_exim4_& directory of the FTP site:
563 .display
564 &_exim-html-n.nn.tar.gz_&
565 &_exim-pdf-n.nn.tar.gz_&
566 &_exim-postscript-n.nn.tar.gz_&
567 &_exim-texinfo-n.nn.tar.gz_&
568 .endd
569 These tar files contain only the &_doc_& directory, not the complete
570 distribution, and are also available in &_.bz2_& as well as &_.gz_& forms.
573 .section "Limitations" "SECID6"
574 .ilist
575 .cindex "limitations of Exim"
576 .cindex "bang paths" "not handled by Exim"
577 Exim is designed for use as an Internet MTA, and therefore handles addresses in
578 RFC 2822 domain format only. It cannot handle UUCP &"bang paths"&, though
579 simple two-component bang paths can be converted by a straightforward rewriting
580 configuration. This restriction does not prevent Exim from being interfaced to
581 UUCP as a transport mechanism, provided that domain addresses are used.
582 .next
583 .cindex "domainless addresses"
584 .cindex "address" "without domain"
585 Exim insists that every address it handles has a domain attached. For incoming
586 local messages, domainless addresses are automatically qualified with a
587 configured domain value. Configuration options specify from which remote
588 systems unqualified addresses are acceptable. These are then qualified on
589 arrival.
590 .next
591 .cindex "transport" "external"
592 .cindex "external transports"
593 The only external transport mechanisms that are currently implemented are SMTP
594 and LMTP over a TCP/IP network (including support for IPv6). However, a pipe
595 transport is available, and there are facilities for writing messages to files
596 and pipes, optionally in &'batched SMTP'& format; these facilities can be used
597 to send messages to other transport mechanisms such as UUCP, provided they can
598 handle domain-style addresses. Batched SMTP input is also catered for.
599 .next
600 Exim is not designed for storing mail for dial-in hosts. When the volumes of
601 such mail are large, it is better to get the messages &"delivered"& into files
602 (that is, off Exim's queue) and subsequently passed on to the dial-in hosts by
603 other means.
604 .next
605 Although Exim does have basic facilities for scanning incoming messages, these
606 are not comprehensive enough to do full virus or spam scanning. Such operations
607 are best carried out using additional specialized software packages. If you
608 compile Exim with the content-scanning extension, straightforward interfaces to
609 a number of common scanners are provided.
610 .endlist
613 .section "Run time configuration" "SECID7"
614 Exim's run time configuration is held in a single text file that is divided
615 into a number of sections. The entries in this file consist of keywords and
616 values, in the style of Smail 3 configuration files. A default configuration
617 file which is suitable for simple online installations is provided in the
618 distribution, and is described in chapter &<<CHAPdefconfil>>& below.
621 .section "Calling interface" "SECID8"
622 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "command line interface"
623 Like many MTAs, Exim has adopted the Sendmail command line interface so that it
624 can be a straight replacement for &_/usr/lib/sendmail_& or
625 &_/usr/sbin/sendmail_& when sending mail, but you do not need to know anything
626 about Sendmail in order to run Exim. For actions other than sending messages,
627 Sendmail-compatible options also exist, but those that produce output (for
628 example, &%-bp%&, which lists the messages on the queue) do so in Exim's own
629 format. There are also some additional options that are compatible with Smail
630 3, and some further options that are new to Exim. Chapter &<<CHAPcommandline>>&
631 documents all Exim's command line options. This information is automatically
632 made into the man page that forms part of the Exim distribution.
634 Control of messages on the queue can be done via certain privileged command
635 line options. There is also an optional monitor program called &'eximon'&,
636 which displays current information in an X window, and which contains a menu
637 interface to Exim's command line administration options.
641 .section "Terminology" "SECID9"
642 .cindex "terminology definitions"
643 .cindex "body of message" "definition of"
644 The &'body'& of a message is the actual data that the sender wants to transmit.
645 It is the last part of a message, and is separated from the &'header'& (see
646 below) by a blank line.
648 .cindex "bounce message" "definition of"
649 When a message cannot be delivered, it is normally returned to the sender in a
650 delivery failure message or a &"non-delivery report"& (NDR). The term
651 &'bounce'& is commonly used for this action, and the error reports are often
652 called &'bounce messages'&. This is a convenient shorthand for &"delivery
653 failure error report"&. Such messages have an empty sender address in the
654 message's &'envelope'& (see below) to ensure that they cannot themselves give
655 rise to further bounce messages.
657 The term &'default'& appears frequently in this manual. It is used to qualify a
658 value which is used in the absence of any setting in the configuration. It may
659 also qualify an action which is taken unless a configuration setting specifies
660 otherwise.
662 The term &'defer'& is used when the delivery of a message to a specific
663 destination cannot immediately take place for some reason (a remote host may be
664 down, or a user's local mailbox may be full). Such deliveries are &'deferred'&
665 until a later time.
667 The word &'domain'& is sometimes used to mean all but the first component of a
668 host's name. It is &'not'& used in that sense here, where it normally refers to
669 the part of an email address following the @ sign.
671 .cindex "envelope, definition of"
672 .cindex "sender" "definition of"
673 A message in transit has an associated &'envelope'&, as well as a header and a
674 body. The envelope contains a sender address (to which bounce messages should
675 be delivered), and any number of recipient addresses. References to the
676 sender or the recipients of a message usually mean the addresses in the
677 envelope. An MTA uses these addresses for delivery, and for returning bounce
678 messages, not the addresses that appear in the header lines.
680 .cindex "message" "header, definition of"
681 .cindex "header section" "definition of"
682 The &'header'& of a message is the first part of a message's text, consisting
683 of a number of lines, each of which has a name such as &'From:'&, &'To:'&,
684 &'Subject:'&, etc. Long header lines can be split over several text lines by
685 indenting the continuations. The header is separated from the body by a blank
686 line.
688 .cindex "local part" "definition of"
689 .cindex "domain" "definition of"
690 The term &'local part'&, which is taken from RFC 2822, is used to refer to that
691 part of an email address that precedes the @ sign. The part that follows the
692 @ sign is called the &'domain'& or &'mail domain'&.
694 .cindex "local delivery" "definition of"
695 .cindex "remote delivery, definition of"
696 The terms &'local delivery'& and &'remote delivery'& are used to distinguish
697 delivery to a file or a pipe on the local host from delivery by SMTP over
698 TCP/IP to another host. As far as Exim is concerned, all hosts other than the
699 host it is running on are &'remote'&.
701 .cindex "return path" "definition of"
702 &'Return path'& is another name that is used for the sender address in a
703 message's envelope.
705 .cindex "queue" "definition of"
706 The term &'queue'& is used to refer to the set of messages awaiting delivery,
707 because this term is in widespread use in the context of MTAs. However, in
708 Exim's case the reality is more like a pool than a queue, because there is
709 normally no ordering of waiting messages.
711 .cindex "queue runner" "definition of"
712 The term &'queue runner'& is used to describe a process that scans the queue
713 and attempts to deliver those messages whose retry times have come. This term
714 is used by other MTAs, and also relates to the command &%runq%&, but in Exim
715 the waiting messages are normally processed in an unpredictable order.
717 .cindex "spool directory" "definition of"
718 The term &'spool directory'& is used for a directory in which Exim keeps the
719 messages on its queue &-- that is, those that it is in the process of
720 delivering. This should not be confused with the directory in which local
721 mailboxes are stored, which is called a &"spool directory"& by some people. In
722 the Exim documentation, &"spool"& is always used in the first sense.
729 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
730 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
732 .chapter "Incorporated code" "CHID2"
733 .cindex "incorporated code"
734 .cindex "regular expressions" "library"
735 .cindex "PCRE"
736 .cindex "OpenDMARC"
737 A number of pieces of external code are included in the Exim distribution.
739 .ilist
740 Regular expressions are supported in the main Exim program and in the
741 Exim monitor using the freely-distributable PCRE library, copyright
742 &copy; University of Cambridge. The source to PCRE is no longer shipped with
743 Exim, so you will need to use the version of PCRE shipped with your system,
744 or obtain and install the full version of the library from
745 &url(
746 .next
747 .cindex "cdb" "acknowledgment"
748 Support for the cdb (Constant DataBase) lookup method is provided by code
749 contributed by Nigel Metheringham of (at the time he contributed it) Planet
750 Online Ltd. The implementation is completely contained within the code of Exim.
751 It does not link against an external cdb library. The code contains the
752 following statements:
754 .blockquote
755 Copyright &copy; 1998 Nigel Metheringham, Planet Online Ltd
757 This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
758 the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
759 Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later
760 version.
761 This code implements Dan Bernstein's Constant DataBase (cdb) spec. Information,
762 the spec and sample code for cdb can be obtained from
763 &url( This implementation borrows
764 some code from Dan Bernstein's implementation (which has no license
765 restrictions applied to it).
766 .endblockquote
767 .next
768 .cindex "SPA authentication"
769 .cindex "Samba project"
770 .cindex "Microsoft Secure Password Authentication"
771 Client support for Microsoft's &'Secure Password Authentication'& is provided
772 by code contributed by Marc Prud'hommeaux. Server support was contributed by
773 Tom Kistner. This includes code taken from the Samba project, which is released
774 under the Gnu GPL.
775 .next
776 .cindex "Cyrus"
777 .cindex "&'pwcheck'& daemon"
778 .cindex "&'pwauthd'& daemon"
779 Support for calling the Cyrus &'pwcheck'& and &'saslauthd'& daemons is provided
780 by code taken from the Cyrus-SASL library and adapted by Alexander S.
781 Sabourenkov. The permission notice appears below, in accordance with the
782 conditions expressed therein.
784 .blockquote
785 Copyright &copy; 2001 Carnegie Mellon University. All rights reserved.
787 Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
788 modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
789 are met:
791 .olist
792 Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
793 notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
794 .next
795 Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
796 notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
797 the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
798 distribution.
799 .next
800 The name &"Carnegie Mellon University"& must not be used to
801 endorse or promote products derived from this software without
802 prior written permission. For permission or any other legal
803 details, please contact
804 .display
805 Office of Technology Transfer
806 Carnegie Mellon University
807 5000 Forbes Avenue
808 Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890
809 (412) 268-4387, fax: (412) 268-7395
811 .endd
812 .next
813 Redistributions of any form whatsoever must retain the following
814 acknowledgment:
816 &"This product includes software developed by Computing Services
817 at Carnegie Mellon University (&url("&
826 .endlist
827 .endblockquote
829 .next
830 .cindex "Exim monitor" "acknowledgment"
831 .cindex "X-windows"
832 .cindex "Athena"
833 The Exim Monitor program, which is an X-Window application, includes
834 modified versions of the Athena StripChart and TextPop widgets.
835 This code is copyright by DEC and MIT, and their permission notice appears
836 below, in accordance with the conditions expressed therein.
838 .blockquote
839 Copyright 1987, 1988 by Digital Equipment Corporation, Maynard, Massachusetts,
840 and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
842 All Rights Reserved
844 Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its
845 documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted,
846 provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that
847 both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in
848 supporting documentation, and that the names of Digital or MIT not be
849 used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the
850 software without specific, written prior permission.
859 .endblockquote
861 .next
862 .cindex "opendmarc" "acknowledgment"
863 The DMARC implementation uses the OpenDMARC library which is Copyrighted by
864 The Trusted Domain Project. Portions of Exim source which use OpenDMARC
865 derived code are indicated in the respective source files. The full OpenDMARC
866 license is provided in the LICENSE.opendmarc file contained in the distributed
867 source code.
869 .next
870 Many people have contributed code fragments, some large, some small, that were
871 not covered by any specific licence requirements. It is assumed that the
872 contributors are happy to see their code incorporated into Exim under the GPL.
873 .endlist
879 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
880 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
882 .chapter "How Exim receives and delivers mail" "CHID11" &&&
883 "Receiving and delivering mail"
886 .section "Overall philosophy" "SECID10"
887 .cindex "design philosophy"
888 Exim is designed to work efficiently on systems that are permanently connected
889 to the Internet and are handling a general mix of mail. In such circumstances,
890 most messages can be delivered immediately. Consequently, Exim does not
891 maintain independent queues of messages for specific domains or hosts, though
892 it does try to send several messages in a single SMTP connection after a host
893 has been down, and it also maintains per-host retry information.
896 .section "Policy control" "SECID11"
897 .cindex "policy control" "overview"
898 Policy controls are now an important feature of MTAs that are connected to the
899 Internet. Perhaps their most important job is to stop MTAs being abused as
900 &"open relays"& by misguided individuals who send out vast amounts of
901 unsolicited junk, and want to disguise its source. Exim provides flexible
902 facilities for specifying policy controls on incoming mail:
904 .ilist
905 .cindex "&ACL;" "introduction"
906 Exim 4 (unlike previous versions of Exim) implements policy controls on
907 incoming mail by means of &'Access Control Lists'& (ACLs). Each list is a
908 series of statements that may either grant or deny access. ACLs can be used at
909 several places in the SMTP dialogue while receiving a message from a remote
910 host. However, the most common places are after each RCPT command, and at the
911 very end of the message. The sysadmin can specify conditions for accepting or
912 rejecting individual recipients or the entire message, respectively, at these
913 two points (see chapter &<<CHAPACL>>&). Denial of access results in an SMTP
914 error code.
915 .next
916 An ACL is also available for locally generated, non-SMTP messages. In this
917 case, the only available actions are to accept or deny the entire message.
918 .next
919 When Exim is compiled with the content-scanning extension, facilities are
920 provided in the ACL mechanism for passing the message to external virus and/or
921 spam scanning software. The result of such a scan is passed back to the ACL,
922 which can then use it to decide what to do with the message.
923 .next
924 When a message has been received, either from a remote host or from the local
925 host, but before the final acknowledgment has been sent, a locally supplied C
926 function called &[local_scan()]& can be run to inspect the message and decide
927 whether to accept it or not (see chapter &<<CHAPlocalscan>>&). If the message
928 is accepted, the list of recipients can be modified by the function.
929 .next
930 Using the &[local_scan()]& mechanism is another way of calling external scanner
931 software. The &%SA-Exim%& add-on package works this way. It does not require
932 Exim to be compiled with the content-scanning extension.
933 .next
934 After a message has been accepted, a further checking mechanism is available in
935 the form of the &'system filter'& (see chapter &<<CHAPsystemfilter>>&). This
936 runs at the start of every delivery process.
937 .endlist
941 .section "User filters" "SECID12"
942 .cindex "filter" "introduction"
943 .cindex "Sieve filter"
944 In a conventional Exim configuration, users are able to run private filters by
945 setting up appropriate &_.forward_& files in their home directories. See
946 chapter &<<CHAPredirect>>& (about the &(redirect)& router) for the
947 configuration needed to support this, and the separate document entitled
948 &'Exim's interfaces to mail filtering'& for user details. Two different kinds
949 of filtering are available:
951 .ilist
952 Sieve filters are written in the standard filtering language that is defined
953 by RFC 3028.
954 .next
955 Exim filters are written in a syntax that is unique to Exim, but which is more
956 powerful than Sieve, which it pre-dates.
957 .endlist
959 User filters are run as part of the routing process, described below.
963 .section "Message identification" "SECTmessiden"
964 .cindex "message ids" "details of format"
965 .cindex "format" "of message id"
966 .cindex "id of message"
967 .cindex "base62"
968 .cindex "base36"
969 .cindex "Darwin"
970 .cindex "Cygwin"
971 Every message handled by Exim is given a &'message id'& which is sixteen
972 characters long. It is divided into three parts, separated by hyphens, for
973 example &`16VDhn-0001bo-D3`&. Each part is a sequence of letters and digits,
974 normally encoding numbers in base 62. However, in the Darwin operating
975 system (Mac OS X) and when Exim is compiled to run under Cygwin, base 36
976 (avoiding the use of lower case letters) is used instead, because the message
977 id is used to construct file names, and the names of files in those systems are
978 not always case-sensitive.
980 .cindex "pid (process id)" "re-use of"
981 The detail of the contents of the message id have changed as Exim has evolved.
982 Earlier versions relied on the operating system not re-using a process id (pid)
983 within one second. On modern operating systems, this assumption can no longer
984 be made, so the algorithm had to be changed. To retain backward compatibility,
985 the format of the message id was retained, which is why the following rules are
986 somewhat eccentric:
988 .ilist
989 The first six characters of the message id are the time at which the message
990 started to be received, to a granularity of one second. That is, this field
991 contains the number of seconds since the start of the epoch (the normal Unix
992 way of representing the date and time of day).
993 .next
994 After the first hyphen, the next six characters are the id of the process that
995 received the message.
996 .next
997 There are two different possibilities for the final two characters:
998 .olist
999 .oindex "&%localhost_number%&"
1000 If &%localhost_number%& is not set, this value is the fractional part of the
1001 time of reception, normally in units of 1/2000 of a second, but for systems
1002 that must use base 36 instead of base 62 (because of case-insensitive file
1003 systems), the units are 1/1000 of a second.
1004 .next
1005 If &%localhost_number%& is set, it is multiplied by 200 (100) and added to
1006 the fractional part of the time, which in this case is in units of 1/200
1007 (1/100) of a second.
1008 .endlist
1009 .endlist
1011 After a message has been received, Exim waits for the clock to tick at the
1012 appropriate resolution before proceeding, so that if another message is
1013 received by the same process, or by another process with the same (re-used)
1014 pid, it is guaranteed that the time will be different. In most cases, the clock
1015 will already have ticked while the message was being received.
1018 .section "Receiving mail" "SECID13"
1019 .cindex "receiving mail"
1020 .cindex "message" "reception"
1021 The only way Exim can receive mail from another host is using SMTP over
1022 TCP/IP, in which case the sender and recipient addresses are transferred using
1023 SMTP commands. However, from a locally running process (such as a user's MUA),
1024 there are several possibilities:
1026 .ilist
1027 If the process runs Exim with the &%-bm%& option, the message is read
1028 non-interactively (usually via a pipe), with the recipients taken from the
1029 command line, or from the body of the message if &%-t%& is also used.
1030 .next
1031 If the process runs Exim with the &%-bS%& option, the message is also read
1032 non-interactively, but in this case the recipients are listed at the start of
1033 the message in a series of SMTP RCPT commands, terminated by a DATA
1034 command. This is so-called &"batch SMTP"& format,
1035 but it isn't really SMTP. The SMTP commands are just another way of passing
1036 envelope addresses in a non-interactive submission.
1037 .next
1038 If the process runs Exim with the &%-bs%& option, the message is read
1039 interactively, using the SMTP protocol. A two-way pipe is normally used for
1040 passing data between the local process and the Exim process.
1041 This is &"real"& SMTP and is handled in the same way as SMTP over TCP/IP. For
1042 example, the ACLs for SMTP commands are used for this form of submission.
1043 .next
1044 A local process may also make a TCP/IP call to the host's loopback address
1045 ( or any other of its IP addresses. When receiving messages, Exim
1046 does not treat the loopback address specially. It treats all such connections
1047 in the same way as connections from other hosts.
1048 .endlist
1051 .cindex "message sender, constructed by Exim"
1052 .cindex "sender" "constructed by Exim"
1053 In the three cases that do not involve TCP/IP, the sender address is
1054 constructed from the login name of the user that called Exim and a default
1055 qualification domain (which can be set by the &%qualify_domain%& configuration
1056 option). For local or batch SMTP, a sender address that is passed using the
1057 SMTP MAIL command is ignored. However, the system administrator may allow
1058 certain users (&"trusted users"&) to specify a different sender address
1059 unconditionally, or all users to specify certain forms of different sender
1060 address. The &%-f%& option or the SMTP MAIL command is used to specify these
1061 different addresses. See section &<<SECTtrustedadmin>>& for details of trusted
1062 users, and the &%untrusted_set_sender%& option for a way of allowing untrusted
1063 users to change sender addresses.
1065 Messages received by either of the non-interactive mechanisms are subject to
1066 checking by the non-SMTP ACL, if one is defined. Messages received using SMTP
1067 (either over TCP/IP, or interacting with a local process) can be checked by a
1068 number of ACLs that operate at different times during the SMTP session. Either
1069 individual recipients, or the entire message, can be rejected if local policy
1070 requirements are not met. The &[local_scan()]& function (see chapter
1071 &<<CHAPlocalscan>>&) is run for all incoming messages.
1073 Exim can be configured not to start a delivery process when a message is
1074 received; this can be unconditional, or depend on the number of incoming SMTP
1075 connections or the system load. In these situations, new messages wait on the
1076 queue until a queue runner process picks them up. However, in standard
1077 configurations under normal conditions, delivery is started as soon as a
1078 message is received.
1084 .section "Handling an incoming message" "SECID14"
1085 .cindex "spool directory" "files that hold a message"
1086 .cindex "file" "how a message is held"
1087 When Exim accepts a message, it writes two files in its spool directory. The
1088 first contains the envelope information, the current status of the message, and
1089 the header lines, and the second contains the body of the message. The names of
1090 the two spool files consist of the message id, followed by &`-H`& for the
1091 file containing the envelope and header, and &`-D`& for the data file.
1093 .cindex "spool directory" "&_input_& sub-directory"
1094 By default all these message files are held in a single directory called
1095 &_input_& inside the general Exim spool directory. Some operating systems do
1096 not perform very well if the number of files in a directory gets large; to
1097 improve performance in such cases, the &%split_spool_directory%& option can be
1098 used. This causes Exim to split up the input files into 62 sub-directories
1099 whose names are single letters or digits. When this is done, the queue is
1100 processed one sub-directory at a time instead of all at once, which can improve
1101 overall performance even when there are not enough files in each directory to
1102 affect file system performance.
1104 The envelope information consists of the address of the message's sender and
1105 the addresses of the recipients. This information is entirely separate from
1106 any addresses contained in the header lines. The status of the message includes
1107 a list of recipients who have already received the message. The format of the
1108 first spool file is described in chapter &<<CHAPspool>>&.
1110 .cindex "rewriting" "addresses"
1111 Address rewriting that is specified in the rewrite section of the configuration
1112 (see chapter &<<CHAPrewrite>>&) is done once and for all on incoming addresses,
1113 both in the header lines and the envelope, at the time the message is accepted.
1114 If during the course of delivery additional addresses are generated (for
1115 example, via aliasing), these new addresses are rewritten as soon as they are
1116 generated. At the time a message is actually delivered (transported) further
1117 rewriting can take place; because this is a transport option, it can be
1118 different for different forms of delivery. It is also possible to specify the
1119 addition or removal of certain header lines at the time the message is
1120 delivered (see chapters &<<CHAProutergeneric>>& and
1121 &<<CHAPtransportgeneric>>&).
1125 .section "Life of a message" "SECID15"
1126 .cindex "message" "life of"
1127 .cindex "message" "frozen"
1128 A message remains in the spool directory until it is completely delivered to
1129 its recipients or to an error address, or until it is deleted by an
1130 administrator or by the user who originally created it. In cases when delivery
1131 cannot proceed &-- for example, when a message can neither be delivered to its
1132 recipients nor returned to its sender, the message is marked &"frozen"& on the
1133 spool, and no more deliveries are attempted.
1135 .cindex "frozen messages" "thawing"
1136 .cindex "message" "thawing frozen"
1137 An administrator can &"thaw"& such messages when the problem has been
1138 corrected, and can also freeze individual messages by hand if necessary. In
1139 addition, an administrator can force a delivery error, causing a bounce message
1140 to be sent.
1142 .oindex "&%timeout_frozen_after%&"
1143 .oindex "&%ignore_bounce_errors_after%&"
1144 There are options called &%ignore_bounce_errors_after%& and
1145 &%timeout_frozen_after%&, which discard frozen messages after a certain time.
1146 The first applies only to frozen bounces, the second to any frozen messages.
1148 .cindex "message" "log file for"
1149 .cindex "log" "file for each message"
1150 While Exim is working on a message, it writes information about each delivery
1151 attempt to its main log file. This includes successful, unsuccessful, and
1152 delayed deliveries for each recipient (see chapter &<<CHAPlog>>&). The log
1153 lines are also written to a separate &'message log'& file for each message.
1154 These logs are solely for the benefit of the administrator, and are normally
1155 deleted along with the spool files when processing of a message is complete.
1156 The use of individual message logs can be disabled by setting
1157 &%no_message_logs%&; this might give an improvement in performance on very busy
1158 systems.
1160 .cindex "journal file"
1161 .cindex "file" "journal"
1162 All the information Exim itself needs to set up a delivery is kept in the first
1163 spool file, along with the header lines. When a successful delivery occurs, the
1164 address is immediately written at the end of a journal file, whose name is the
1165 message id followed by &`-J`&. At the end of a delivery run, if there are some
1166 addresses left to be tried again later, the first spool file (the &`-H`& file)
1167 is updated to indicate which these are, and the journal file is then deleted.
1168 Updating the spool file is done by writing a new file and renaming it, to
1169 minimize the possibility of data loss.
1171 Should the system or the program crash after a successful delivery but before
1172 the spool file has been updated, the journal is left lying around. The next
1173 time Exim attempts to deliver the message, it reads the journal file and
1174 updates the spool file before proceeding. This minimizes the chances of double
1175 deliveries caused by crashes.
1179 .section "Processing an address for delivery" "SECTprocaddress"
1180 .cindex "drivers" "definition of"
1181 .cindex "router" "definition of"
1182 .cindex "transport" "definition of"
1183 The main delivery processing elements of Exim are called &'routers'& and
1184 &'transports'&, and collectively these are known as &'drivers'&. Code for a
1185 number of them is provided in the source distribution, and compile-time options
1186 specify which ones are included in the binary. Run time options specify which
1187 ones are actually used for delivering messages.
1189 .cindex "drivers" "instance definition"
1190 Each driver that is specified in the run time configuration is an &'instance'&
1191 of that particular driver type. Multiple instances are allowed; for example,
1192 you can set up several different &(smtp)& transports, each with different
1193 option values that might specify different ports or different timeouts. Each
1194 instance has its own identifying name. In what follows we will normally use the
1195 instance name when discussing one particular instance (that is, one specific
1196 configuration of the driver), and the generic driver name when discussing
1197 the driver's features in general.
1199 A &'router'& is a driver that operates on an address, either determining how
1200 its delivery should happen, by assigning it to a specific transport, or
1201 converting the address into one or more new addresses (for example, via an
1202 alias file). A router may also explicitly choose to fail an address, causing it
1203 to be bounced.
1205 A &'transport'& is a driver that transmits a copy of the message from Exim's
1206 spool to some destination. There are two kinds of transport: for a &'local'&
1207 transport, the destination is a file or a pipe on the local host, whereas for a
1208 &'remote'& transport the destination is some other host. A message is passed
1209 to a specific transport as a result of successful routing. If a message has
1210 several recipients, it may be passed to a number of different transports.
1212 .cindex "preconditions" "definition of"
1213 An address is processed by passing it to each configured router instance in
1214 turn, subject to certain preconditions, until a router accepts the address or
1215 specifies that it should be bounced. We will describe this process in more
1216 detail shortly. First, as a simple example, we consider how each recipient
1217 address in a message is processed in a small configuration of three routers.
1219 To make this a more concrete example, it is described in terms of some actual
1220 routers, but remember, this is only an example. You can configure Exim's
1221 routers in many different ways, and there may be any number of routers in a
1222 configuration.
1224 The first router that is specified in a configuration is often one that handles
1225 addresses in domains that are not recognized specially by the local host. These
1226 are typically addresses for arbitrary domains on the Internet. A precondition
1227 is set up which looks for the special domains known to the host (for example,
1228 its own domain name), and the router is run for addresses that do &'not'&
1229 match. Typically, this is a router that looks up domains in the DNS in order to
1230 find the hosts to which this address routes. If it succeeds, the address is
1231 assigned to a suitable SMTP transport; if it does not succeed, the router is
1232 configured to fail the address.
1234 The second router is reached only when the domain is recognized as one that
1235 &"belongs"& to the local host. This router does redirection &-- also known as
1236 aliasing and forwarding. When it generates one or more new addresses from the
1237 original, each of them is routed independently from the start. Otherwise, the
1238 router may cause an address to fail, or it may simply decline to handle the
1239 address, in which case the address is passed to the next router.
1241 The final router in many configurations is one that checks to see if the
1242 address belongs to a local mailbox. The precondition may involve a check to
1243 see if the local part is the name of a login account, or it may look up the
1244 local part in a file or a database. If its preconditions are not met, or if
1245 the router declines, we have reached the end of the routers. When this happens,
1246 the address is bounced.
1250 .section "Processing an address for verification" "SECID16"
1251 .cindex "router" "for verification"
1252 .cindex "verifying address" "overview"
1253 As well as being used to decide how to deliver to an address, Exim's routers
1254 are also used for &'address verification'&. Verification can be requested as
1255 one of the checks to be performed in an ACL for incoming messages, on both
1256 sender and recipient addresses, and it can be tested using the &%-bv%& and
1257 &%-bvs%& command line options.
1259 When an address is being verified, the routers are run in &"verify mode"&. This
1260 does not affect the way the routers work, but it is a state that can be
1261 detected. By this means, a router can be skipped or made to behave differently
1262 when verifying. A common example is a configuration in which the first router
1263 sends all messages to a message-scanning program, unless they have been
1264 previously scanned. Thus, the first router accepts all addresses without any
1265 checking, making it useless for verifying. Normally, the &%no_verify%& option
1266 would be set for such a router, causing it to be skipped in verify mode.
1271 .section "Running an individual router" "SECTrunindrou"
1272 .cindex "router" "running details"
1273 .cindex "preconditions" "checking"
1274 .cindex "router" "result of running"
1275 As explained in the example above, a number of preconditions are checked before
1276 running a router. If any are not met, the router is skipped, and the address is
1277 passed to the next router. When all the preconditions on a router &'are'& met,
1278 the router is run. What happens next depends on the outcome, which is one of
1279 the following:
1281 .ilist
1282 &'accept'&: The router accepts the address, and either assigns it to a
1283 transport, or generates one or more &"child"& addresses. Processing the
1284 original address ceases,
1285 .oindex "&%unseen%&"
1286 unless the &%unseen%& option is set on the router. This option
1287 can be used to set up multiple deliveries with different routing (for example,
1288 for keeping archive copies of messages). When &%unseen%& is set, the address is
1289 passed to the next router. Normally, however, an &'accept'& return marks the
1290 end of routing.
1292 Any child addresses generated by the router are processed independently,
1293 starting with the first router by default. It is possible to change this by
1294 setting the &%redirect_router%& option to specify which router to start at for
1295 child addresses. Unlike &%pass_router%& (see below) the router specified by
1296 &%redirect_router%& may be anywhere in the router configuration.
1297 .next
1298 &'pass'&: The router recognizes the address, but cannot handle it itself. It
1299 requests that the address be passed to another router. By default the address
1300 is passed to the next router, but this can be changed by setting the
1301 &%pass_router%& option. However, (unlike &%redirect_router%&) the named router
1302 must be below the current router (to avoid loops).
1303 .next
1304 &'decline'&: The router declines to accept the address because it does not
1305 recognize it at all. By default, the address is passed to the next router, but
1306 this can be prevented by setting the &%no_more%& option. When &%no_more%& is
1307 set, all the remaining routers are skipped. In effect, &%no_more%& converts
1308 &'decline'& into &'fail'&.
1309 .next
1310 &'fail'&: The router determines that the address should fail, and queues it for
1311 the generation of a bounce message. There is no further processing of the
1312 original address unless &%unseen%& is set on the router.
1313 .next
1314 &'defer'&: The router cannot handle the address at the present time. (A
1315 database may be offline, or a DNS lookup may have timed out.) No further
1316 processing of the address happens in this delivery attempt. It is tried again
1317 next time the message is considered for delivery.
1318 .next
1319 &'error'&: There is some error in the router (for example, a syntax error in
1320 its configuration). The action is as for defer.
1321 .endlist
1323 If an address reaches the end of the routers without having been accepted by
1324 any of them, it is bounced as unrouteable. The default error message in this
1325 situation is &"unrouteable address"&, but you can set your own message by
1326 making use of the &%cannot_route_message%& option. This can be set for any
1327 router; the value from the last router that &"saw"& the address is used.
1329 Sometimes while routing you want to fail a delivery when some conditions are
1330 met but others are not, instead of passing the address on for further routing.
1331 You can do this by having a second router that explicitly fails the delivery
1332 when the relevant conditions are met. The &(redirect)& router has a &"fail"&
1333 facility for this purpose.
1336 .section "Duplicate addresses" "SECID17"
1337 .cindex "case of local parts"
1338 .cindex "address duplicate, discarding"
1339 .cindex "duplicate addresses"
1340 Once routing is complete, Exim scans the addresses that are assigned to local
1341 and remote transports, and discards any duplicates that it finds. During this
1342 check, local parts are treated as case-sensitive. This happens only when
1343 actually delivering a message; when testing routers with &%-bt%&, all the
1344 routed addresses are shown.
1348 .section "Router preconditions" "SECTrouprecon"
1349 .cindex "router" "preconditions, order of processing"
1350 .cindex "preconditions" "order of processing"
1351 The preconditions that are tested for each router are listed below, in the
1352 order in which they are tested. The individual configuration options are
1353 described in more detail in chapter &<<CHAProutergeneric>>&.
1355 .ilist
1356 The &%local_part_prefix%& and &%local_part_suffix%& options can specify that
1357 the local parts handled by the router may or must have certain prefixes and/or
1358 suffixes. If a mandatory affix (prefix or suffix) is not present, the router is
1359 skipped. These conditions are tested first. When an affix is present, it is
1360 removed from the local part before further processing, including the evaluation
1361 of any other conditions.
1362 .next
1363 Routers can be designated for use only when not verifying an address, that is,
1364 only when routing it for delivery (or testing its delivery routing). If the
1365 &%verify%& option is set false, the router is skipped when Exim is verifying an
1366 address.
1367 Setting the &%verify%& option actually sets two options, &%verify_sender%& and
1368 &%verify_recipient%&, which independently control the use of the router for
1369 sender and recipient verification. You can set these options directly if
1370 you want a router to be used for only one type of verification.
1371 Note that cutthrough delivery is classed as a recipient verification for this purpose.
1372 .next
1373 If the &%address_test%& option is set false, the router is skipped when Exim is
1374 run with the &%-bt%& option to test an address routing. This can be helpful
1375 when the first router sends all new messages to a scanner of some sort; it
1376 makes it possible to use &%-bt%& to test subsequent delivery routing without
1377 having to simulate the effect of the scanner.
1378 .next
1379 Routers can be designated for use only when verifying an address, as
1380 opposed to routing it for delivery. The &%verify_only%& option controls this.
1381 Again, cutthrough delivery counts as a verification.
1382 .next
1383 Individual routers can be explicitly skipped when running the routers to
1384 check an address given in the SMTP EXPN command (see the &%expn%& option).
1385 .next
1386 If the &%domains%& option is set, the domain of the address must be in the set
1387 of domains that it defines.
1388 .next
1389 .vindex "&$local_part_prefix$&"
1390 .vindex "&$local_part$&"
1391 .vindex "&$local_part_suffix$&"
1392 If the &%local_parts%& option is set, the local part of the address must be in
1393 the set of local parts that it defines. If &%local_part_prefix%& or
1394 &%local_part_suffix%& is in use, the prefix or suffix is removed from the local
1395 part before this check. If you want to do precondition tests on local parts
1396 that include affixes, you can do so by using a &%condition%& option (see below)
1397 that uses the variables &$local_part$&, &$local_part_prefix$&, and
1398 &$local_part_suffix$& as necessary.
1399 .next
1400 .vindex "&$local_user_uid$&"
1401 .vindex "&$local_user_gid$&"
1402 .vindex "&$home$&"
1403 If the &%check_local_user%& option is set, the local part must be the name of
1404 an account on the local host. If this check succeeds, the uid and gid of the
1405 local user are placed in &$local_user_uid$& and &$local_user_gid$& and the
1406 user's home directory is placed in &$home$&; these values can be used in the
1407 remaining preconditions.
1408 .next
1409 If the &%router_home_directory%& option is set, it is expanded at this point,
1410 because it overrides the value of &$home$&. If this expansion were left till
1411 later, the value of &$home$& as set by &%check_local_user%& would be used in
1412 subsequent tests. Having two different values of &$home$& in the same router
1413 could lead to confusion.
1414 .next
1415 If the &%senders%& option is set, the envelope sender address must be in the
1416 set of addresses that it defines.
1417 .next
1418 If the &%require_files%& option is set, the existence or non-existence of
1419 specified files is tested.
1420 .next
1421 .cindex "customizing" "precondition"
1422 If the &%condition%& option is set, it is evaluated and tested. This option
1423 uses an expanded string to allow you to set up your own custom preconditions.
1424 Expanded strings are described in chapter &<<CHAPexpand>>&.
1425 .endlist
1428 Note that &%require_files%& comes near the end of the list, so you cannot use
1429 it to check for the existence of a file in which to lookup up a domain, local
1430 part, or sender. However, as these options are all expanded, you can use the
1431 &%exists%& expansion condition to make such tests within each condition. The
1432 &%require_files%& option is intended for checking files that the router may be
1433 going to use internally, or which are needed by a specific transport (for
1434 example, &_.procmailrc_&).
1438 .section "Delivery in detail" "SECID18"
1439 .cindex "delivery" "in detail"
1440 When a message is to be delivered, the sequence of events is as follows:
1442 .ilist
1443 If a system-wide filter file is specified, the message is passed to it. The
1444 filter may add recipients to the message, replace the recipients, discard the
1445 message, cause a new message to be generated, or cause the message delivery to
1446 fail. The format of the system filter file is the same as for Exim user filter
1447 files, described in the separate document entitled &'Exim's interfaces to mail
1448 filtering'&.
1449 .cindex "Sieve filter" "not available for system filter"
1450 (&*Note*&: Sieve cannot be used for system filter files.)
1452 Some additional features are available in system filters &-- see chapter
1453 &<<CHAPsystemfilter>>& for details. Note that a message is passed to the system
1454 filter only once per delivery attempt, however many recipients it has. However,
1455 if there are several delivery attempts because one or more addresses could not
1456 be immediately delivered, the system filter is run each time. The filter
1457 condition &%first_delivery%& can be used to detect the first run of the system
1458 filter.
1459 .next
1460 Each recipient address is offered to each configured router in turn, subject to
1461 its preconditions, until one is able to handle it. If no router can handle the
1462 address, that is, if they all decline, the address is failed. Because routers
1463 can be targeted at particular domains, several locally handled domains can be
1464 processed entirely independently of each other.
1465 .next
1466 .cindex "routing" "loops in"
1467 .cindex "loop" "while routing"
1468 A router that accepts an address may assign it to a local or a remote
1469 transport. However, the transport is not run at this time. Instead, the address
1470 is placed on a list for the particular transport, which will be run later.
1471 Alternatively, the router may generate one or more new addresses (typically
1472 from alias, forward, or filter files). New addresses are fed back into this
1473 process from the top, but in order to avoid loops, a router ignores any address
1474 which has an identically-named ancestor that was processed by itself.
1475 .next
1476 When all the routing has been done, addresses that have been successfully
1477 handled are passed to their assigned transports. When local transports are
1478 doing real local deliveries, they handle only one address at a time, but if a
1479 local transport is being used as a pseudo-remote transport (for example, to
1480 collect batched SMTP messages for transmission by some other means) multiple
1481 addresses can be handled. Remote transports can always handle more than one
1482 address at a time, but can be configured not to do so, or to restrict multiple
1483 addresses to the same domain.
1484 .next
1485 Each local delivery to a file or a pipe runs in a separate process under a
1486 non-privileged uid, and these deliveries are run one at a time. Remote
1487 deliveries also run in separate processes, normally under a uid that is private
1488 to Exim (&"the Exim user"&), but in this case, several remote deliveries can be
1489 run in parallel. The maximum number of simultaneous remote deliveries for any
1490 one message is set by the &%remote_max_parallel%& option.
1491 The order in which deliveries are done is not defined, except that all local
1492 deliveries happen before any remote deliveries.
1493 .next
1494 .cindex "queue runner"
1495 When it encounters a local delivery during a queue run, Exim checks its retry
1496 database to see if there has been a previous temporary delivery failure for the
1497 address before running the local transport. If there was a previous failure,
1498 Exim does not attempt a new delivery until the retry time for the address is
1499 reached. However, this happens only for delivery attempts that are part of a
1500 queue run. Local deliveries are always attempted when delivery immediately
1501 follows message reception, even if retry times are set for them. This makes for
1502 better behaviour if one particular message is causing problems (for example,
1503 causing quota overflow, or provoking an error in a filter file).
1504 .next
1505 .cindex "delivery" "retry in remote transports"
1506 Remote transports do their own retry handling, since an address may be
1507 deliverable to one of a number of hosts, each of which may have a different
1508 retry time. If there have been previous temporary failures and no host has
1509 reached its retry time, no delivery is attempted, whether in a queue run or
1510 not. See chapter &<<CHAPretry>>& for details of retry strategies.
1511 .next
1512 If there were any permanent errors, a bounce message is returned to an
1513 appropriate address (the sender in the common case), with details of the error
1514 for each failing address. Exim can be configured to send copies of bounce
1515 messages to other addresses.
1516 .next
1517 .cindex "delivery" "deferral"
1518 If one or more addresses suffered a temporary failure, the message is left on
1519 the queue, to be tried again later. Delivery of these addresses is said to be
1520 &'deferred'&.
1521 .next
1522 When all the recipient addresses have either been delivered or bounced,
1523 handling of the message is complete. The spool files and message log are
1524 deleted, though the message log can optionally be preserved if required.
1525 .endlist
1530 .section "Retry mechanism" "SECID19"
1531 .cindex "delivery" "retry mechanism"
1532 .cindex "retry" "description of mechanism"
1533 .cindex "queue runner"
1534 Exim's mechanism for retrying messages that fail to get delivered at the first
1535 attempt is the queue runner process. You must either run an Exim daemon that
1536 uses the &%-q%& option with a time interval to start queue runners at regular
1537 intervals, or use some other means (such as &'cron'&) to start them. If you do
1538 not arrange for queue runners to be run, messages that fail temporarily at the
1539 first attempt will remain on your queue for ever. A queue runner process works
1540 its way through the queue, one message at a time, trying each delivery that has
1541 passed its retry time.
1542 You can run several queue runners at once.
1544 Exim uses a set of configured rules to determine when next to retry the failing
1545 address (see chapter &<<CHAPretry>>&). These rules also specify when Exim
1546 should give up trying to deliver to the address, at which point it generates a
1547 bounce message. If no retry rules are set for a particular host, address, and
1548 error combination, no retries are attempted, and temporary errors are treated
1549 as permanent.
1553 .section "Temporary delivery failure" "SECID20"
1554 .cindex "delivery" "temporary failure"
1555 There are many reasons why a message may not be immediately deliverable to a
1556 particular address. Failure to connect to a remote machine (because it, or the
1557 connection to it, is down) is one of the most common. Temporary failures may be
1558 detected during routing as well as during the transport stage of delivery.
1559 Local deliveries may be delayed if NFS files are unavailable, or if a mailbox
1560 is on a file system where the user is over quota. Exim can be configured to
1561 impose its own quotas on local mailboxes; where system quotas are set they will
1562 also apply.
1564 If a host is unreachable for a period of time, a number of messages may be
1565 waiting for it by the time it recovers, and sending them in a single SMTP
1566 connection is clearly beneficial. Whenever a delivery to a remote host is
1567 deferred,
1568 .cindex "hints database" "deferred deliveries"
1569 Exim makes a note in its hints database, and whenever a successful
1570 SMTP delivery has happened, it looks to see if any other messages are waiting
1571 for the same host. If any are found, they are sent over the same SMTP
1572 connection, subject to a configuration limit as to the maximum number in any
1573 one connection.
1577 .section "Permanent delivery failure" "SECID21"
1578 .cindex "delivery" "permanent failure"
1579 .cindex "bounce message" "when generated"
1580 When a message cannot be delivered to some or all of its intended recipients, a
1581 bounce message is generated. Temporary delivery failures turn into permanent
1582 errors when their timeout expires. All the addresses that fail in a given
1583 delivery attempt are listed in a single message. If the original message has
1584 many recipients, it is possible for some addresses to fail in one delivery
1585 attempt and others to fail subsequently, giving rise to more than one bounce
1586 message. The wording of bounce messages can be customized by the administrator.
1587 See chapter &<<CHAPemsgcust>>& for details.
1589 .cindex "&'X-Failed-Recipients:'& header line"
1590 Bounce messages contain an &'X-Failed-Recipients:'& header line that lists the
1591 failed addresses, for the benefit of programs that try to analyse such messages
1592 automatically.
1594 .cindex "bounce message" "recipient of"
1595 A bounce message is normally sent to the sender of the original message, as
1596 obtained from the message's envelope. For incoming SMTP messages, this is the
1597 address given in the MAIL command. However, when an address is expanded via a
1598 forward or alias file, an alternative address can be specified for delivery
1599 failures of the generated addresses. For a mailing list expansion (see section
1600 &<<SECTmailinglists>>&) it is common to direct bounce messages to the manager
1601 of the list.
1605 .section "Failures to deliver bounce messages" "SECID22"
1606 .cindex "bounce message" "failure to deliver"
1607 If a bounce message (either locally generated or received from a remote host)
1608 itself suffers a permanent delivery failure, the message is left on the queue,
1609 but it is frozen, awaiting the attention of an administrator. There are options
1610 that can be used to make Exim discard such failed messages, or to keep them
1611 for only a short time (see &%timeout_frozen_after%& and
1612 &%ignore_bounce_errors_after%&).
1618 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
1619 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
1621 .chapter "Building and installing Exim" "CHID3"
1622 .scindex IIDbuex "building Exim"
1624 .section "Unpacking" "SECID23"
1625 Exim is distributed as a gzipped or bzipped tar file which, when unpacked,
1626 creates a directory with the name of the current release (for example,
1627 &_exim-&version()_&) into which the following files are placed:
1629 .table2 140pt
1630 .irow &_ACKNOWLEDGMENTS_& "contains some acknowledgments"
1631 .irow &_CHANGES_& "contains a reference to where changes are &&&
1632 documented"
1633 .irow &_LICENCE_& "the GNU General Public Licence"
1634 .irow &_Makefile_& "top-level make file"
1635 .irow &_NOTICE_& "conditions for the use of Exim"
1636 .irow &_README_& "list of files, directories and simple build &&&
1637 instructions"
1638 .endtable
1640 Other files whose names begin with &_README_& may also be present. The
1641 following subdirectories are created:
1643 .table2 140pt
1644 .irow &_Local_& "an empty directory for local configuration files"
1645 .irow &_OS_& "OS-specific files"
1646 .irow &_doc_& "documentation files"
1647 .irow &_exim_monitor_& "source files for the Exim monitor"
1648 .irow &_scripts_& "scripts used in the build process"
1649 .irow &_src_& "remaining source files"
1650 .irow &_util_& "independent utilities"
1651 .endtable
1653 The main utility programs are contained in the &_src_& directory, and are built
1654 with the Exim binary. The &_util_& directory contains a few optional scripts
1655 that may be useful to some sites.
1658 .section "Multiple machine architectures and operating systems" "SECID24"
1659 .cindex "building Exim" "multiple OS/architectures"
1660 The building process for Exim is arranged to make it easy to build binaries for
1661 a number of different architectures and operating systems from the same set of
1662 source files. Compilation does not take place in the &_src_& directory.
1663 Instead, a &'build directory'& is created for each architecture and operating
1664 system.
1665 .cindex "symbolic link" "to build directory"
1666 Symbolic links to the sources are installed in this directory, which is where
1667 the actual building takes place. In most cases, Exim can discover the machine
1668 architecture and operating system for itself, but the defaults can be
1669 overridden if necessary.
1670 .cindex compiler requirements
1671 .cindex compiler version
1672 A C99-capable compiler will be required for the build.
1675 .section "PCRE library" "SECTpcre"
1676 .cindex "PCRE library"
1677 Exim no longer has an embedded PCRE library as the vast majority of
1678 modern systems include PCRE as a system library, although you may need
1679 to install the PCRE or PCRE development package for your operating
1680 system. If your system has a normal PCRE installation the Exim build
1681 process will need no further configuration. If the library or the
1682 headers are in an unusual location you will need to either set the PCRE_LIBS
1683 and INCLUDE directives appropriately,
1684 or set PCRE_CONFIG=yes to use the installed &(pcre-config)& command.
1685 If your operating system has no
1686 PCRE support then you will need to obtain and build the current PCRE
1687 from &url(
1688 More information on PCRE is available at &url(
1690 .section "DBM libraries" "SECTdb"
1691 .cindex "DBM libraries" "discussion of"
1692 .cindex "hints database" "DBM files used for"
1693 Even if you do not use any DBM files in your configuration, Exim still needs a
1694 DBM library in order to operate, because it uses indexed files for its hints
1695 databases. Unfortunately, there are a number of DBM libraries in existence, and
1696 different operating systems often have different ones installed.
1698 .cindex "Solaris" "DBM library for"
1699 .cindex "IRIX, DBM library for"
1700 .cindex "BSD, DBM library for"
1701 .cindex "Linux, DBM library for"
1702 If you are using Solaris, IRIX, one of the modern BSD systems, or a modern
1703 Linux distribution, the DBM configuration should happen automatically, and you
1704 may be able to ignore this section. Otherwise, you may have to learn more than
1705 you would like about DBM libraries from what follows.
1707 .cindex "&'ndbm'& DBM library"
1708 Licensed versions of Unix normally contain a library of DBM functions operating
1709 via the &'ndbm'& interface, and this is what Exim expects by default. Free
1710 versions of Unix seem to vary in what they contain as standard. In particular,
1711 some early versions of Linux have no default DBM library, and different
1712 distributors have chosen to bundle different libraries with their packaged
1713 versions. However, the more recent releases seem to have standardized on the
1714 Berkeley DB library.
1716 Different DBM libraries have different conventions for naming the files they
1717 use. When a program opens a file called &_dbmfile_&, there are several
1718 possibilities:
1720 .olist
1721 A traditional &'ndbm'& implementation, such as that supplied as part of
1722 Solaris, operates on two files called &_dbmfile.dir_& and &_dbmfile.pag_&.
1723 .next
1724 .cindex "&'gdbm'& DBM library"
1725 The GNU library, &'gdbm'&, operates on a single file. If used via its &'ndbm'&
1726 compatibility interface it makes two different hard links to it with names
1727 &_dbmfile.dir_& and &_dbmfile.pag_&, but if used via its native interface, the
1728 file name is used unmodified.
1729 .next
1730 .cindex "Berkeley DB library"
1731 The Berkeley DB package, if called via its &'ndbm'& compatibility interface,
1732 operates on a single file called &_dbmfile.db_&, but otherwise looks to the
1733 programmer exactly the same as the traditional &'ndbm'& implementation.
1734 .next
1735 If the Berkeley package is used in its native mode, it operates on a single
1736 file called &_dbmfile_&; the programmer's interface is somewhat different to
1737 the traditional &'ndbm'& interface.
1738 .next
1739 To complicate things further, there are several very different versions of the
1740 Berkeley DB package. Version 1.85 was stable for a very long time, releases
1741 2.&'x'& and 3.&'x'& were current for a while, but the latest versions are now
1742 numbered 4.&'x'&. Maintenance of some of the earlier releases has ceased. All
1743 versions of Berkeley DB can be obtained from
1744 &url(
1745 .next
1746 .cindex "&'tdb'& DBM library"
1747 Yet another DBM library, called &'tdb'&, is available from
1748 &url( It has its own interface, and also
1749 operates on a single file.
1750 .endlist
1752 .cindex "USE_DB"
1753 .cindex "DBM libraries" "configuration for building"
1754 Exim and its utilities can be compiled to use any of these interfaces. In order
1755 to use any version of the Berkeley DB package in native mode, you must set
1756 USE_DB in an appropriate configuration file (typically
1757 &_Local/Makefile_&). For example:
1758 .code
1759 USE_DB=yes
1760 .endd
1761 Similarly, for gdbm you set USE_GDBM, and for tdb you set USE_TDB. An
1762 error is diagnosed if you set more than one of these.
1764 At the lowest level, the build-time configuration sets none of these options,
1765 thereby assuming an interface of type (1). However, some operating system
1766 configuration files (for example, those for the BSD operating systems and
1767 Linux) assume type (4) by setting USE_DB as their default, and the
1768 configuration files for Cygwin set USE_GDBM. Anything you set in
1769 &_Local/Makefile_&, however, overrides these system defaults.
1771 As well as setting USE_DB, USE_GDBM, or USE_TDB, it may also be
1772 necessary to set DBMLIB, to cause inclusion of the appropriate library, as
1773 in one of these lines:
1774 .code
1775 DBMLIB = -ldb
1776 DBMLIB = -ltdb
1777 .endd
1778 Settings like that will work if the DBM library is installed in the standard
1779 place. Sometimes it is not, and the library's header file may also not be in
1780 the default path. You may need to set INCLUDE to specify where the header
1781 file is, and to specify the path to the library more fully in DBMLIB, as in
1782 this example:
1783 .code
1784 INCLUDE=-I/usr/local/include/db-4.1
1785 DBMLIB=/usr/local/lib/db-4.1/libdb.a
1786 .endd
1787 There is further detailed discussion about the various DBM libraries in the
1788 file &_doc/dbm.discuss.txt_& in the Exim distribution.
1792 .section "Pre-building configuration" "SECID25"
1793 .cindex "building Exim" "pre-building configuration"
1794 .cindex "configuration for building Exim"
1795 .cindex "&_Local/Makefile_&"
1796 .cindex "&_src/EDITME_&"
1797 Before building Exim, a local configuration file that specifies options
1798 independent of any operating system has to be created with the name
1799 &_Local/Makefile_&. A template for this file is supplied as the file
1800 &_src/EDITME_&, and it contains full descriptions of all the option settings
1801 therein. These descriptions are therefore not repeated here. If you are
1802 building Exim for the first time, the simplest thing to do is to copy
1803 &_src/EDITME_& to &_Local/Makefile_&, then read it and edit it appropriately.
1805 There are three settings that you must supply, because Exim will not build
1806 without them. They are the location of the run time configuration file
1807 (CONFIGURE_FILE), the directory in which Exim binaries will be installed
1808 (BIN_DIRECTORY), and the identity of the Exim user (EXIM_USER and
1809 maybe EXIM_GROUP as well). The value of CONFIGURE_FILE can in fact be
1810 a colon-separated list of file names; Exim uses the first of them that exists.
1812 There are a few other parameters that can be specified either at build time or
1813 at run time, to enable the same binary to be used on a number of different
1814 machines. However, if the locations of Exim's spool directory and log file
1815 directory (if not within the spool directory) are fixed, it is recommended that
1816 you specify them in &_Local/Makefile_& instead of at run time, so that errors
1817 detected early in Exim's execution (such as a malformed configuration file) can
1818 be logged.
1820 .cindex "content scanning" "specifying at build time"
1821 Exim's interfaces for calling virus and spam scanning software directly from
1822 access control lists are not compiled by default. If you want to include these
1823 facilities, you need to set
1824 .code
1826 .endd
1827 in your &_Local/Makefile_&. For details of the facilities themselves, see
1828 chapter &<<CHAPexiscan>>&.
1831 .cindex "&_Local/eximon.conf_&"
1832 .cindex "&_exim_monitor/EDITME_&"
1833 If you are going to build the Exim monitor, a similar configuration process is
1834 required. The file &_exim_monitor/EDITME_& must be edited appropriately for
1835 your installation and saved under the name &_Local/eximon.conf_&. If you are
1836 happy with the default settings described in &_exim_monitor/EDITME_&,
1837 &_Local/eximon.conf_& can be empty, but it must exist.
1839 This is all the configuration that is needed in straightforward cases for known
1840 operating systems. However, the building process is set up so that it is easy
1841 to override options that are set by default or by operating-system-specific
1842 configuration files, for example to change the name of the C compiler, which
1843 defaults to &%gcc%&. See section &<<SECToverride>>& below for details of how to
1844 do this.
1848 .section "Support for iconv()" "SECID26"
1849 .cindex "&[iconv()]& support"
1850 .cindex "RFC 2047"
1851 The contents of header lines in messages may be encoded according to the rules
1852 described RFC 2047. This makes it possible to transmit characters that are not
1853 in the ASCII character set, and to label them as being in a particular
1854 character set. When Exim is inspecting header lines by means of the &%$h_%&
1855 mechanism, it decodes them, and translates them into a specified character set
1856 (default is set at build time). The translation is possible only if the operating system
1857 supports the &[iconv()]& function.
1859 However, some of the operating systems that supply &[iconv()]& do not support
1860 very many conversions. The GNU &%libiconv%& library (available from
1861 &url( can be installed on such
1862 systems to remedy this deficiency, as well as on systems that do not supply
1863 &[iconv()]& at all. After installing &%libiconv%&, you should add
1864 .code
1865 HAVE_ICONV=yes
1866 .endd
1867 to your &_Local/Makefile_& and rebuild Exim.
1871 .section "Including TLS/SSL encryption support" "SECTinctlsssl"
1872 .cindex "TLS" "including support for TLS"
1873 .cindex "encryption" "including support for"
1874 .cindex "SUPPORT_TLS"
1875 .cindex "OpenSSL" "building Exim with"
1876 .cindex "GnuTLS" "building Exim with"
1877 Exim can be built to support encrypted SMTP connections, using the STARTTLS
1878 command as per RFC 2487. It can also support legacy clients that expect to
1879 start a TLS session immediately on connection to a non-standard port (see the
1880 &%tls_on_connect_ports%& runtime option and the &%-tls-on-connect%& command
1881 line option).
1883 If you want to build Exim with TLS support, you must first install either the
1884 OpenSSL or GnuTLS library. There is no cryptographic code in Exim itself for
1885 implementing SSL.
1887 If OpenSSL is installed, you should set
1888 .code
1889 SUPPORT_TLS=yes
1890 TLS_LIBS=-lssl -lcrypto
1891 .endd
1892 in &_Local/Makefile_&. You may also need to specify the locations of the
1893 OpenSSL library and include files. For example:
1894 .code
1895 SUPPORT_TLS=yes
1896 TLS_LIBS=-L/usr/local/openssl/lib -lssl -lcrypto
1897 TLS_INCLUDE=-I/usr/local/openssl/include/
1898 .endd
1899 .cindex "pkg-config" "OpenSSL"
1900 If you have &'pkg-config'& available, then instead you can just use:
1901 .code
1902 SUPPORT_TLS=yes
1903 USE_OPENSSL_PC=openssl
1904 .endd
1905 .cindex "USE_GNUTLS"
1906 If GnuTLS is installed, you should set
1907 .code
1908 SUPPORT_TLS=yes
1909 USE_GNUTLS=yes
1910 TLS_LIBS=-lgnutls -ltasn1 -lgcrypt
1911 .endd
1912 in &_Local/Makefile_&, and again you may need to specify the locations of the
1913 library and include files. For example:
1914 .code
1915 SUPPORT_TLS=yes
1916 USE_GNUTLS=yes
1917 TLS_LIBS=-L/usr/gnu/lib -lgnutls -ltasn1 -lgcrypt
1918 TLS_INCLUDE=-I/usr/gnu/include
1919 .endd
1920 .cindex "pkg-config" "GnuTLS"
1921 If you have &'pkg-config'& available, then instead you can just use:
1922 .code
1923 SUPPORT_TLS=yes
1924 USE_GNUTLS=yes
1925 USE_GNUTLS_PC=gnutls
1926 .endd
1928 You do not need to set TLS_INCLUDE if the relevant directory is already
1929 specified in INCLUDE. Details of how to configure Exim to make use of TLS are
1930 given in chapter &<<CHAPTLS>>&.
1935 .section "Use of tcpwrappers" "SECID27"
1937 .cindex "tcpwrappers, building Exim to support"
1938 .cindex "USE_TCP_WRAPPERS"
1940 .cindex "tcp_wrappers_daemon_name"
1941 Exim can be linked with the &'tcpwrappers'& library in order to check incoming
1942 SMTP calls using the &'tcpwrappers'& control files. This may be a convenient
1943 alternative to Exim's own checking facilities for installations that are
1944 already making use of &'tcpwrappers'& for other purposes. To do this, you
1945 should set USE_TCP_WRAPPERS in &_Local/Makefile_&, arrange for the file
1946 &_tcpd.h_& to be available at compile time, and also ensure that the library
1947 &_libwrap.a_& is available at link time, typically by including &%-lwrap%& in
1948 EXTRALIBS_EXIM. For example, if &'tcpwrappers'& is installed in &_/usr/local_&,
1949 you might have
1950 .code
1952 CFLAGS=-O -I/usr/local/include
1953 EXTRALIBS_EXIM=-L/usr/local/lib -lwrap
1954 .endd
1955 in &_Local/Makefile_&. The daemon name to use in the &'tcpwrappers'& control
1956 files is &"exim"&. For example, the line
1957 .code
1958 exim : LOCAL 192.168.1. .friendly.domain.example
1959 .endd
1960 in your &_/etc/hosts.allow_& file allows connections from the local host, from
1961 the subnet, and from all hosts in &'friendly.domain.example'&.
1962 All other connections are denied. The daemon name used by &'tcpwrappers'&
1963 can be changed at build time by setting TCP_WRAPPERS_DAEMON_NAME in
1964 &_Local/Makefile_&, or by setting tcp_wrappers_daemon_name in the
1965 configure file. Consult the &'tcpwrappers'& documentation for
1966 further details.
1969 .section "Including support for IPv6" "SECID28"
1970 .cindex "IPv6" "including support for"
1971 Exim contains code for use on systems that have IPv6 support. Setting
1972 &`HAVE_IPV6=YES`& in &_Local/Makefile_& causes the IPv6 code to be included;
1973 it may also be necessary to set IPV6_INCLUDE and IPV6_LIBS on systems
1974 where the IPv6 support is not fully integrated into the normal include and
1975 library files.
1977 Two different types of DNS record for handling IPv6 addresses have been
1978 defined. AAAA records (analogous to A records for IPv4) are in use, and are
1979 currently seen as the mainstream. Another record type called A6 was proposed
1980 as better than AAAA because it had more flexibility. However, it was felt to be
1981 over-complex, and its status was reduced to &"experimental"&.
1982 Exim used to
1983 have a compile option for including A6 record support but this has now been
1984 withdrawn.
1988 .section "Dynamically loaded lookup module support" "SECTdynamicmodules"
1989 .cindex "lookup modules"
1990 .cindex "dynamic modules"
1991 .cindex ".so building"
1992 On some platforms, Exim supports not compiling all lookup types directly into
1993 the main binary, instead putting some into external modules which can be loaded
1994 on demand.
1995 This permits packagers to build Exim with support for lookups with extensive
1996 library dependencies without requiring all users to install all of those
1997 dependencies.
1998 Most, but not all, lookup types can be built this way.
2000 Set &`LOOKUP_MODULE_DIR`& to the directory into which the modules will be
2001 installed; Exim will only load modules from that directory, as a security
2002 measure. You will need to set &`CFLAGS_DYNAMIC`& if not already defined
2003 for your OS; see &_OS/Makefile-Linux_& for an example.
2004 Some other requirements for adjusting &`EXTRALIBS`& may also be necessary,
2005 see &_src/EDITME_& for details.
2007 Then, for each module to be loaded dynamically, define the relevant
2008 &`LOOKUP_`&<&'lookup_type'&> flags to have the value "2" instead of "yes".
2009 For example, this will build in lsearch but load sqlite and mysql support
2010 on demand:
2011 .code
2015 .endd
2018 .section "The building process" "SECID29"
2019 .cindex "build directory"
2020 Once &_Local/Makefile_& (and &_Local/eximon.conf_&, if required) have been
2021 created, run &'make'& at the top level. It determines the architecture and
2022 operating system types, and creates a build directory if one does not exist.
2023 For example, on a Sun system running Solaris 8, the directory
2024 &_build-SunOS5-5.8-sparc_& is created.
2025 .cindex "symbolic link" "to source files"
2026 Symbolic links to relevant source files are installed in the build directory.
2028 If this is the first time &'make'& has been run, it calls a script that builds
2029 a make file inside the build directory, using the configuration files from the
2030 &_Local_& directory. The new make file is then passed to another instance of
2031 &'make'&. This does the real work, building a number of utility scripts, and
2032 then compiling and linking the binaries for the Exim monitor (if configured), a
2033 number of utility programs, and finally Exim itself. The command &`make
2034 makefile`& can be used to force a rebuild of the make file in the build
2035 directory, should this ever be necessary.
2037 If you have problems building Exim, check for any comments there may be in the
2038 &_README_& file concerning your operating system, and also take a look at the
2039 FAQ, where some common problems are covered.
2043 .section 'Output from &"make"&' "SECID283"
2044 The output produced by the &'make'& process for compile lines is often very
2045 unreadable, because these lines can be very long. For this reason, the normal
2046 output is suppressed by default, and instead output similar to that which
2047 appears when compiling the 2.6 Linux kernel is generated: just a short line for
2048 each module that is being compiled or linked. However, it is still possible to
2049 get the full output, by calling &'make'& like this:
2050 .code
2051 FULLECHO='' make -e
2052 .endd
2053 The value of FULLECHO defaults to &"@"&, the flag character that suppresses
2054 command reflection in &'make'&. When you ask for the full output, it is
2055 given in addition to the short output.
2059 .section "Overriding build-time options for Exim" "SECToverride"
2060 .cindex "build-time options, overriding"
2061 The main make file that is created at the beginning of the building process
2062 consists of the concatenation of a number of files which set configuration
2063 values, followed by a fixed set of &'make'& instructions. If a value is set
2064 more than once, the last setting overrides any previous ones. This provides a
2065 convenient way of overriding defaults. The files that are concatenated are, in
2066 order:
2067 .display
2068 &_OS/Makefile-Default_&
2069 &_OS/Makefile-_&<&'ostype'&>
2070 &_Local/Makefile_&
2071 &_Local/Makefile-_&<&'ostype'&>
2072 &_Local/Makefile-_&<&'archtype'&>
2073 &_Local/Makefile-_&<&'ostype'&>-<&'archtype'&>
2074 &_OS/Makefile-Base_&
2075 .endd
2076 .cindex "&_Local/Makefile_&"
2077 .cindex "building Exim" "operating system type"
2078 .cindex "building Exim" "architecture type"
2079 where <&'ostype'&> is the operating system type and <&'archtype'&> is the
2080 architecture type. &_Local/Makefile_& is required to exist, and the building
2081 process fails if it is absent. The other three &_Local_& files are optional,
2082 and are often not needed.
2084 The values used for <&'ostype'&> and <&'archtype'&> are obtained from scripts
2085 called &_scripts/os-type_& and &_scripts/arch-type_& respectively. If either of
2086 the environment variables EXIM_OSTYPE or EXIM_ARCHTYPE is set, their
2087 values are used, thereby providing a means of forcing particular settings.
2088 Otherwise, the scripts try to get values from the &%uname%& command. If this
2089 fails, the shell variables OSTYPE and ARCHTYPE are inspected. A number
2090 of &'ad hoc'& transformations are then applied, to produce the standard names
2091 that Exim expects. You can run these scripts directly from the shell in order
2092 to find out what values are being used on your system.
2095 &_OS/Makefile-Default_& contains comments about the variables that are set
2096 therein. Some (but not all) are mentioned below. If there is something that
2097 needs changing, review the contents of this file and the contents of the make
2098 file for your operating system (&_OS/Makefile-<ostype>_&) to see what the
2099 default values are.
2102 .cindex "building Exim" "overriding default settings"
2103 If you need to change any of the values that are set in &_OS/Makefile-Default_&
2104 or in &_OS/Makefile-<ostype>_&, or to add any new definitions, you do not
2105 need to change the original files. Instead, you should make the changes by
2106 putting the new values in an appropriate &_Local_& file. For example,
2107 .cindex "Tru64-Unix build-time settings"
2108 when building Exim in many releases of the Tru64-Unix (formerly Digital UNIX,
2109 formerly DEC-OSF1) operating system, it is necessary to specify that the C
2110 compiler is called &'cc'& rather than &'gcc'&. Also, the compiler must be
2111 called with the option &%-std1%&, to make it recognize some of the features of
2112 Standard C that Exim uses. (Most other compilers recognize Standard C by
2113 default.) To do this, you should create a file called &_Local/Makefile-OSF1_&
2114 containing the lines
2115 .code
2116 CC=cc
2117 CFLAGS=-std1
2118 .endd
2119 If you are compiling for just one operating system, it may be easier to put
2120 these lines directly into &_Local/Makefile_&.
2122 Keeping all your local configuration settings separate from the distributed
2123 files makes it easy to transfer them to new versions of Exim simply by copying
2124 the contents of the &_Local_& directory.
2127 .cindex "NIS lookup type" "including support for"
2128 .cindex "NIS+ lookup type" "including support for"
2129 .cindex "LDAP" "including support for"
2130 .cindex "lookup" "inclusion in binary"
2131 Exim contains support for doing LDAP, NIS, NIS+, and other kinds of file
2132 lookup, but not all systems have these components installed, so the default is
2133 not to include the relevant code in the binary. All the different kinds of file
2134 and database lookup that Exim supports are implemented as separate code modules
2135 which are included only if the relevant compile-time options are set. In the
2136 case of LDAP, NIS, and NIS+, the settings for &_Local/Makefile_& are:
2137 .code
2138 LOOKUP_LDAP=yes
2139 LOOKUP_NIS=yes
2141 .endd
2142 and similar settings apply to the other lookup types. They are all listed in
2143 &_src/EDITME_&. In many cases the relevant include files and interface
2144 libraries need to be installed before compiling Exim.
2145 .cindex "cdb" "including support for"
2146 However, there are some optional lookup types (such as cdb) for which
2147 the code is entirely contained within Exim, and no external include
2148 files or libraries are required. When a lookup type is not included in the
2149 binary, attempts to configure Exim to use it cause run time configuration
2150 errors.
2152 .cindex "pkg-config" "lookups"
2153 .cindex "pkg-config" "authenticators"
2154 Many systems now use a tool called &'pkg-config'& to encapsulate information
2155 about how to compile against a library; Exim has some initial support for
2156 being able to use pkg-config for lookups and authenticators. For any given
2157 makefile variable which starts &`LOOKUP_`& or &`AUTH_`&, you can add a new
2158 variable with the &`_PC`& suffix in the name and assign as the value the
2159 name of the package to be queried. The results of querying via the
2160 &'pkg-config'& command will be added to the appropriate Makefile variables
2161 with &`+=`& directives, so your version of &'make'& will need to support that
2162 syntax. For instance:
2163 .code
2165 LOOKUP_SQLITE_PC=sqlite3
2166 AUTH_GSASL=yes
2167 AUTH_GSASL_PC=libgsasl
2169 AUTH_HEIMDAL_GSSAPI_PC=heimdal-gssapi
2170 .endd
2172 .cindex "Perl" "including support for"
2173 Exim can be linked with an embedded Perl interpreter, allowing Perl
2174 subroutines to be called during string expansion. To enable this facility,
2175 .code
2176 EXIM_PERL=perl.o
2177 .endd
2178 must be defined in &_Local/Makefile_&. Details of this facility are given in
2179 chapter &<<CHAPperl>>&.
2181 .cindex "X11 libraries, location of"
2182 The location of the X11 libraries is something that varies a lot between
2183 operating systems, and there may be different versions of X11 to cope
2184 with. Exim itself makes no use of X11, but if you are compiling the Exim
2185 monitor, the X11 libraries must be available.
2186 The following three variables are set in &_OS/Makefile-Default_&:
2187 .code
2188 X11=/usr/X11R6
2189 XINCLUDE=-I$(X11)/include
2190 XLFLAGS=-L$(X11)/lib
2191 .endd
2192 These are overridden in some of the operating-system configuration files. For
2193 example, in &_OS/Makefile-SunOS5_& there is
2194 .code
2195 X11=/usr/openwin
2196 XINCLUDE=-I$(X11)/include
2197 XLFLAGS=-L$(X11)/lib -R$(X11)/lib
2198 .endd
2199 If you need to override the default setting for your operating system, place a
2200 definition of all three of these variables into your
2201 &_Local/Makefile-<ostype>_& file.
2203 .cindex "EXTRALIBS"
2204 If you need to add any extra libraries to the link steps, these can be put in a
2205 variable called EXTRALIBS, which appears in all the link commands, but by
2206 default is not defined. In contrast, EXTRALIBS_EXIM is used only on the
2207 command for linking the main Exim binary, and not for any associated utilities.
2209 .cindex "DBM libraries" "configuration for building"
2210 There is also DBMLIB, which appears in the link commands for binaries that
2211 use DBM functions (see also section &<<SECTdb>>&). Finally, there is
2212 EXTRALIBS_EXIMON, which appears only in the link step for the Exim monitor
2213 binary, and which can be used, for example, to include additional X11
2214 libraries.
2216 .cindex "configuration file" "editing"
2217 The make file copes with rebuilding Exim correctly if any of the configuration
2218 files are edited. However, if an optional configuration file is deleted, it is
2219 necessary to touch the associated non-optional file (that is,
2220 &_Local/Makefile_& or &_Local/eximon.conf_&) before rebuilding.
2223 .section "OS-specific header files" "SECID30"
2224 .cindex "&_os.h_&"
2225 .cindex "building Exim" "OS-specific C header files"
2226 The &_OS_& directory contains a number of files with names of the form
2227 &_os.h-<ostype>_&. These are system-specific C header files that should not
2228 normally need to be changed. There is a list of macro settings that are
2229 recognized in the file &_OS/os.configuring_&, which should be consulted if you
2230 are porting Exim to a new operating system.
2234 .section "Overriding build-time options for the monitor" "SECID31"
2235 .cindex "building Eximon"
2236 A similar process is used for overriding things when building the Exim monitor,
2237 where the files that are involved are
2238 .display
2239 &_OS/eximon.conf-Default_&
2240 &_OS/eximon.conf-_&<&'ostype'&>
2241 &_Local/eximon.conf_&
2242 &_Local/eximon.conf-_&<&'ostype'&>
2243 &_Local/eximon.conf-_&<&'archtype'&>
2244 &_Local/eximon.conf-_&<&'ostype'&>-<&'archtype'&>
2245 .endd
2246 .cindex "&_Local/eximon.conf_&"
2247 As with Exim itself, the final three files need not exist, and in this case the
2248 &_OS/eximon.conf-<ostype>_& file is also optional. The default values in
2249 &_OS/eximon.conf-Default_& can be overridden dynamically by setting environment
2250 variables of the same name, preceded by EXIMON_. For example, setting
2251 EXIMON_LOG_DEPTH in the environment overrides the value of
2252 LOG_DEPTH at run time.
2253 .ecindex IIDbuex
2256 .section "Installing Exim binaries and scripts" "SECID32"
2257 .cindex "installing Exim"
2258 .cindex "BIN_DIRECTORY"
2259 The command &`make install`& runs the &(exim_install)& script with no
2260 arguments. The script copies binaries and utility scripts into the directory
2261 whose name is specified by the BIN_DIRECTORY setting in &_Local/Makefile_&.
2262 .cindex "setuid" "installing Exim with"
2263 The install script copies files only if they are newer than the files they are
2264 going to replace. The Exim binary is required to be owned by root and have the
2265 &'setuid'& bit set, for normal configurations. Therefore, you must run &`make
2266 install`& as root so that it can set up the Exim binary in this way. However, in
2267 some special situations (for example, if a host is doing no local deliveries)
2268 it may be possible to run Exim without making the binary setuid root (see
2269 chapter &<<CHAPsecurity>>& for details).
2271 .cindex "CONFIGURE_FILE"
2272 Exim's run time configuration file is named by the CONFIGURE_FILE setting
2273 in &_Local/Makefile_&. If this names a single file, and the file does not
2274 exist, the default configuration file &_src/configure.default_& is copied there
2275 by the installation script. If a run time configuration file already exists, it
2276 is left alone. If CONFIGURE_FILE is a colon-separated list, naming several
2277 alternative files, no default is installed.
2279 .cindex "system aliases file"
2280 .cindex "&_/etc/aliases_&"
2281 One change is made to the default configuration file when it is installed: the
2282 default configuration contains a router that references a system aliases file.
2283 The path to this file is set to the value specified by
2284 SYSTEM_ALIASES_FILE in &_Local/Makefile_& (&_/etc/aliases_& by default).
2285 If the system aliases file does not exist, the installation script creates it,
2286 and outputs a comment to the user.
2288 The created file contains no aliases, but it does contain comments about the
2289 aliases a site should normally have. Mail aliases have traditionally been
2290 kept in &_/etc/aliases_&. However, some operating systems are now using
2291 &_/etc/mail/aliases_&. You should check if yours is one of these, and change
2292 Exim's configuration if necessary.
2294 The default configuration uses the local host's name as the only local domain,
2295 and is set up to do local deliveries into the shared directory &_/var/mail_&,
2296 running as the local user. System aliases and &_.forward_& files in users' home
2297 directories are supported, but no NIS or NIS+ support is configured. Domains
2298 other than the name of the local host are routed using the DNS, with delivery
2299 over SMTP.
2301 It is possible to install Exim for special purposes (such as building a binary
2302 distribution) in a private part of the file system. You can do this by a
2303 command such as
2304 .code
2305 make DESTDIR=/some/directory/ install
2306 .endd
2307 This has the effect of pre-pending the specified directory to all the file
2308 paths, except the name of the system aliases file that appears in the default
2309 configuration. (If a default alias file is created, its name &'is'& modified.)
2310 For backwards compatibility, ROOT is used if DESTDIR is not set,
2311 but this usage is deprecated.
2313 .cindex "installing Exim" "what is not installed"
2314 Running &'make install'& does not copy the Exim 4 conversion script
2315 &'convert4r4'&. You will probably run this only once if you are
2316 upgrading from Exim 3. None of the documentation files in the &_doc_&
2317 directory are copied, except for the info files when you have set
2318 INFO_DIRECTORY, as described in section &<<SECTinsinfdoc>>& below.
2320 For the utility programs, old versions are renamed by adding the suffix &_.O_&
2321 to their names. The Exim binary itself, however, is handled differently. It is
2322 installed under a name that includes the version number and the compile number,
2323 for example &_exim-&version()-1_&. The script then arranges for a symbolic link
2324 called &_exim_& to point to the binary. If you are updating a previous version
2325 of Exim, the script takes care to ensure that the name &_exim_& is never absent
2326 from the directory (as seen by other processes).
2328 .cindex "installing Exim" "testing the script"
2329 If you want to see what the &'make install'& will do before running it for
2330 real, you can pass the &%-n%& option to the installation script by this
2331 command:
2332 .code
2333 make INSTALL_ARG=-n install
2334 .endd
2335 The contents of the variable INSTALL_ARG are passed to the installation
2336 script. You do not need to be root to run this test. Alternatively, you can run
2337 the installation script directly, but this must be from within the build
2338 directory. For example, from the top-level Exim directory you could use this
2339 command:
2340 .code
2341 (cd build-SunOS5-5.5.1-sparc; ../scripts/exim_install -n)
2342 .endd
2343 .cindex "installing Exim" "install script options"
2344 There are two other options that can be supplied to the installation script.
2346 .ilist
2347 &%-no_chown%& bypasses the call to change the owner of the installed binary
2348 to root, and the call to make it a setuid binary.
2349 .next
2350 &%-no_symlink%& bypasses the setting up of the symbolic link &_exim_& to the
2351 installed binary.
2352 .endlist
2354 INSTALL_ARG can be used to pass these options to the script. For example:
2355 .code
2356 make INSTALL_ARG=-no_symlink install
2357 .endd
2358 The installation script can also be given arguments specifying which files are
2359 to be copied. For example, to install just the Exim binary, and nothing else,
2360 without creating the symbolic link, you could use:
2361 .code
2362 make INSTALL_ARG='-no_symlink exim' install
2363 .endd
2367 .section "Installing info documentation" "SECTinsinfdoc"
2368 .cindex "installing Exim" "&'info'& documentation"
2369 Not all systems use the GNU &'info'& system for documentation, and for this
2370 reason, the Texinfo source of Exim's documentation is not included in the main
2371 distribution. Instead it is available separately from the ftp site (see section
2372 &<<SECTavail>>&).
2374 If you have defined INFO_DIRECTORY in &_Local/Makefile_& and the Texinfo
2375 source of the documentation is found in the source tree, running &`make
2376 install`& automatically builds the info files and installs them.
2380 .section "Setting up the spool directory" "SECID33"
2381 .cindex "spool directory" "creating"
2382 When it starts up, Exim tries to create its spool directory if it does not
2383 exist. The Exim uid and gid are used for the owner and group of the spool
2384 directory. Sub-directories are automatically created in the spool directory as
2385 necessary.
2390 .section "Testing" "SECID34"
2391 .cindex "testing" "installation"
2392 Having installed Exim, you can check that the run time configuration file is
2393 syntactically valid by running the following command, which assumes that the
2394 Exim binary directory is within your PATH environment variable:
2395 .code
2396 exim -bV
2397 .endd
2398 If there are any errors in the configuration file, Exim outputs error messages.
2399 Otherwise it outputs the version number and build date,
2400 the DBM library that is being used, and information about which drivers and
2401 other optional code modules are included in the binary.
2402 Some simple routing tests can be done by using the address testing option. For
2403 example,
2404 .display
2405 &`exim -bt`& <&'local username'&>
2406 .endd
2407 should verify that it recognizes a local mailbox, and
2408 .display
2409 &`exim -bt`& <&'remote address'&>
2410 .endd
2411 a remote one. Then try getting it to deliver mail, both locally and remotely.
2412 This can be done by passing messages directly to Exim, without going through a
2413 user agent. For example:
2414 .code
2415 exim -v postmaster@your.domain.example
2416 From: user@your.domain.example
2417 To: postmaster@your.domain.example
2418 Subject: Testing Exim
2420 This is a test message.
2421 ^D
2422 .endd
2423 The &%-v%& option causes Exim to output some verification of what it is doing.
2424 In this case you should see copies of three log lines, one for the message's
2425 arrival, one for its delivery, and one containing &"Completed"&.
2427 .cindex "delivery" "problems with"
2428 If you encounter problems, look at Exim's log files (&'mainlog'& and
2429 &'paniclog'&) to see if there is any relevant information there. Another source
2430 of information is running Exim with debugging turned on, by specifying the
2431 &%-d%& option. If a message is stuck on Exim's spool, you can force a delivery
2432 with debugging turned on by a command of the form
2433 .display
2434 &`exim -d -M`& <&'exim-message-id'&>
2435 .endd
2436 You must be root or an &"admin user"& in order to do this. The &%-d%& option
2437 produces rather a lot of output, but you can cut this down to specific areas.
2438 For example, if you use &%-d-all+route%& only the debugging information
2439 relevant to routing is included. (See the &%-d%& option in chapter
2440 &<<CHAPcommandline>>& for more details.)
2442 .cindex '&"sticky"& bit'
2443 .cindex "lock files"
2444 One specific problem that has shown up on some sites is the inability to do
2445 local deliveries into a shared mailbox directory, because it does not have the
2446 &"sticky bit"& set on it. By default, Exim tries to create a lock file before
2447 writing to a mailbox file, and if it cannot create the lock file, the delivery
2448 is deferred. You can get round this either by setting the &"sticky bit"& on the
2449 directory, or by setting a specific group for local deliveries and allowing
2450 that group to create files in the directory (see the comments above the
2451 &(local_delivery)& transport in the default configuration file). Another
2452 approach is to configure Exim not to use lock files, but just to rely on
2453 &[fcntl()]& locking instead. However, you should do this only if all user
2454 agents also use &[fcntl()]& locking. For further discussion of locking issues,
2455 see chapter &<<CHAPappendfile>>&.
2457 One thing that cannot be tested on a system that is already running an MTA is
2458 the receipt of incoming SMTP mail on the standard SMTP port. However, the
2459 &%-oX%& option can be used to run an Exim daemon that listens on some other
2460 port, or &'inetd'& can be used to do this. The &%-bh%& option and the
2461 &'exim_checkaccess'& utility can be used to check out policy controls on
2462 incoming SMTP mail.
2464 Testing a new version on a system that is already running Exim can most easily
2465 be done by building a binary with a different CONFIGURE_FILE setting. From
2466 within the run time configuration, all other file and directory names
2467 that Exim uses can be altered, in order to keep it entirely clear of the
2468 production version.
2471 .section "Replacing another MTA with Exim" "SECID35"
2472 .cindex "replacing another MTA"
2473 Building and installing Exim for the first time does not of itself put it in
2474 general use. The name by which the system's MTA is called by mail user agents
2475 is either &_/usr/sbin/sendmail_&, or &_/usr/lib/sendmail_& (depending on the
2476 operating system), and it is necessary to make this name point to the &'exim'&
2477 binary in order to get the user agents to pass messages to Exim. This is
2478 normally done by renaming any existing file and making &_/usr/sbin/sendmail_&
2479 or &_/usr/lib/sendmail_&
2480 .cindex "symbolic link" "to &'exim'& binary"
2481 a symbolic link to the &'exim'& binary. It is a good idea to remove any setuid
2482 privilege and executable status from the old MTA. It is then necessary to stop
2483 and restart the mailer daemon, if one is running.
2485 .cindex "FreeBSD, MTA indirection"
2486 .cindex "&_/etc/mail/mailer.conf_&"
2487 Some operating systems have introduced alternative ways of switching MTAs. For
2488 example, if you are running FreeBSD, you need to edit the file
2489 &_/etc/mail/mailer.conf_& instead of setting up a symbolic link as just
2490 described. A typical example of the contents of this file for running Exim is
2491 as follows:
2492 .code
2493 sendmail /usr/exim/bin/exim
2494 send-mail /usr/exim/bin/exim
2495 mailq /usr/exim/bin/exim -bp
2496 newaliases /usr/bin/true
2497 .endd
2498 Once you have set up the symbolic link, or edited &_/etc/mail/mailer.conf_&,
2499 your Exim installation is &"live"&. Check it by sending a message from your
2500 favourite user agent.
2502 You should consider what to tell your users about the change of MTA. Exim may
2503 have different capabilities to what was previously running, and there are
2504 various operational differences such as the text of messages produced by
2505 command line options and in bounce messages. If you allow your users to make
2506 use of Exim's filtering capabilities, you should make the document entitled
2507 &'Exim's interface to mail filtering'& available to them.
2511 .section "Upgrading Exim" "SECID36"
2512 .cindex "upgrading Exim"
2513 If you are already running Exim on your host, building and installing a new
2514 version automatically makes it available to MUAs, or any other programs that
2515 call the MTA directly. However, if you are running an Exim daemon, you do need
2516 to send it a HUP signal, to make it re-execute itself, and thereby pick up the
2517 new binary. You do not need to stop processing mail in order to install a new
2518 version of Exim. The install script does not modify an existing runtime
2519 configuration file.
2524 .section "Stopping the Exim daemon on Solaris" "SECID37"
2525 .cindex "Solaris" "stopping Exim on"
2526 The standard command for stopping the mailer daemon on Solaris is
2527 .code
2528 /etc/init.d/sendmail stop
2529 .endd
2530 If &_/usr/lib/sendmail_& has been turned into a symbolic link, this script
2531 fails to stop Exim because it uses the command &'ps -e'& and greps the output
2532 for the text &"sendmail"&; this is not present because the actual program name
2533 (that is, &"exim"&) is given by the &'ps'& command with these options. A
2534 solution is to replace the line that finds the process id with something like
2535 .code
2536 pid=`cat /var/spool/exim/`
2537 .endd
2538 to obtain the daemon's pid directly from the file that Exim saves it in.
2540 Note, however, that stopping the daemon does not &"stop Exim"&. Messages can
2541 still be received from local processes, and if automatic delivery is configured
2542 (the normal case), deliveries will still occur.
2547 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2548 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2550 .chapter "The Exim command line" "CHAPcommandline"
2551 .scindex IIDclo1 "command line" "options"
2552 .scindex IIDclo2 "options" "command line"
2553 Exim's command line takes the standard Unix form of a sequence of options,
2554 each starting with a hyphen character, followed by a number of arguments. The
2555 options are compatible with the main options of Sendmail, and there are also
2556 some additional options, some of which are compatible with Smail 3. Certain
2557 combinations of options do not make sense, and provoke an error if used.
2558 The form of the arguments depends on which options are set.
2561 .section "Setting options by program name" "SECID38"
2562 .cindex "&'mailq'&"
2563 If Exim is called under the name &'mailq'&, it behaves as if the option &%-bp%&
2564 were present before any other options.
2565 The &%-bp%& option requests a listing of the contents of the mail queue on the
2566 standard output.
2567 This feature is for compatibility with some systems that contain a command of
2568 that name in one of the standard libraries, symbolically linked to
2569 &_/usr/sbin/sendmail_& or &_/usr/lib/sendmail_&.
2571 .cindex "&'rsmtp'&"
2572 If Exim is called under the name &'rsmtp'& it behaves as if the option &%-bS%&
2573 were present before any other options, for compatibility with Smail. The
2574 &%-bS%& option is used for reading in a number of messages in batched SMTP
2575 format.
2577 .cindex "&'rmail'&"
2578 If Exim is called under the name &'rmail'& it behaves as if the &%-i%& and
2579 &%-oee%& options were present before any other options, for compatibility with
2580 Smail. The name &'rmail'& is used as an interface by some UUCP systems.
2582 .cindex "&'runq'&"
2583 .cindex "queue runner"
2584 If Exim is called under the name &'runq'& it behaves as if the option &%-q%&
2585 were present before any other options, for compatibility with Smail. The &%-q%&
2586 option causes a single queue runner process to be started.
2588 .cindex "&'newaliases'&"
2589 .cindex "alias file" "building"
2590 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "calling Exim as &'newaliases'&"
2591 If Exim is called under the name &'newaliases'& it behaves as if the option
2592 &%-bi%& were present before any other options, for compatibility with Sendmail.
2593 This option is used for rebuilding Sendmail's alias file. Exim does not have
2594 the concept of a single alias file, but can be configured to run a given
2595 command if called with the &%-bi%& option.
2598 .section "Trusted and admin users" "SECTtrustedadmin"
2599 Some Exim options are available only to &'trusted users'& and others are
2600 available only to &'admin users'&. In the description below, the phrases &"Exim
2601 user"& and &"Exim group"& mean the user and group defined by EXIM_USER and
2602 EXIM_GROUP in &_Local/Makefile_& or set by the &%exim_user%& and
2603 &%exim_group%& options. These do not necessarily have to use the name &"exim"&.
2605 .ilist
2606 .cindex "trusted users" "definition of"
2607 .cindex "user" "trusted definition of"
2608 The trusted users are root, the Exim user, any user listed in the
2609 &%trusted_users%& configuration option, and any user whose current group or any
2610 supplementary group is one of those listed in the &%trusted_groups%&
2611 configuration option. Note that the Exim group is not automatically trusted.
2613 .cindex '&"From"& line'
2614 .cindex "envelope sender"
2615 Trusted users are always permitted to use the &%-f%& option or a leading
2616 &"From&~"& line to specify the envelope sender of a message that is passed to
2617 Exim through the local interface (see the &%-bm%& and &%-f%& options below).
2618 See the &%untrusted_set_sender%& option for a way of permitting non-trusted
2619 users to set envelope senders.
2621 .cindex "&'From:'& header line"
2622 .cindex "&'Sender:'& header line"
2623 .cindex "header lines" "From:"
2624 .cindex "header lines" "Sender:"
2625 For a trusted user, there is never any check on the contents of the &'From:'&
2626 header line, and a &'Sender:'& line is never added. Furthermore, any existing
2627 &'Sender:'& line in incoming local (non-TCP/IP) messages is not removed.
2629 Trusted users may also specify a host name, host address, interface address,
2630 protocol name, ident value, and authentication data when submitting a message
2631 locally. Thus, they are able to insert messages into Exim's queue locally that
2632 have the characteristics of messages received from a remote host. Untrusted
2633 users may in some circumstances use &%-f%&, but can never set the other values
2634 that are available to trusted users.
2635 .next
2636 .cindex "user" "admin definition of"
2637 .cindex "admin user" "definition of"
2638 The admin users are root, the Exim user, and any user that is a member of the
2639 Exim group or of any group listed in the &%admin_groups%& configuration option.
2640 The current group does not have to be one of these groups.
2642 Admin users are permitted to list the queue, and to carry out certain
2643 operations on messages, for example, to force delivery failures. It is also
2644 necessary to be an admin user in order to see the full information provided by
2645 the Exim monitor, and full debugging output.
2647 By default, the use of the &%-M%&, &%-q%&, &%-R%&, and &%-S%& options to cause
2648 Exim to attempt delivery of messages on its queue is restricted to admin users.
2649 However, this restriction can be relaxed by setting the &%prod_requires_admin%&
2650 option false (that is, specifying &%no_prod_requires_admin%&).
2652 Similarly, the use of the &%-bp%& option to list all the messages in the queue
2653 is restricted to admin users unless &%queue_list_requires_admin%& is set
2654 false.
2655 .endlist
2658 &*Warning*&: If you configure your system so that admin users are able to
2659 edit Exim's configuration file, you are giving those users an easy way of
2660 getting root. There is further discussion of this issue at the start of chapter
2661 &<<CHAPconf>>&.
2666 .section "Command line options" "SECID39"
2667 Exim's command line options are described in alphabetical order below. If none
2668 of the options that specifies a specific action (such as starting the daemon or
2669 a queue runner, or testing an address, or receiving a message in a specific
2670 format, or listing the queue) are present, and there is at least one argument
2671 on the command line, &%-bm%& (accept a local message on the standard input,
2672 with the arguments specifying the recipients) is assumed. Otherwise, Exim
2673 outputs a brief message about itself and exits.
2675 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2676 . Insert a stylized XML comment here, to identify the start of the command line
2677 . options. This is for the benefit of the Perl script that automatically
2678 . creates a man page for the options.
2679 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2681 .literal xml
2682 <!-- === Start of command line options === -->
2683 .literal off
2686 .vlist
2687 .vitem &%--%&
2688 .oindex "--"
2689 .cindex "options" "command line; terminating"
2690 This is a pseudo-option whose only purpose is to terminate the options and
2691 therefore to cause subsequent command line items to be treated as arguments
2692 rather than options, even if they begin with hyphens.
2694 .vitem &%--help%&
2695 .oindex "&%--help%&"
2696 This option causes Exim to output a few sentences stating what it is.
2697 The same output is generated if the Exim binary is called with no options and
2698 no arguments.
2700 .vitem &%--version%&
2701 .oindex "&%--version%&"
2702 This option is an alias for &%-bV%& and causes version information to be
2703 displayed.
2705 .vitem &%-Ac%& &&&
2706 &%-Am%&
2707 .oindex "&%-Ac%&"
2708 .oindex "&%-Am%&"
2709 These options are used by Sendmail for selecting configuration files and are
2710 ignored by Exim.
2712 .vitem &%-B%&<&'type'&>
2713 .oindex "&%-B%&"
2714 .cindex "8-bit characters"
2715 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "8-bit characters"
2716 This is a Sendmail option for selecting 7 or 8 bit processing. Exim is 8-bit
2717 clean; it ignores this option.
2719 .vitem &%-bd%&
2720 .oindex "&%-bd%&"
2721 .cindex "daemon"
2722 .cindex "SMTP" "listener"
2723 .cindex "queue runner"
2724 This option runs Exim as a daemon, awaiting incoming SMTP connections. Usually
2725 the &%-bd%& option is combined with the &%-q%&<&'time'&> option, to specify
2726 that the daemon should also initiate periodic queue runs.
2728 The &%-bd%& option can be used only by an admin user. If either of the &%-d%&
2729 (debugging) or &%-v%& (verifying) options are set, the daemon does not
2730 disconnect from the controlling terminal. When running this way, it can be
2731 stopped by pressing ctrl-C.
2733 By default, Exim listens for incoming connections to the standard SMTP port on
2734 all the host's running interfaces. However, it is possible to listen on other
2735 ports, on multiple ports, and only on specific interfaces. Chapter
2736 &<<CHAPinterfaces>>& contains a description of the options that control this.
2738 When a listening daemon
2739 .cindex "daemon" "process id (pid)"
2740 .cindex "pid (process id)" "of daemon"
2741 is started without the use of &%-oX%& (that is, without overriding the normal
2742 configuration), it writes its process id to a file called &_exim-daemon.pid_&
2743 in Exim's spool directory. This location can be overridden by setting
2744 PID_FILE_PATH in &_Local/Makefile_&. The file is written while Exim is still
2745 running as root.
2747 When &%-oX%& is used on the command line to start a listening daemon, the
2748 process id is not written to the normal pid file path. However, &%-oP%& can be
2749 used to specify a path on the command line if a pid file is required.
2751 The SIGHUP signal
2752 .cindex "SIGHUP"
2753 .cindex "daemon" "restarting"
2754 can be used to cause the daemon to re-execute itself. This should be done
2755 whenever Exim's configuration file, or any file that is incorporated into it by
2756 means of the &%.include%& facility, is changed, and also whenever a new version
2757 of Exim is installed. It is not necessary to do this when other files that are
2758 referenced from the configuration (for example, alias files) are changed,
2759 because these are reread each time they are used.
2761 .vitem &%-bdf%&
2762 .oindex "&%-bdf%&"
2763 This option has the same effect as &%-bd%& except that it never disconnects
2764 from the controlling terminal, even when no debugging is specified.
2766 .vitem &%-be%&
2767 .oindex "&%-be%&"
2768 .cindex "testing" "string expansion"
2769 .cindex "expansion" "testing"
2770 Run Exim in expansion testing mode. Exim discards its root privilege, to
2771 prevent ordinary users from using this mode to read otherwise inaccessible
2772 files. If no arguments are given, Exim runs interactively, prompting for lines
2773 of data. Otherwise, it processes each argument in turn.
2775 If Exim was built with USE_READLINE=yes in &_Local/Makefile_&, it tries
2776 to load the &%libreadline%& library dynamically whenever the &%-be%& option is
2777 used without command line arguments. If successful, it uses the &[readline()]&
2778 function, which provides extensive line-editing facilities, for reading the
2779 test data. A line history is supported.
2781 Long expansion expressions can be split over several lines by using backslash
2782 continuations. As in Exim's run time configuration, white space at the start of
2783 continuation lines is ignored. Each argument or data line is passed through the
2784 string expansion mechanism, and the result is output. Variable values from the
2785 configuration file (for example, &$qualify_domain$&) are available, but no
2786 message-specific values (such as &$message_exim_id$&) are set, because no message
2787 is being processed (but see &%-bem%& and &%-Mset%&).
2789 &*Note*&: If you use this mechanism to test lookups, and you change the data
2790 files or databases you are using, you must exit and restart Exim before trying
2791 the same lookup again. Otherwise, because each Exim process caches the results
2792 of lookups, you will just get the same result as before.
2794 Macro processing is done on lines before string-expansion: new macros can be
2795 defined and macros will be expanded.
2796 Because macros in the config file are often used for secrets, those are only
2797 available to admin users.
2799 .vitem &%-bem%&&~<&'filename'&>
2800 .oindex "&%-bem%&"
2801 .cindex "testing" "string expansion"
2802 .cindex "expansion" "testing"
2803 This option operates like &%-be%& except that it must be followed by the name
2804 of a file. For example:
2805 .code
2806 exim -bem /tmp/testmessage
2807 .endd
2808 The file is read as a message (as if receiving a locally-submitted non-SMTP
2809 message) before any of the test expansions are done. Thus, message-specific
2810 variables such as &$message_size$& and &$header_from:$& are available. However,
2811 no &'Received:'& header is added to the message. If the &%-t%& option is set,
2812 recipients are read from the headers in the normal way, and are shown in the
2813 &$recipients$& variable. Note that recipients cannot be given on the command
2814 line, because further arguments are taken as strings to expand (just like
2815 &%-be%&).
2817 .vitem &%-bF%&&~<&'filename'&>
2818 .oindex "&%-bF%&"
2819 .cindex "system filter" "testing"
2820 .cindex "testing" "system filter"
2821 This option is the same as &%-bf%& except that it assumes that the filter being
2822 tested is a system filter. The additional commands that are available only in
2823 system filters are recognized.
2825 .vitem &%-bf%&&~<&'filename'&>
2826 .oindex "&%-bf%&"
2827 .cindex "filter" "testing"
2828 .cindex "testing" "filter file"
2829 .cindex "forward file" "testing"
2830 .cindex "testing" "forward file"
2831 .cindex "Sieve filter" "testing"
2832 This option runs Exim in user filter testing mode; the file is the filter file
2833 to be tested, and a test message must be supplied on the standard input. If
2834 there are no message-dependent tests in the filter, an empty file can be
2835 supplied.
2837 If you want to test a system filter file, use &%-bF%& instead of &%-bf%&. You
2838 can use both &%-bF%& and &%-bf%& on the same command, in order to test a system
2839 filter and a user filter in the same run. For example:
2840 .code
2841 exim -bF /system/filter -bf /user/filter </test/message
2842 .endd
2843 This is helpful when the system filter adds header lines or sets filter
2844 variables that are used by the user filter.
2846 If the test filter file does not begin with one of the special lines
2847 .code
2848 # Exim filter
2849 # Sieve filter
2850 .endd
2851 it is taken to be a normal &_.forward_& file, and is tested for validity under
2852 that interpretation. See sections &<<SECTitenonfilred>>& to
2853 &<<SECTspecitredli>>& for a description of the possible contents of non-filter
2854 redirection lists.
2856 The result of an Exim command that uses &%-bf%&, provided no errors are
2857 detected, is a list of the actions that Exim would try to take if presented
2858 with the message for real. More details of filter testing are given in the
2859 separate document entitled &'Exim's interfaces to mail filtering'&.
2861 When testing a filter file,
2862 .cindex "&""From""& line"
2863 .cindex "envelope sender"
2864 .oindex "&%-f%&" "for filter testing"
2865 the envelope sender can be set by the &%-f%& option,
2866 or by a &"From&~"& line at the start of the test message. Various parameters
2867 that would normally be taken from the envelope recipient address of the message
2868 can be set by means of additional command line options (see the next four
2869 options).
2871 .vitem &%-bfd%&&~<&'domain'&>
2872 .oindex "&%-bfd%&"
2873 .vindex "&$qualify_domain$&"
2874 This sets the domain of the recipient address when a filter file is being
2875 tested by means of the &%-bf%& option. The default is the value of
2876 &$qualify_domain$&.
2878 .vitem &%-bfl%&&~<&'local&~part'&>
2879 .oindex "&%-bfl%&"
2880 This sets the local part of the recipient address when a filter file is being
2881 tested by means of the &%-bf%& option. The default is the username of the
2882 process that calls Exim. A local part should be specified with any prefix or
2883 suffix stripped, because that is how it appears to the filter when a message is
2884 actually being delivered.
2886 .vitem &%-bfp%&&~<&'prefix'&>
2887 .oindex "&%-bfp%&"
2888 This sets the prefix of the local part of the recipient address when a filter
2889 file is being tested by means of the &%-bf%& option. The default is an empty
2890 prefix.
2892 .vitem &%-bfs%&&~<&'suffix'&>
2893 .oindex "&%-bfs%&"
2894 This sets the suffix of the local part of the recipient address when a filter
2895 file is being tested by means of the &%-bf%& option. The default is an empty
2896 suffix.
2898 .vitem &%-bh%&&~<&'IP&~address'&>
2899 .oindex "&%-bh%&"
2900 .cindex "testing" "incoming SMTP"
2901 .cindex "SMTP" "testing incoming"
2902 .cindex "testing" "relay control"
2903 .cindex "relaying" "testing configuration"
2904 .cindex "policy control" "testing"
2905 .cindex "debugging" "&%-bh%& option"
2906 This option runs a fake SMTP session as if from the given IP address, using the
2907 standard input and output. The IP address may include a port number at the end,
2908 after a full stop. For example:
2909 .code
2910 exim -bh
2911 exim -bh fe80::a00:20ff:fe86:a061.5678
2912 .endd
2913 When an IPv6 address is given, it is converted into canonical form. In the case
2914 of the second example above, the value of &$sender_host_address$& after
2915 conversion to the canonical form is
2916 &`fe80:0000:0000:0a00:20ff:fe86:a061.5678`&.
2918 Comments as to what is going on are written to the standard error file. These
2919 include lines beginning with &"LOG"& for anything that would have been logged.
2920 This facility is provided for testing configuration options for incoming
2921 messages, to make sure they implement the required policy. For example, you can
2922 test your relay controls using &%-bh%&.
2924 &*Warning 1*&:
2925 .cindex "RFC 1413"
2926 You can test features of the configuration that rely on ident (RFC 1413)
2927 information by using the &%-oMt%& option. However, Exim cannot actually perform
2928 an ident callout when testing using &%-bh%& because there is no incoming SMTP
2929 connection.
2931 &*Warning 2*&: Address verification callouts (see section &<<SECTcallver>>&)
2932 are also skipped when testing using &%-bh%&. If you want these callouts to
2933 occur, use &%-bhc%& instead.
2935 Messages supplied during the testing session are discarded, and nothing is
2936 written to any of the real log files. There may be pauses when DNS (and other)
2937 lookups are taking place, and of course these may time out. The &%-oMi%& option
2938 can be used to specify a specific IP interface and port if this is important,
2939 and &%-oMaa%& and &%-oMai%& can be used to set parameters as if the SMTP
2940 session were authenticated.
2942 The &'exim_checkaccess'& utility is a &"packaged"& version of &%-bh%& whose
2943 output just states whether a given recipient address from a given host is
2944 acceptable or not. See section &<<SECTcheckaccess>>&.
2946 Features such as authentication and encryption, where the client input is not
2947 plain text, cannot easily be tested with &%-bh%&. Instead, you should use a
2948 specialized SMTP test program such as
2949 &url(,swaks).
2951 .vitem &%-bhc%&&~<&'IP&~address'&>
2952 .oindex "&%-bhc%&"
2953 This option operates in the same way as &%-bh%&, except that address
2954 verification callouts are performed if required. This includes consulting and
2955 updating the callout cache database.
2957 .vitem &%-bi%&
2958 .oindex "&%-bi%&"
2959 .cindex "alias file" "building"
2960 .cindex "building alias file"
2961 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&%-bi%& option"
2962 Sendmail interprets the &%-bi%& option as a request to rebuild its alias file.
2963 Exim does not have the concept of a single alias file, and so it cannot mimic
2964 this behaviour. However, calls to &_/usr/lib/sendmail_& with the &%-bi%& option
2965 tend to appear in various scripts such as NIS make files, so the option must be
2966 recognized.
2968 If &%-bi%& is encountered, the command specified by the &%bi_command%&
2969 configuration option is run, under the uid and gid of the caller of Exim. If
2970 the &%-oA%& option is used, its value is passed to the command as an argument.
2971 The command set by &%bi_command%& may not contain arguments. The command can
2972 use the &'exim_dbmbuild'& utility, or some other means, to rebuild alias files
2973 if this is required. If the &%bi_command%& option is not set, calling Exim with
2974 &%-bi%& is a no-op.
2976 . // Keep :help first, then the rest in alphabetical order
2977 .vitem &%-bI:help%&
2978 .oindex "&%-bI:help%&"
2979 .cindex "querying exim information"
2980 We shall provide various options starting &`-bI:`& for querying Exim for
2981 information. The output of many of these will be intended for machine
2982 consumption. This one is not. The &%-bI:help%& option asks Exim for a
2983 synopsis of supported options beginning &`-bI:`&. Use of any of these
2984 options shall cause Exim to exit after producing the requested output.
2986 .vitem &%-bI:dscp%&
2987 .oindex "&%-bI:dscp%&"
2988 .cindex "DSCP" "values"
2989 This option causes Exim to emit an alphabetically sorted list of all
2990 recognised DSCP names.
2992 .vitem &%-bI:sieve%&
2993 .oindex "&%-bI:sieve%&"
2994 .cindex "Sieve filter" "capabilities"
2995 This option causes Exim to emit an alphabetically sorted list of all supported
2996 Sieve protocol extensions on stdout, one per line. This is anticipated to be
2997 useful for ManageSieve (RFC 5804) implementations, in providing that protocol's
2998 &`SIEVE`& capability response line. As the precise list may depend upon
2999 compile-time build options, which this option will adapt to, this is the only
3000 way to guarantee a correct response.
3002 .vitem &%-bm%&
3003 .oindex "&%-bm%&"
3004 .cindex "local message reception"
3005 This option runs an Exim receiving process that accepts an incoming,
3006 locally-generated message on the standard input. The recipients are given as the
3007 command arguments (except when &%-t%& is also present &-- see below). Each
3008 argument can be a comma-separated list of RFC 2822 addresses. This is the
3009 default option for selecting the overall action of an Exim call; it is assumed
3010 if no other conflicting option is present.
3012 If any addresses in the message are unqualified (have no domain), they are
3013 qualified by the values of the &%qualify_domain%& or &%qualify_recipient%&
3014 options, as appropriate. The &%-bnq%& option (see below) provides a way of
3015 suppressing this for special cases.
3017 Policy checks on the contents of local messages can be enforced by means of
3018 the non-SMTP ACL. See chapter &<<CHAPACL>>& for details.
3020 .cindex "return code" "for &%-bm%&"
3021 The return code is zero if the message is successfully accepted. Otherwise, the
3022 action is controlled by the &%-oe%&&'x'& option setting &-- see below.
3024 The format
3025 .cindex "message" "format"
3026 .cindex "format" "message"
3027 .cindex "&""From""& line"
3028 .cindex "UUCP" "&""From""& line"
3029 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&""From""& line"
3030 of the message must be as defined in RFC 2822, except that, for
3031 compatibility with Sendmail and Smail, a line in one of the forms
3032 .code
3033 From sender Fri Jan 5 12:55 GMT 1997
3034 From sender Fri, 5 Jan 97 12:55:01
3035 .endd
3036 (with the weekday optional, and possibly with additional text after the date)
3037 is permitted to appear at the start of the message. There appears to be no
3038 authoritative specification of the format of this line. Exim recognizes it by
3039 matching against the regular expression defined by the &%uucp_from_pattern%&
3040 option, which can be changed if necessary.
3042 .oindex "&%-f%&" "overriding &""From""& line"
3043 The specified sender is treated as if it were given as the argument to the
3044 &%-f%& option, but if a &%-f%& option is also present, its argument is used in
3045 preference to the address taken from the message. The caller of Exim must be a
3046 trusted user for the sender of a message to be set in this way.
3048 .vitem &%-bmalware%&&~<&'filename'&>
3049 .oindex "&%-bmalware%&"
3050 .cindex "testing", "malware"
3051 .cindex "malware scan test"
3052 This debugging option causes Exim to scan the given file or directory
3053 (depending on the used scanner interface),
3054 using the malware scanning framework. The option of &%av_scanner%& influences
3055 this option, so if &%av_scanner%&'s value is dependent upon an expansion then
3056 the expansion should have defaults which apply to this invocation. ACLs are
3057 not invoked, so if &%av_scanner%& references an ACL variable then that variable
3058 will never be populated and &%-bmalware%& will fail.
3060 Exim will have changed working directory before resolving the filename, so
3061 using fully qualified pathnames is advisable. Exim will be running as the Exim
3062 user when it tries to open the file, rather than as the invoking user.
3063 This option requires admin privileges.
3065 The &%-bmalware%& option will not be extended to be more generally useful,
3066 there are better tools for file-scanning. This option exists to help
3067 administrators verify their Exim and AV scanner configuration.
3069 .vitem &%-bnq%&
3070 .oindex "&%-bnq%&"
3071 .cindex "address qualification, suppressing"
3072 By default, Exim automatically qualifies unqualified addresses (those
3073 without domains) that appear in messages that are submitted locally (that
3074 is, not over TCP/IP). This qualification applies both to addresses in
3075 envelopes, and addresses in header lines. Sender addresses are qualified using
3076 &%qualify_domain%&, and recipient addresses using &%qualify_recipient%& (which
3077 defaults to the value of &%qualify_domain%&).
3079 Sometimes, qualification is not wanted. For example, if &%-bS%& (batch SMTP) is
3080 being used to re-submit messages that originally came from remote hosts after
3081 content scanning, you probably do not want to qualify unqualified addresses in
3082 header lines. (Such lines will be present only if you have not enabled a header
3083 syntax check in the appropriate ACL.)
3085 The &%-bnq%& option suppresses all qualification of unqualified addresses in
3086 messages that originate on the local host. When this is used, unqualified
3087 addresses in the envelope provoke errors (causing message rejection) and
3088 unqualified addresses in header lines are left alone.
3091 .vitem &%-bP%&
3092 .oindex "&%-bP%&"
3093 .cindex "configuration options" "extracting"
3094 .cindex "options" "configuration &-- extracting"
3095 If this option is given with no arguments, it causes the values of all Exim's
3096 main configuration options to be written to the standard output. The values
3097 of one or more specific options can be requested by giving their names as
3098 arguments, for example:
3099 .code
3100 exim -bP qualify_domain hold_domains
3101 .endd
3102 .cindex "hiding configuration option values"
3103 .cindex "configuration options" "hiding value of"
3104 .cindex "options" "hiding value of"
3105 However, any option setting that is preceded by the word &"hide"& in the
3106 configuration file is not shown in full, except to an admin user. For other
3107 users, the output is as in this example:
3108 .code
3109 mysql_servers = <value not displayable>
3110 .endd
3111 If &%config%& is given as an argument, the config is
3112 output, as it was parsed, any include file resolved, any comment removed.
3114 If &%config_file%& is given as an argument, the name of the run time
3115 configuration file is output. (&%configure_file%& works too, for
3116 backward compatibility.)
3117 If a list of configuration files was supplied, the value that is output here
3118 is the name of the file that was actually used.
3120 .cindex "options" "hiding name of"
3121 If the &%-n%& flag is given, then for most modes of &%-bP%& operation the
3122 name will not be output.
3124 .cindex "daemon" "process id (pid)"
3125 .cindex "pid (process id)" "of daemon"
3126 If &%log_file_path%& or &%pid_file_path%& are given, the names of the
3127 directories where log files and daemon pid files are written are output,
3128 respectively. If these values are unset, log files are written in a
3129 sub-directory of the spool directory called &%log%&, and the pid file is
3130 written directly into the spool directory.
3132 If &%-bP%& is followed by a name preceded by &`+`&, for example,
3133 .code
3134 exim -bP +local_domains
3135 .endd
3136 it searches for a matching named list of any type (domain, host, address, or
3137 local part) and outputs what it finds.
3139 .cindex "options" "router &-- extracting"
3140 .cindex "options" "transport &-- extracting"
3141 .cindex "options" "authenticator &-- extracting"
3142 If one of the words &%router%&, &%transport%&, or &%authenticator%& is given,
3143 followed by the name of an appropriate driver instance, the option settings for
3144 that driver are output. For example:
3145 .code
3146 exim -bP transport local_delivery
3147 .endd
3148 The generic driver options are output first, followed by the driver's private
3149 options. A list of the names of drivers of a particular type can be obtained by
3150 using one of the words &%router_list%&, &%transport_list%&, or
3151 &%authenticator_list%&, and a complete list of all drivers with their option
3152 settings can be obtained by using &%routers%&, &%transports%&, or
3153 &%authenticators%&.
3155 .cindex "environment"
3156 If &%environment%& is given as an argument, the set of environment
3157 variables is output, line by line. Using the &%-n%& flag suppresses the value of the
3158 variables.
3160 .cindex "options" "macro &-- extracting"
3161 If invoked by an admin user, then &%macro%&, &%macro_list%& and &%macros%&
3162 are available, similarly to the drivers. Because macros are sometimes used
3163 for storing passwords, this option is restricted.
3164 The output format is one item per line.
3165 .new
3166 For the "-bP macro <name>" form, if no such macro is found
3167 the exit status will be nonzero.
3168 .wen
3170 .vitem &%-bp%&
3171 .oindex "&%-bp%&"
3172 .cindex "queue" "listing messages on"
3173 .cindex "listing" "messages on the queue"
3174 This option requests a listing of the contents of the mail queue on the
3175 standard output. If the &%-bp%& option is followed by a list of message ids,
3176 just those messages are listed. By default, this option can be used only by an
3177 admin user. However, the &%queue_list_requires_admin%& option can be set false
3178 to allow any user to see the queue.
3180 Each message on the queue is displayed as in the following example:
3181 .code
3182 25m 2.9K 0t5C6f-0000c8-00 <alice@wonderland.fict.example>
3183 red.king@looking-glass.fict.example
3184 <other addresses>
3185 .endd
3186 .cindex "message" "size in queue listing"
3187 .cindex "size" "of message"
3188 The first line contains the length of time the message has been on the queue
3189 (in this case 25 minutes), the size of the message (2.9K), the unique local
3190 identifier for the message, and the message sender, as contained in the
3191 envelope. For bounce messages, the sender address is empty, and appears as
3192 &"<>"&. If the message was submitted locally by an untrusted user who overrode
3193 the default sender address, the user's login name is shown in parentheses
3194 before the sender address.
3196 .cindex "frozen messages" "in queue listing"
3197 If the message is frozen (attempts to deliver it are suspended) then the text
3198 &"*** frozen ***"& is displayed at the end of this line.
3200 The recipients of the message (taken from the envelope, not the headers) are
3201 displayed on subsequent lines. Those addresses to which the message has already
3202 been delivered are marked with the letter D. If an original address gets
3203 expanded into several addresses via an alias or forward file, the original is
3204 displayed with a D only when deliveries for all of its child addresses are
3205 complete.
3208 .vitem &%-bpa%&
3209 .oindex "&%-bpa%&"
3210 This option operates like &%-bp%&, but in addition it shows delivered addresses
3211 that were generated from the original top level address(es) in each message by
3212 alias or forwarding operations. These addresses are flagged with &"+D"& instead
3213 of just &"D"&.
3216 .vitem &%-bpc%&
3217 .oindex "&%-bpc%&"
3218 .cindex "queue" "count of messages on"
3219 This option counts the number of messages on the queue, and writes the total
3220 to the standard output. It is restricted to admin users, unless
3221 &%queue_list_requires_admin%& is set false.
3224 .vitem &%-bpr%&
3225 .oindex "&%-bpr%&"
3226 This option operates like &%-bp%&, but the output is not sorted into
3227 chronological order of message arrival. This can speed it up when there are
3228 lots of messages on the queue, and is particularly useful if the output is
3229 going to be post-processed in a way that doesn't need the sorting.
3231 .vitem &%-bpra%&
3232 .oindex "&%-bpra%&"
3233 This option is a combination of &%-bpr%& and &%-bpa%&.
3235 .vitem &%-bpru%&
3236 .oindex "&%-bpru%&"
3237 This option is a combination of &%-bpr%& and &%-bpu%&.
3240 .vitem &%-bpu%&
3241 .oindex "&%-bpu%&"
3242 This option operates like &%-bp%& but shows only undelivered top-level
3243 addresses for each message displayed. Addresses generated by aliasing or
3244 forwarding are not shown, unless the message was deferred after processing by a
3245 router with the &%one_time%& option set.
3248 .vitem &%-brt%&
3249 .oindex "&%-brt%&"
3250 .cindex "testing" "retry configuration"
3251 .cindex "retry" "configuration testing"
3252 This option is for testing retry rules, and it must be followed by up to three
3253 arguments. It causes Exim to look for a retry rule that matches the values
3254 and to write it to the standard output. For example:
3255 .code
3256 exim -brt bach.comp.mus.example
3257 Retry rule: *.comp.mus.example F,2h,15m; F,4d,30m;
3258 .endd
3259 See chapter &<<CHAPretry>>& for a description of Exim's retry rules. The first
3260 argument, which is required, can be a complete address in the form
3261 &'local_part@domain'&, or it can be just a domain name. If the second argument
3262 contains a dot, it is interpreted as an optional second domain name; if no
3263 retry rule is found for the first argument, the second is tried. This ties in
3264 with Exim's behaviour when looking for retry rules for remote hosts &-- if no
3265 rule is found that matches the host, one that matches the mail domain is
3266 sought. Finally, an argument that is the name of a specific delivery error, as
3267 used in setting up retry rules, can be given. For example:
3268 .code
3269 exim -brt haydn.comp.mus.example quota_3d
3270 Retry rule: *@haydn.comp.mus.example quota_3d F,1h,15m
3271 .endd
3273 .vitem &%-brw%&
3274 .oindex "&%-brw%&"
3275 .cindex "testing" "rewriting"
3276 .cindex "rewriting" "testing"
3277 This option is for testing address rewriting rules, and it must be followed by
3278 a single argument, consisting of either a local part without a domain, or a
3279 complete address with a fully qualified domain. Exim outputs how this address
3280 would be rewritten for each possible place it might appear. See chapter
3281 &<<CHAPrewrite>>& for further details.
3283 .vitem &%-bS%&
3284 .oindex "&%-bS%&"
3285 .cindex "SMTP" "batched incoming"
3286 .cindex "batched SMTP input"
3287 This option is used for batched SMTP input, which is an alternative interface
3288 for non-interactive local message submission. A number of messages can be
3289 submitted in a single run. However, despite its name, this is not really SMTP
3290 input. Exim reads each message's envelope from SMTP commands on the standard
3291 input, but generates no responses. If the caller is trusted, or
3292 &%untrusted_set_sender%& is set, the senders in the SMTP MAIL commands are
3293 believed; otherwise the sender is always the caller of Exim.
3295 The message itself is read from the standard input, in SMTP format (leading
3296 dots doubled), terminated by a line containing just a single dot. An error is
3297 provoked if the terminating dot is missing. A further message may then follow.
3299 As for other local message submissions, the contents of incoming batch SMTP
3300 messages can be checked using the non-SMTP ACL (see chapter &<<CHAPACL>>&).
3301 Unqualified addresses are automatically qualified using &%qualify_domain%& and
3302 &%qualify_recipient%&, as appropriate, unless the &%-bnq%& option is used.
3304 Some other SMTP commands are recognized in the input. HELO and EHLO act
3305 as RSET; VRFY, EXPN, ETRN, and HELP act as NOOP;
3306 QUIT quits, ignoring the rest of the standard input.
3308 .cindex "return code" "for &%-bS%&"
3309 If any error is encountered, reports are written to the standard output and
3310 error streams, and Exim gives up immediately. The return code is 0 if no error
3311 was detected; it is 1 if one or more messages were accepted before the error
3312 was detected; otherwise it is 2.
3314 More details of input using batched SMTP are given in section
3315 &<<SECTincomingbatchedSMTP>>&.
3317 .vitem &%-bs%&
3318 .oindex "&%-bs%&"
3319 .cindex "SMTP" "local input"
3320 .cindex "local SMTP input"
3321 This option causes Exim to accept one or more messages by reading SMTP commands
3322 on the standard input, and producing SMTP replies on the standard output. SMTP
3323 policy controls, as defined in ACLs (see chapter &<<CHAPACL>>&) are applied.
3324 Some user agents use this interface as a way of passing locally-generated
3325 messages to the MTA.
3327 In
3328 .cindex "sender" "source of"
3329 this usage, if the caller of Exim is trusted, or &%untrusted_set_sender%& is
3330 set, the senders of messages are taken from the SMTP MAIL commands.
3331 Otherwise the content of these commands is ignored and the sender is set up as
3332 the calling user. Unqualified addresses are automatically qualified using
3333 &%qualify_domain%& and &%qualify_recipient%&, as appropriate, unless the
3334 &%-bnq%& option is used.
3336 .cindex "inetd"
3337 The
3338 &%-bs%& option is also used to run Exim from &'inetd'&, as an alternative to
3339 using a listening daemon. Exim can distinguish the two cases by checking
3340 whether the standard input is a TCP/IP socket. When Exim is called from
3341 &'inetd'&, the source of the mail is assumed to be remote, and the comments
3342 above concerning senders and qualification do not apply. In this situation,
3343 Exim behaves in exactly the same way as it does when receiving a message via
3344 the listening daemon.
3346 .vitem &%-bt%&
3347 .oindex "&%-bt%&"
3348 .cindex "testing" "addresses"
3349 .cindex "address" "testing"
3350 This option runs Exim in address testing mode, in which each argument is taken
3351 as a recipient address to be tested for deliverability. The results are
3352 written to the standard output. If a test fails, and the caller is not an admin
3353 user, no details of the failure are output, because these might contain
3354 sensitive information such as usernames and passwords for database lookups.
3356 If no arguments are given, Exim runs in an interactive manner, prompting with a
3357 right angle bracket for addresses to be tested.
3359 Unlike the &%-be%& test option, you cannot arrange for Exim to use the
3360 &[readline()]& function, because it is running as &'root'& and there are
3361 security issues.
3363 Each address is handled as if it were the recipient address of a message
3364 (compare the &%-bv%& option). It is passed to the routers and the result is
3365 written to the standard output. However, any router that has
3366 &%no_address_test%& set is bypassed. This can make &%-bt%& easier to use for
3367 genuine routing tests if your first router passes everything to a scanner
3368 program.
3370 .cindex "return code" "for &%-bt%&"
3371 The return code is 2 if any address failed outright; it is 1 if no address
3372 failed outright but at least one could not be resolved for some reason. Return
3373 code 0 is given only when all addresses succeed.
3375 .cindex "duplicate addresses"
3376 &*Note*&: When actually delivering a message, Exim removes duplicate recipient
3377 addresses after routing is complete, so that only one delivery takes place.
3378 This does not happen when testing with &%-bt%&; the full results of routing are
3379 always shown.
3381 &*Warning*&: &%-bt%& can only do relatively simple testing. If any of the
3382 routers in the configuration makes any tests on the sender address of a
3383 message,
3384 .oindex "&%-f%&" "for address testing"
3385 you can use the &%-f%& option to set an appropriate sender when running
3386 &%-bt%& tests. Without it, the sender is assumed to be the calling user at the
3387 default qualifying domain. However, if you have set up (for example) routers
3388 whose behaviour depends on the contents of an incoming message, you cannot test
3389 those conditions using &%-bt%&. The &%-N%& option provides a possible way of
3390 doing such tests.
3392 .vitem &%-bV%&
3393 .oindex "&%-bV%&"
3394 .cindex "version number of Exim"
3395 This option causes Exim to write the current version number, compilation
3396 number, and compilation date of the &'exim'& binary to the standard output.
3397 It also lists the DBM library that is being used, the optional modules (such as
3398 specific lookup types), the drivers that are included in the binary, and the
3399 name of the run time configuration file that is in use.
3401 As part of its operation, &%-bV%& causes Exim to read and syntax check its
3402 configuration file. However, this is a static check only. It cannot check
3403 values that are to be expanded. For example, although a misspelt ACL verb is
3404 detected, an error in the verb's arguments is not. You cannot rely on &%-bV%&
3405 alone to discover (for example) all the typos in the configuration; some
3406 realistic testing is needed. The &%-bh%& and &%-N%& options provide more
3407 dynamic testing facilities.
3409 .vitem &%-bv%&
3410 .oindex "&%-bv%&"
3411 .cindex "verifying address" "using &%-bv%&"
3412 .cindex "address" "verification"
3413 This option runs Exim in address verification mode, in which each argument is
3414 taken as a recipient address to be verified by the routers. (This does
3415 not involve any verification callouts). During normal operation, verification
3416 happens mostly as a consequence processing a &%verify%& condition in an ACL
3417 (see chapter &<<CHAPACL>>&). If you want to test an entire ACL, possibly
3418 including callouts, see the &%-bh%& and &%-bhc%& options.
3420 If verification fails, and the caller is not an admin user, no details of the
3421 failure are output, because these might contain sensitive information such as
3422 usernames and passwords for database lookups.
3424 If no arguments are given, Exim runs in an interactive manner, prompting with a
3425 right angle bracket for addresses to be verified.
3427 Unlike the &%-be%& test option, you cannot arrange for Exim to use the
3428 &[readline()]& function, because it is running as &'exim'& and there are
3429 security issues.
3431 Verification differs from address testing (the &%-bt%& option) in that routers
3432 that have &%no_verify%& set are skipped, and if the address is accepted by a
3433 router that has &%fail_verify%& set, verification fails. The address is
3434 verified as a recipient if &%-bv%& is used; to test verification for a sender
3435 address, &%-bvs%& should be used.
3437 If the &%-v%& option is not set, the output consists of a single line for each
3438 address, stating whether it was verified or not, and giving a reason in the
3439 latter case. Without &%-v%&, generating more than one address by redirection
3440 causes verification to end successfully, without considering the generated
3441 addresses. However, if just one address is generated, processing continues,
3442 and the generated address must verify successfully for the overall verification
3443 to succeed.
3445 When &%-v%& is set, more details are given of how the address has been handled,
3446 and in the case of address redirection, all the generated addresses are also
3447 considered. Verification may succeed for some and fail for others.
3449 The
3450 .cindex "return code" "for &%-bv%&"
3451 return code is 2 if any address failed outright; it is 1 if no address
3452 failed outright but at least one could not be resolved for some reason. Return
3453 code 0 is given only when all addresses succeed.
3455 If any of the routers in the configuration makes any tests on the sender
3456 address of a message, you should use the &%-f%& option to set an appropriate
3457 sender when running &%-bv%& tests. Without it, the sender is assumed to be the
3458 calling user at the default qualifying domain.
3460 .vitem &%-bvs%&
3461 .oindex "&%-bvs%&"
3462 This option acts like &%-bv%&, but verifies the address as a sender rather
3463 than a recipient address. This affects any rewriting and qualification that
3464 might happen.
3466 .vitem &%-bw%&
3467 .oindex "&%-bw%&"
3468 .cindex "daemon"
3469 .cindex "inetd"
3470 .cindex "inetd" "wait mode"
3471 This option runs Exim as a daemon, awaiting incoming SMTP connections,
3472 similarly to the &%-bd%& option. All port specifications on the command-line
3473 and in the configuration file are ignored. Queue-running may not be specified.
3475 In this mode, Exim expects to be passed a socket as fd 0 (stdin) which is
3476 listening for connections. This permits the system to start up and have
3477 inetd (or equivalent) listen on the SMTP ports, starting an Exim daemon for
3478 each port only when the first connection is received.
3480 If the option is given as &%-bw%&<&'time'&> then the time is a timeout, after
3481 which the daemon will exit, which should cause inetd to listen once more.
3483 .vitem &%-C%&&~<&'filelist'&>
3484 .oindex "&%-C%&"
3485 .cindex "configuration file" "alternate"
3486 .cindex "CONFIGURE_FILE"
3487 .cindex "alternate configuration file"
3488 This option causes Exim to find the run time configuration file from the given
3489 list instead of from the list specified by the CONFIGURE_FILE
3490 compile-time setting. Usually, the list will consist of just a single file
3491 name, but it can be a colon-separated list of names. In this case, the first
3492 file that exists is used. Failure to open an existing file stops Exim from
3493 proceeding any further along the list, and an error is generated.
3495 When this option is used by a caller other than root, and the list is different
3496 from the compiled-in list, Exim gives up its root privilege immediately, and
3497 runs with the real and effective uid and gid set to those of the caller.
3498 However, if a TRUSTED_CONFIG_LIST file is defined in &_Local/Makefile_&, that
3499 file contains a list of full pathnames, one per line, for configuration files
3500 which are trusted. Root privilege is retained for any configuration file so
3501 listed, as long as the caller is the Exim user (or the user specified in the
3502 CONFIGURE_OWNER option, if any), and as long as the configuration file is
3503 not writeable by inappropriate users or groups.
3505 Leaving TRUSTED_CONFIG_LIST unset precludes the possibility of testing a
3506 configuration using &%-C%& right through message reception and delivery,
3507 even if the caller is root. The reception works, but by that time, Exim is
3508 running as the Exim user, so when it re-executes to regain privilege for the
3509 delivery, the use of &%-C%& causes privilege to be lost. However, root can
3510 test reception and delivery using two separate commands (one to put a message
3511 on the queue, using &%-odq%&, and another to do the delivery, using &%-M%&).
3513 If ALT_CONFIG_PREFIX is defined &_in Local/Makefile_&, it specifies a
3514 prefix string with which any file named in a &%-C%& command line option
3515 must start. In addition, the file name must not contain the sequence &`/../`&.
3516 However, if the value of the &%-C%& option is identical to the value of
3517 CONFIGURE_FILE in &_Local/Makefile_&, Exim ignores &%-C%& and proceeds as
3518 usual. There is no default setting for ALT_CONFIG_PREFIX; when it is
3519 unset, any file name can be used with &%-C%&.
3521 ALT_CONFIG_PREFIX can be used to confine alternative configuration files
3522 to a directory to which only root has access. This prevents someone who has
3523 broken into the Exim account from running a privileged Exim with an arbitrary
3524 configuration file.
3526 The &%-C%& facility is useful for ensuring that configuration files are
3527 syntactically correct, but cannot be used for test deliveries, unless the
3528 caller is privileged, or unless it is an exotic configuration that does not
3529 require privilege. No check is made on the owner or group of the files
3530 specified by this option.
3533 .vitem &%-D%&<&'macro'&>=<&'value'&>
3534 .oindex "&%-D%&"
3535 .cindex "macro" "setting on command line"
3536 This option can be used to override macro definitions in the configuration file
3537 (see section &<<SECTmacrodefs>>&). However, like &%-C%&, if it is used by an
3538 unprivileged caller, it causes Exim to give up its root privilege.
3539 If DISABLE_D_OPTION is defined in &_Local/Makefile_&, the use of &%-D%& is
3540 completely disabled, and its use causes an immediate error exit.
3542 If WHITELIST_D_MACROS is defined in &_Local/Makefile_& then it should be a
3543 colon-separated list of macros which are considered safe and, if &%-D%& only
3544 supplies macros from this list, and the values are acceptable, then Exim will
3545 not give up root privilege if the caller is root, the Exim run-time user, or
3546 the CONFIGURE_OWNER, if set. This is a transition mechanism and is expected
3547 to be removed in the future. Acceptable values for the macros satisfy the
3548 regexp: &`^[A-Za-z0-9_/.-]*$`&
3550 The entire option (including equals sign if present) must all be within one
3551 command line item. &%-D%& can be used to set the value of a macro to the empty
3552 string, in which case the equals sign is optional. These two commands are
3553 synonymous:
3554 .code
3555 exim -DABC ...
3556 exim -DABC= ...
3557 .endd
3558 To include spaces in a macro definition item, quotes must be used. If you use
3559 quotes, spaces are permitted around the macro name and the equals sign. For
3560 example:
3561 .code
3562 exim '-D ABC = something' ...
3563 .endd
3564 &%-D%& may be repeated up to 10 times on a command line.
3565 Only macro names up to 22 letters long can be set.
3568 .vitem &%-d%&<&'debug&~options'&>
3569 .oindex "&%-d%&"
3570 .cindex "debugging" "list of selectors"
3571 .cindex "debugging" "&%-d%& option"
3572 This option causes debugging information to be written to the standard
3573 error stream. It is restricted to admin users because debugging output may show
3574 database queries that contain password information. Also, the details of users'
3575 filter files should be protected. If a non-admin user uses &%-d%&, Exim
3576 writes an error message to the standard error stream and exits with a non-zero
3577 return code.
3579 When &%-d%& is used, &%-v%& is assumed. If &%-d%& is given on its own, a lot of
3580 standard debugging data is output. This can be reduced, or increased to include
3581 some more rarely needed information, by directly following &%-d%& with a string
3582 made up of names preceded by plus or minus characters. These add or remove sets
3583 of debugging data, respectively. For example, &%-d+filter%& adds filter
3584 debugging, whereas &%-d-all+filter%& selects only filter debugging. Note that
3585 no spaces are allowed in the debug setting. The available debugging categories
3586 are:
3587 .display
3588 &`acl `& ACL interpretation
3589 &`auth `& authenticators
3590 &`deliver `& general delivery logic
3591 &`dns `& DNS lookups (see also resolver)
3592 &`dnsbl `& DNS black list (aka RBL) code
3593 &`exec `& arguments for &[execv()]& calls
3594 &`expand `& detailed debugging for string expansions
3595 &`filter `& filter handling
3596 &`hints_lookup `& hints data lookups
3597 &`host_lookup `& all types of name-to-IP address handling
3598 &`ident `& ident lookup
3599 &`interface `& lists of local interfaces
3600 &`lists `& matching things in lists
3601 &`load `& system load checks
3602 &`local_scan `& can be used by &[local_scan()]& (see chapter &&&
3603 &<<CHAPlocalscan>>&)
3604 &`lookup `& general lookup code and all lookups
3605 &`memory `& memory handling
3606 &`pid `& add pid to debug output lines
3607 &`process_info `& setting info for the process log
3608 &`queue_run `& queue runs
3609 &`receive `& general message reception logic
3610 &`resolver `& turn on the DNS resolver's debugging output
3611 &`retry `& retry handling
3612 &`rewrite `& address rewriting
3613 &`route `& address routing
3614 &`timestamp `& add timestamp to debug output lines
3615 &`tls `& TLS logic
3616 &`transport `& transports
3617 &`uid `& changes of uid/gid and looking up uid/gid
3618 &`verify `& address verification logic
3619 &`all `& almost all of the above (see below), and also &%-v%&
3620 .endd
3621 The &`all`& option excludes &`memory`& when used as &`+all`&, but includes it
3622 for &`-all`&. The reason for this is that &`+all`& is something that people
3623 tend to use when generating debug output for Exim maintainers. If &`+memory`&
3624 is included, an awful lot of output that is very rarely of interest is
3625 generated, so it now has to be explicitly requested. However, &`-all`& does
3626 turn everything off.
3628 .cindex "resolver, debugging output"
3629 .cindex "DNS resolver, debugging output"
3630 The &`resolver`& option produces output only if the DNS resolver was compiled
3631 with DEBUG enabled. This is not the case in some operating systems. Also,
3632 unfortunately, debugging output from the DNS resolver is written to stdout
3633 rather than stderr.
3635 The default (&%-d%& with no argument) omits &`expand`&, &`filter`&,
3636 &`interface`&, &`load`&, &`memory`&, &`pid`&, &`resolver`&, and &`timestamp`&.
3637 However, the &`pid`& selector is forced when debugging is turned on for a
3638 daemon, which then passes it on to any re-executed Exims. Exim also
3639 automatically adds the pid to debug lines when several remote deliveries are
3640 run in parallel.
3642 The &`timestamp`& selector causes the current time to be inserted at the start
3643 of all debug output lines. This can be useful when trying to track down delays
3644 in processing.
3646 If the &%debug_print%& option is set in any driver, it produces output whenever
3647 any debugging is selected, or if &%-v%& is used.
3649 .vitem &%-dd%&<&'debug&~options'&>
3650 .oindex "&%-dd%&"
3651 This option behaves exactly like &%-d%& except when used on a command that
3652 starts a daemon process. In that case, debugging is turned off for the
3653 subprocesses that the daemon creates. Thus, it is useful for monitoring the
3654 behaviour of the daemon without creating as much output as full debugging does.
3656 .vitem &%-dropcr%&
3657 .oindex "&%-dropcr%&"
3658 This is an obsolete option that is now a no-op. It used to affect the way Exim
3659 handled CR and LF characters in incoming messages. What happens now is
3660 described in section &<<SECTlineendings>>&.
3662 .vitem &%-E%&
3663 .oindex "&%-E%&"
3664 .cindex "bounce message" "generating"
3665 This option specifies that an incoming message is a locally-generated delivery
3666 failure report. It is used internally by Exim when handling delivery failures
3667 and is not intended for external use. Its only effect is to stop Exim
3668 generating certain messages to the postmaster, as otherwise message cascades
3669 could occur in some situations. As part of the same option, a message id may
3670 follow the characters &%-E%&. If it does, the log entry for the receipt of the
3671 new message contains the id, following &"R="&, as a cross-reference.
3673 .vitem &%-e%&&'x'&
3674 .oindex "&%-e%&&'x'&"
3675 There are a number of Sendmail options starting with &%-oe%& which seem to be
3676 called by various programs without the leading &%o%& in the option. For
3677 example, the &%vacation%& program uses &%-eq%&. Exim treats all options of the
3678 form &%-e%&&'x'& as synonymous with the corresponding &%-oe%&&'x'& options.
3680 .vitem &%-F%&&~<&'string'&>
3681 .oindex "&%-F%&"
3682 .cindex "sender" "name"
3683 .cindex "name" "of sender"
3684 This option sets the sender's full name for use when a locally-generated
3685 message is being accepted. In the absence of this option, the user's &'gecos'&
3686 entry from the password data is used. As users are generally permitted to alter
3687 their &'gecos'& entries, no security considerations are involved. White space
3688 between &%-F%& and the <&'string'&> is optional.
3690 .vitem &%-f%&&~<&'address'&>
3691 .oindex "&%-f%&"
3692 .cindex "sender" "address"
3693 .cindex "address" "sender"
3694 .cindex "trusted users"
3695 .cindex "envelope sender"
3696 .cindex "user" "trusted"
3697 This option sets the address of the envelope sender of a locally-generated
3698 message (also known as the return path). The option can normally be used only
3699 by a trusted user, but &%untrusted_set_sender%& can be set to allow untrusted
3700 users to use it.
3702 Processes running as root or the Exim user are always trusted. Other
3703 trusted users are defined by the &%trusted_users%& or &%trusted_groups%&
3704 options. In the absence of &%-f%&, or if the caller is not trusted, the sender
3705 of a local message is set to the caller's login name at the default qualify
3706 domain.
3708 There is one exception to the restriction on the use of &%-f%&: an empty sender
3709 can be specified by any user, trusted or not, to create a message that can
3710 never provoke a bounce. An empty sender can be specified either as an empty
3711 string, or as a pair of angle brackets with nothing between them, as in these
3712 examples of shell commands:
3713 .code
3714 exim -f '<>' user@domain
3715 exim -f "" user@domain
3716 .endd
3717 In addition, the use of &%-f%& is not restricted when testing a filter file
3718 with &%-bf%& or when testing or verifying addresses using the &%-bt%& or
3719 &%-bv%& options.
3721 Allowing untrusted users to change the sender address does not of itself make
3722 it possible to send anonymous mail. Exim still checks that the &'From:'& header
3723 refers to the local user, and if it does not, it adds a &'Sender:'& header,
3724 though this can be overridden by setting &%no_local_from_check%&.
3726 White
3727 .cindex "&""From""& line"
3728 space between &%-f%& and the <&'address'&> is optional (that is, they can be
3729 given as two arguments or one combined argument). The sender of a
3730 locally-generated message can also be set (when permitted) by an initial
3731 &"From&~"& line in the message &-- see the description of &%-bm%& above &-- but
3732 if &%-f%& is also present, it overrides &"From&~"&.
3734 .vitem &%-G%&
3735 .oindex "&%-G%&"
3736 .cindex "submission fixups, suppressing (command-line)"
3737 This option is equivalent to an ACL applying:
3738 .code
3739 control = suppress_local_fixups
3740 .endd
3741 for every message received. Note that Sendmail will complain about such
3742 bad formatting, where Exim silently just does not fix it up. This may change
3743 in future.
3745 As this affects audit information, the caller must be a trusted user to use
3746 this option.
3748 .vitem &%-h%&&~<&'number'&>
3749 .oindex "&%-h%&"
3750 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&%-h%& option ignored"
3751 This option is accepted for compatibility with Sendmail, but has no effect. (In
3752 Sendmail it overrides the &"hop count"& obtained by counting &'Received:'&
3753 headers.)
3755 .vitem &%-i%&
3756 .oindex "&%-i%&"
3757 .cindex "Solaris" "&'mail'& command"
3758 .cindex "dot" "in incoming non-SMTP message"
3759 This option, which has the same effect as &%-oi%&, specifies that a dot on a
3760 line by itself should not terminate an incoming, non-SMTP message. I can find
3761 no documentation for this option in Solaris 2.4 Sendmail, but the &'mailx'&
3762 command in Solaris 2.4 uses it. See also &%-ti%&.
3764 .vitem &%-L%&&~<&'tag'&>
3765 .oindex "&%-L%&"
3766 .cindex "syslog" "process name; set with flag"
3767 This option is equivalent to setting &%syslog_processname%& in the config
3768 file and setting &%log_file_path%& to &`syslog`&.
3769 Its use is restricted to administrators. The configuration file has to be
3770 read and parsed, to determine access rights, before this is set and takes
3771 effect, so early configuration file errors will not honour this flag.
3773 The tag should not be longer than 32 characters.
3775 .vitem &%-M%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3776 .oindex "&%-M%&"
3777 .cindex "forcing delivery"
3778 .cindex "delivery" "forcing attempt"
3779 .cindex "frozen messages" "forcing delivery"
3780 This option requests Exim to run a delivery attempt on each message in turn. If
3781 any of the messages are frozen, they are automatically thawed before the
3782 delivery attempt. The settings of &%queue_domains%&, &%queue_smtp_domains%&,
3783 and &%hold_domains%& are ignored.
3785 Retry
3786 .cindex "hints database" "overriding retry hints"
3787 hints for any of the addresses are overridden &-- Exim tries to deliver even if
3788 the normal retry time has not yet been reached. This option requires the caller
3789 to be an admin user. However, there is an option called &%prod_requires_admin%&
3790 which can be set false to relax this restriction (and also the same requirement
3791 for the &%-q%&, &%-R%&, and &%-S%& options).
3793 The deliveries happen synchronously, that is, the original Exim process does
3794 not terminate until all the delivery attempts have finished. No output is
3795 produced unless there is a serious error. If you want to see what is happening,
3796 use the &%-v%& option as well, or inspect Exim's main log.
3798 .vitem &%-Mar%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'address'&>&~<&'address'&>&~...
3799 .oindex "&%-Mar%&"
3800 .cindex "message" "adding recipients"
3801 .cindex "recipient" "adding"
3802 This option requests Exim to add the addresses to the list of recipients of the
3803 message (&"ar"& for &"add recipients"&). The first argument must be a message
3804 id, and the remaining ones must be email addresses. However, if the message is
3805 active (in the middle of a delivery attempt), it is not altered. This option
3806 can be used only by an admin user.
3808 .vitem "&%-MC%&&~<&'transport'&>&~<&'hostname'&>&~<&'sequence&~number'&>&&&
3809 &~<&'message&~id'&>"
3810 .oindex "&%-MC%&"
3811 .cindex "SMTP" "passed connection"
3812 .cindex "SMTP" "multiple deliveries"
3813 .cindex "multiple SMTP deliveries"
3814 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3815 by Exim to invoke another instance of itself to deliver a waiting message using
3816 an existing SMTP connection, which is passed as the standard input. Details are
3817 given in chapter &<<CHAPSMTP>>&. This must be the final option, and the caller
3818 must be root or the Exim user in order to use it.
3820 .vitem &%-MCA%&
3821 .oindex "&%-MCA%&"
3822 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3823 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option. It signifies that the
3824 connection to the remote host has been authenticated.
3826 .vitem &%-MCD%&
3827 .oindex "&%-MCD%&"
3828 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3829 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option. It signifies that the
3830 remote host supports the ESMTP &_DSN_& extension.
3832 .vitem &%-MCG%&&~<&'queue&~name'&>
3833 .oindex "&%-MCG%&"
3834 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3835 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option. It signifies that an
3836 alternate queue is used, named by the following argument.
3838 .vitem &%-MCK%&
3839 .oindex "&%-MCK%&"
3840 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3841 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option. It signifies that an
3842 remote host supports the ESMTP &_CHUNKING_& extension.
3844 .vitem &%-MCP%&
3845 .oindex "&%-MCP%&"
3846 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3847 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option. It signifies that the server to
3848 which Exim is connected supports pipelining.
3850 .vitem &%-MCQ%&&~<&'process&~id'&>&~<&'pipe&~fd'&>
3851 .oindex "&%-MCQ%&"
3852 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3853 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option when the original delivery was
3854 started by a queue runner. It passes on the process id of the queue runner,
3855 together with the file descriptor number of an open pipe. Closure of the pipe
3856 signals the final completion of the sequence of processes that are passing
3857 messages through the same SMTP connection.
3859 .vitem &%-MCS%&
3860 .oindex "&%-MCS%&"
3861 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3862 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option, and passes on the fact that the
3863 SMTP SIZE option should be used on messages delivered down the existing
3864 connection.
3866 .vitem &%-MCT%&
3867 .oindex "&%-MCT%&"
3868 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3869 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option, and passes on the fact that the
3870 host to which Exim is connected supports TLS encryption.
3872 .vitem &%-MCt%&&~<&'IP&~address'&>&~<&'port'&>&~<&'cipher'&>
3873 .oindex "&%-MCt%&"
3874 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3875 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option, and passes on the fact that the
3876 connection is being proxied by a parent process for handling TLS encryption.
3877 The arguments give the local address and port being proxied, and the TLS cipher.
3879 .vitem &%-Mc%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3880 .oindex "&%-Mc%&"
3881 .cindex "hints database" "not overridden by &%-Mc%&"
3882 .cindex "delivery" "manually started &-- not forced"
3883 This option requests Exim to run a delivery attempt on each message in turn,
3884 but unlike the &%-M%& option, it does check for retry hints, and respects any
3885 that are found. This option is not very useful to external callers. It is
3886 provided mainly for internal use by Exim when it needs to re-invoke itself in
3887 order to regain root privilege for a delivery (see chapter &<<CHAPsecurity>>&).
3888 However, &%-Mc%& can be useful when testing, in order to run a delivery that
3889 respects retry times and other options such as &%hold_domains%& that are
3890 overridden when &%-M%& is used. Such a delivery does not count as a queue run.
3891 If you want to run a specific delivery as if in a queue run, you should use
3892 &%-q%& with a message id argument. A distinction between queue run deliveries
3893 and other deliveries is made in one or two places.
3895 .vitem &%-Mes%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'address'&>
3896 .oindex "&%-Mes%&"
3897 .cindex "message" "changing sender"
3898 .cindex "sender" "changing"
3899 This option requests Exim to change the sender address in the message to the
3900 given address, which must be a fully qualified address or &"<>"& (&"es"& for
3901 &"edit sender"&). There must be exactly two arguments. The first argument must
3902 be a message id, and the second one an email address. However, if the message
3903 is active (in the middle of a delivery attempt), its status is not altered.
3904 This option can be used only by an admin user.
3906 .vitem &%-Mf%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3907 .oindex "&%-Mf%&"
3908 .cindex "freezing messages"
3909 .cindex "message" "manually freezing"
3910 This option requests Exim to mark each listed message as &"frozen"&. This
3911 prevents any delivery attempts taking place until the message is &"thawed"&,
3912 either manually or as a result of the &%auto_thaw%& configuration option.
3913 However, if any of the messages are active (in the middle of a delivery
3914 attempt), their status is not altered. This option can be used only by an admin
3915 user.
3917 .vitem &%-Mg%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3918 .oindex "&%-Mg%&"
3919 .cindex "giving up on messages"
3920 .cindex "message" "abandoning delivery attempts"
3921 .cindex "delivery" "abandoning further attempts"
3922 This option requests Exim to give up trying to deliver the listed messages,
3923 including any that are frozen. However, if any of the messages are active,
3924 their status is not altered. For non-bounce messages, a delivery error message
3925 is sent to the sender, containing the text &"cancelled by administrator"&.
3926 Bounce messages are just discarded. This option can be used only by an admin
3927 user.
3929 .vitem &%-Mmad%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3930 .oindex "&%-Mmad%&"
3931 .cindex "delivery" "cancelling all"
3932 This option requests Exim to mark all the recipient addresses in the messages
3933 as already delivered (&"mad"& for &"mark all delivered"&). However, if any
3934 message is active (in the middle of a delivery attempt), its status is not
3935 altered. This option can be used only by an admin user.
3937 .vitem &%-Mmd%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'address'&>&~<&'address'&>&~...
3938 .oindex "&%-Mmd%&"
3939 .cindex "delivery" "cancelling by address"
3940 .cindex "recipient" "removing"
3941 .cindex "removing recipients"
3942 This option requests Exim to mark the given addresses as already delivered
3943 (&"md"& for &"mark delivered"&). The first argument must be a message id, and
3944 the remaining ones must be email addresses. These are matched to recipient
3945 addresses in the message in a case-sensitive manner. If the message is active
3946 (in the middle of a delivery attempt), its status is not altered. This option
3947 can be used only by an admin user.
3949 .vitem &%-Mrm%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3950 .oindex "&%-Mrm%&"
3951 .cindex "removing messages"
3952 .cindex "abandoning mail"
3953 .cindex "message" "manually discarding"
3954 This option requests Exim to remove the given messages from the queue. No
3955 bounce messages are sent; each message is simply forgotten. However, if any of
3956 the messages are active, their status is not altered. This option can be used
3957 only by an admin user or by the user who originally caused the message to be
3958 placed on the queue.
3960 .vitem &%-Mset%&&~<&'message&~id'&>
3961 .oindex "&%-Mset%&
3962 .cindex "testing" "string expansion"
3963 .cindex "expansion" "testing"
3964 This option is useful only in conjunction with &%-be%& (that is, when testing
3965 string expansions). Exim loads the given message from its spool before doing
3966 the test expansions, thus setting message-specific variables such as
3967 &$message_size$& and the header variables. The &$recipients$& variable is made
3968 available. This feature is provided to make it easier to test expansions that
3969 make use of these variables. However, this option can be used only by an admin
3970 user. See also &%-bem%&.
3972 .vitem &%-Mt%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3973 .oindex "&%-Mt%&"
3974 .cindex "thawing messages"
3975 .cindex "unfreezing messages"
3976 .cindex "frozen messages" "thawing"
3977 .cindex "message" "thawing frozen"
3978 This option requests Exim to &"thaw"& any of the listed messages that are
3979 &"frozen"&, so that delivery attempts can resume. However, if any of the
3980 messages are active, their status is not altered. This option can be used only
3981 by an admin user.
3983 .vitem &%-Mvb%&&~<&'message&~id'&>
3984 .oindex "&%-Mvb%&"
3985 .cindex "listing" "message body"
3986 .cindex "message" "listing body of"
3987 This option causes the contents of the message body (-D) spool file to be
3988 written to the standard output. This option can be used only by an admin user.
3990 .vitem &%-Mvc%&&~<&'message&~id'&>
3991 .oindex "&%-Mvc%&"
3992 .cindex "message" "listing in RFC 2822 format"
3993 .cindex "listing" "message in RFC 2822 format"
3994 This option causes a copy of the complete message (header lines plus body) to
3995 be written to the standard output in RFC 2822 format. This option can be used
3996 only by an admin user.
3998 .vitem &%-Mvh%&&~<&'message&~id'&>
3999 .oindex "&%-Mvh%&"
4000 .cindex "listing" "message headers"
4001 .cindex "header lines" "listing"
4002 .cindex "message" "listing header lines"