[exim.git] / doc / doc-docbook / spec.xfpt
1 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2 . This is the primary source of the Exim Manual. It is an xfpt document that is
3 . converted into DocBook XML for subsequent conversion into printing and online
4 . formats. The markup used herein is "standard" xfpt markup, with some extras.
5 . The markup is summarized in a file called Markup.txt.
6 .
7 . WARNING: When you use the .new macro, make sure it appears *before* any
8 . adjacent index items; otherwise you get an empty "paragraph" which causes
9 . unwanted vertical space.
10 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
12 .include stdflags
13 .include stdmacs
15 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
16 . This outputs the standard DocBook boilerplate.
17 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
19 .docbook
21 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
22 . These lines are processing instructions for the Simple DocBook Processor that
23 . Philip Hazel has developed as a less cumbersome way of making PostScript and
24 . PDFs than using xmlto and fop. They will be ignored by all other XML
25 . processors.
26 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
28 .literal xml
29 <?sdop
30 foot_right_recto="&chaptertitle; (&chapternumber;)"
31 foot_right_verso="&chaptertitle; (&chapternumber;)"
32 toc_chapter_blanks="yes,yes"
33 table_warn_overflow="overprint"
34 ?>
35 .literal off
37 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
38 . This generate the outermost <book> element that wraps then entire document.
39 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
41 .book
43 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
44 . These definitions set some parameters and save some typing.
45 . Update the Copyright year (only) when changing content.
46 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
48 .set previousversion "4.80"
49 .include ./local_params
51 .set ACL "access control lists (ACLs)"
52 .set I "&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;"
54 .macro copyyear
55 2014
56 .endmacro
58 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
59 . Additional xfpt markup used by this document, over and above the default
60 . provided in the xfpt library.
61 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
63 . --- Override the &$ flag to automatically insert a $ with the variable name
65 .flag &$ $& "<varname>$" "</varname>"
67 . --- Short flags for daggers in option headings. They will always be inside
68 . --- an italic string, but we want the daggers to be roman.
70 .flag &!! "</emphasis>&dagger;<emphasis>"
71 .flag &!? "</emphasis>&Dagger;<emphasis>"
73 . --- A macro for an Exim option definition heading, generating a one-line
74 . --- table with four columns. For cases when the option name is given with
75 . --- a space, so that it can be split, a fifth argument is used for the
76 . --- index entry.
78 .macro option
79 .arg 5
80 .oindex "&%$5%&"
81 .endarg
82 .arg -5
83 .oindex "&%$1%&"
84 .endarg
85 .itable all 0 0 4 8* left 6* center 6* center 6* right
86 .row "&%$1%&" "Use: &'$2'&" "Type: &'$3'&" "Default: &'$4'&"
87 .endtable
88 .endmacro
90 . --- A macro for the common 2-column tables. The width of the first column
91 . --- is suitable for the many tables at the start of the main options chapter;
92 . --- the small number of other 2-column tables override it.
94 .macro table2 196pt 254pt
95 .itable none 0 0 2 $1 left $2 left
96 .endmacro
98 . --- A macro that generates .row, but puts &I; at the start of the first
99 . --- argument, thus indenting it. Assume a minimum of two arguments, and
100 . --- allow up to four arguments, which is as many as we'll ever need.
102 .macro irow
103 .arg 4
104 .row "&I;$1" "$2" "$3" "$4"
105 .endarg
106 .arg -4
107 .arg 3
108 .row "&I;$1" "$2" "$3"
109 .endarg
110 .arg -3
111 .row "&I;$1" "$2"
112 .endarg
113 .endarg
114 .endmacro
116 . --- Macros for option, variable, and concept index entries. For a "range"
117 . --- style of entry, use .scindex for the start and .ecindex for the end. The
118 . --- first argument of .scindex and the only argument of .ecindex must be the
119 . --- ID that ties them together.
121 .macro cindex
122 &<indexterm role="concept">&
123 &<primary>&$1&</primary>&
124 .arg 2
125 &<secondary>&$2&</secondary>&
126 .endarg
127 &</indexterm>&
128 .endmacro
130 .macro scindex
131 &<indexterm role="concept" id="$1" class="startofrange">&
132 &<primary>&$2&</primary>&
133 .arg 3
134 &<secondary>&$3&</secondary>&
135 .endarg
136 &</indexterm>&
137 .endmacro
139 .macro ecindex
140 &<indexterm role="concept" startref="$1" class="endofrange"/>&
141 .endmacro
143 .macro oindex
144 &<indexterm role="option">&
145 &<primary>&$1&</primary>&
146 .arg 2
147 &<secondary>&$2&</secondary>&
148 .endarg
149 &</indexterm>&
150 .endmacro
152 .macro vindex
153 &<indexterm role="variable">&
154 &<primary>&$1&</primary>&
155 .arg 2
156 &<secondary>&$2&</secondary>&
157 .endarg
158 &</indexterm>&
159 .endmacro
161 .macro index
162 .echo "** Don't use .index; use .cindex or .oindex or .vindex"
163 .endmacro
164 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
167 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
168 . The <bookinfo> element is removed from the XML before processing for Ascii
169 . output formats.
170 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
172 .literal xml
173 <bookinfo>
174 <title>Specification of the Exim Mail Transfer Agent</title>
175 <titleabbrev>The Exim MTA</titleabbrev>
176 <date>
177 .fulldate
178 </date>
179 <author><firstname>Exim</firstname><surname>Maintainers</surname></author>
180 <authorinitials>EM</authorinitials>
181 <revhistory><revision>
182 .versiondatexml
183 <authorinitials>EM</authorinitials>
184 </revision></revhistory>
185 <copyright><year>
186 .copyyear
187 </year><holder>University of Cambridge</holder></copyright>
188 </bookinfo>
189 .literal off
192 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
193 . This chunk of literal XML implements index entries of the form "x, see y" and
194 . "x, see also y". However, the DocBook DTD doesn't allow <indexterm> entries
195 . at the top level, so we have to put the .chapter directive first.
196 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
198 .chapter "Introduction" "CHID1"
199 .literal xml
201 <indexterm role="variable">
202 <primary>$1, $2, etc.</primary>
203 <see><emphasis>numerical variables</emphasis></see>
204 </indexterm>
205 <indexterm role="concept">
206 <primary>address</primary>
207 <secondary>rewriting</secondary>
208 <see><emphasis>rewriting</emphasis></see>
209 </indexterm>
210 <indexterm role="concept">
211 <primary>Bounce Address Tag Validation</primary>
212 <see><emphasis>BATV</emphasis></see>
213 </indexterm>
214 <indexterm role="concept">
215 <primary>Client SMTP Authorization</primary>
216 <see><emphasis>CSA</emphasis></see>
217 </indexterm>
218 <indexterm role="concept">
219 <primary>CR character</primary>
220 <see><emphasis>carriage return</emphasis></see>
221 </indexterm>
222 <indexterm role="concept">
223 <primary>CRL</primary>
224 <see><emphasis>certificate revocation list</emphasis></see>
225 </indexterm>
226 <indexterm role="concept">
227 <primary>delivery</primary>
228 <secondary>failure report</secondary>
229 <see><emphasis>bounce message</emphasis></see>
230 </indexterm>
231 <indexterm role="concept">
232 <primary>dialup</primary>
233 <see><emphasis>intermittently connected hosts</emphasis></see>
234 </indexterm>
235 <indexterm role="concept">
236 <primary>exiscan</primary>
237 <see><emphasis>content scanning</emphasis></see>
238 </indexterm>
239 <indexterm role="concept">
240 <primary>failover</primary>
241 <see><emphasis>fallback</emphasis></see>
242 </indexterm>
243 <indexterm role="concept">
244 <primary>fallover</primary>
245 <see><emphasis>fallback</emphasis></see>
246 </indexterm>
247 <indexterm role="concept">
248 <primary>filter</primary>
249 <secondary>Sieve</secondary>
250 <see><emphasis>Sieve filter</emphasis></see>
251 </indexterm>
252 <indexterm role="concept">
253 <primary>ident</primary>
254 <see><emphasis>RFC 1413</emphasis></see>
255 </indexterm>
256 <indexterm role="concept">
257 <primary>LF character</primary>
258 <see><emphasis>linefeed</emphasis></see>
259 </indexterm>
260 <indexterm role="concept">
261 <primary>maximum</primary>
262 <seealso><emphasis>limit</emphasis></seealso>
263 </indexterm>
264 <indexterm role="concept">
265 <primary>monitor</primary>
266 <see><emphasis>Exim monitor</emphasis></see>
267 </indexterm>
268 <indexterm role="concept">
269 <primary>no_<emphasis>xxx</emphasis></primary>
270 <see>entry for xxx</see>
271 </indexterm>
272 <indexterm role="concept">
273 <primary>NUL</primary>
274 <see><emphasis>binary zero</emphasis></see>
275 </indexterm>
276 <indexterm role="concept">
277 <primary>passwd file</primary>
278 <see><emphasis>/etc/passwd</emphasis></see>
279 </indexterm>
280 <indexterm role="concept">
281 <primary>process id</primary>
282 <see><emphasis>pid</emphasis></see>
283 </indexterm>
284 <indexterm role="concept">
285 <primary>RBL</primary>
286 <see><emphasis>DNS list</emphasis></see>
287 </indexterm>
288 <indexterm role="concept">
289 <primary>redirection</primary>
290 <see><emphasis>address redirection</emphasis></see>
291 </indexterm>
292 <indexterm role="concept">
293 <primary>return path</primary>
294 <seealso><emphasis>envelope sender</emphasis></seealso>
295 </indexterm>
296 <indexterm role="concept">
297 <primary>scanning</primary>
298 <see><emphasis>content scanning</emphasis></see>
299 </indexterm>
300 <indexterm role="concept">
301 <primary>SSL</primary>
302 <see><emphasis>TLS</emphasis></see>
303 </indexterm>
304 <indexterm role="concept">
305 <primary>string</primary>
306 <secondary>expansion</secondary>
307 <see><emphasis>expansion</emphasis></see>
308 </indexterm>
309 <indexterm role="concept">
310 <primary>top bit</primary>
311 <see><emphasis>8-bit characters</emphasis></see>
312 </indexterm>
313 <indexterm role="concept">
314 <primary>variables</primary>
315 <see><emphasis>expansion, variables</emphasis></see>
316 </indexterm>
317 <indexterm role="concept">
318 <primary>zero, binary</primary>
319 <see><emphasis>binary zero</emphasis></see>
320 </indexterm>
322 .literal off
325 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
326 . This is the real start of the first chapter. See the comment above as to why
327 . we can't have the .chapter line here.
328 . chapter "Introduction"
329 . /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
331 Exim is a mail transfer agent (MTA) for hosts that are running Unix or
332 Unix-like operating systems. It was designed on the assumption that it would be
333 run on hosts that are permanently connected to the Internet. However, it can be
334 used on intermittently connected hosts with suitable configuration adjustments.
336 Configuration files currently exist for the following operating systems: AIX,
337 BSD/OS (aka BSDI), Darwin (Mac OS X), DGUX, Dragonfly, FreeBSD, GNU/Hurd,
338 GNU/Linux, HI-OSF (Hitachi), HI-UX, HP-UX, IRIX, MIPS RISCOS, NetBSD, OpenBSD,
339 OpenUNIX, QNX, SCO, SCO SVR4.2 (aka UNIX-SV), Solaris (aka SunOS5), SunOS4,
340 Tru64-Unix (formerly Digital UNIX, formerly DEC-OSF1), Ultrix, and Unixware.
341 Some of these operating systems are no longer current and cannot easily be
342 tested, so the configuration files may no longer work in practice.
344 There are also configuration files for compiling Exim in the Cygwin environment
345 that can be installed on systems running Windows. However, this document does
346 not contain any information about running Exim in the Cygwin environment.
348 The terms and conditions for the use and distribution of Exim are contained in
349 the file &_NOTICE_&. Exim is distributed under the terms of the GNU General
350 Public Licence, a copy of which may be found in the file &_LICENCE_&.
352 The use, supply or promotion of Exim for the purpose of sending bulk,
353 unsolicited electronic mail is incompatible with the basic aims of the program,
354 which revolve around the free provision of a service that enhances the quality
355 of personal communications. The author of Exim regards indiscriminate
356 mass-mailing as an antisocial, irresponsible abuse of the Internet.
358 Exim owes a great deal to Smail 3 and its author, Ron Karr. Without the
359 experience of running and working on the Smail 3 code, I could never have
360 contemplated starting to write a new MTA. Many of the ideas and user interfaces
361 were originally taken from Smail 3, though the actual code of Exim is entirely
362 new, and has developed far beyond the initial concept.
364 Many people, both in Cambridge and around the world, have contributed to the
365 development and the testing of Exim, and to porting it to various operating
366 systems. I am grateful to them all. The distribution now contains a file called
367 &_ACKNOWLEDGMENTS_&, in which I have started recording the names of
368 contributors.
371 .section "Exim documentation" "SECID1"
372 . Keep this example change bar when updating the documentation!
374 .new
375 .cindex "documentation"
376 This edition of the Exim specification applies to version &version() of Exim.
377 Substantive changes from the &previousversion; edition are marked in some
378 renditions of the document; this paragraph is so marked if the rendition is
379 capable of showing a change indicator.
380 .wen
382 This document is very much a reference manual; it is not a tutorial. The reader
383 is expected to have some familiarity with the SMTP mail transfer protocol and
384 with general Unix system administration. Although there are some discussions
385 and examples in places, the information is mostly organized in a way that makes
386 it easy to look up, rather than in a natural order for sequential reading.
387 Furthermore, the manual aims to cover every aspect of Exim in detail, including
388 a number of rarely-used, special-purpose features that are unlikely to be of
389 very wide interest.
391 .cindex "books about Exim"
392 An &"easier"& discussion of Exim which provides more in-depth explanatory,
393 introductory, and tutorial material can be found in a book entitled &'The Exim
394 SMTP Mail Server'& (second edition, 2007), published by UIT Cambridge
395 (&url(http://www.uit.co.uk/exim-book/)).
397 This book also contains a chapter that gives a general introduction to SMTP and
398 Internet mail. Inevitably, however, the book is unlikely to be fully up-to-date
399 with the latest release of Exim. (Note that the earlier book about Exim,
400 published by O'Reilly, covers Exim 3, and many things have changed in Exim 4.)
402 .cindex "Debian" "information sources"
403 If you are using a Debian distribution of Exim, you will find information about
404 Debian-specific features in the file
405 &_/usr/share/doc/exim4-base/README.Debian_&.
406 The command &(man update-exim.conf)& is another source of Debian-specific
407 information.
409 .cindex "&_doc/NewStuff_&"
410 .cindex "&_doc/ChangeLog_&"
411 .cindex "change log"
412 As the program develops, there may be features in newer versions that have not
413 yet made it into this document, which is updated only when the most significant
414 digit of the fractional part of the version number changes. Specifications of
415 new features that are not yet in this manual are placed in the file
416 &_doc/NewStuff_& in the Exim distribution.
418 Some features may be classified as &"experimental"&. These may change
419 incompatibly while they are developing, or even be withdrawn. For this reason,
420 they are not documented in this manual. Information about experimental features
421 can be found in the file &_doc/experimental.txt_&.
423 All changes to the program (whether new features, bug fixes, or other kinds of
424 change) are noted briefly in the file called &_doc/ChangeLog_&.
426 .cindex "&_doc/spec.txt_&"
427 This specification itself is available as an ASCII file in &_doc/spec.txt_& so
428 that it can easily be searched with a text editor. Other files in the &_doc_&
429 directory are:
431 .table2 100pt
432 .row &_OptionLists.txt_& "list of all options in alphabetical order"
433 .row &_dbm.discuss.txt_& "discussion about DBM libraries"
434 .row &_exim.8_& "a man page of Exim's command line options"
435 .row &_experimental.txt_& "documentation of experimental features"
436 .row &_filter.txt_& "specification of the filter language"
437 .row &_Exim3.upgrade_& "upgrade notes from release 2 to release 3"
438 .row &_Exim4.upgrade_& "upgrade notes from release 3 to release 4"
439 .endtable
441 The main specification and the specification of the filtering language are also
442 available in other formats (HTML, PostScript, PDF, and Texinfo). Section
443 &<<SECTavail>>& below tells you how to get hold of these.
447 .section "FTP and web sites" "SECID2"
448 .cindex "web site"
449 .cindex "FTP site"
450 The primary site for Exim source distributions is currently the University of
451 Cambridge's FTP site, whose contents are described in &'Where to find the Exim
452 distribution'& below. In addition, there is a web site and an FTP site at
453 &%exim.org%&. These are now also hosted at the University of Cambridge. The
454 &%exim.org%& site was previously hosted for a number of years by Energis
455 Squared, formerly Planet Online Ltd, whose support I gratefully acknowledge.
457 .cindex "wiki"
458 .cindex "FAQ"
459 As well as Exim distribution tar files, the Exim web site contains a number of
460 differently formatted versions of the documentation. A recent addition to the
461 online information is the Exim wiki (&url(http://wiki.exim.org)),
462 which contains what used to be a separate FAQ, as well as various other
463 examples, tips, and know-how that have been contributed by Exim users.
465 .cindex Bugzilla
466 An Exim Bugzilla exists at &url(http://bugs.exim.org). You can use
467 this to report bugs, and also to add items to the wish list. Please search
468 first to check that you are not duplicating a previous entry.
472 .section "Mailing lists" "SECID3"
473 .cindex "mailing lists" "for Exim users"
474 The following Exim mailing lists exist:
476 .table2 140pt
477 .row &'exim-announce@exim.org'& "Moderated, low volume announcements list"
478 .row &'exim-users@exim.org'& "General discussion list"
479 .row &'exim-dev@exim.org'& "Discussion of bugs, enhancements, etc."
480 .row &'exim-cvs@exim.org'& "Automated commit messages from the VCS"
481 .endtable
483 You can subscribe to these lists, change your existing subscriptions, and view
484 or search the archives via the mailing lists link on the Exim home page.
485 .cindex "Debian" "mailing list for"
486 If you are using a Debian distribution of Exim, you may wish to subscribe to
487 the Debian-specific mailing list &'pkg-exim4-users@lists.alioth.debian.org'&
488 via this web page:
489 .display
490 &url(http://lists.alioth.debian.org/mailman/listinfo/pkg-exim4-users)
491 .endd
492 Please ask Debian-specific questions on this list and not on the general Exim
493 lists.
495 .section "Exim training" "SECID4"
496 .cindex "training courses"
497 Training courses in Cambridge (UK) used to be run annually by the author of
498 Exim, before he retired. At the time of writing, there are no plans to run
499 further Exim courses in Cambridge. However, if that changes, relevant
500 information will be posted at &url(http://www-tus.csx.cam.ac.uk/courses/exim/).
502 .section "Bug reports" "SECID5"
503 .cindex "bug reports"
504 .cindex "reporting bugs"
505 Reports of obvious bugs can be emailed to &'bugs@exim.org'& or reported
506 via the Bugzilla (&url(http://bugs.exim.org)). However, if you are unsure
507 whether some behaviour is a bug or not, the best thing to do is to post a
508 message to the &'exim-dev'& mailing list and have it discussed.
512 .section "Where to find the Exim distribution" "SECTavail"
513 .cindex "FTP site"
514 .cindex "distribution" "ftp site"
515 The master ftp site for the Exim distribution is
516 .display
517 &*ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/email/exim*&
518 .endd
519 This is mirrored by
520 .display
521 &*ftp://ftp.exim.org/pub/exim*&
522 .endd
523 The file references that follow are relative to the &_exim_& directories at
524 these sites. There are now quite a number of independent mirror sites around
525 the world. Those that I know about are listed in the file called &_Mirrors_&.
527 Within the &_exim_& directory there are subdirectories called &_exim3_& (for
528 previous Exim 3 distributions), &_exim4_& (for the latest Exim 4
529 distributions), and &_Testing_& for testing versions. In the &_exim4_&
530 subdirectory, the current release can always be found in files called
531 .display
532 &_exim-n.nn.tar.gz_&
533 &_exim-n.nn.tar.bz2_&
534 .endd
535 where &'n.nn'& is the highest such version number in the directory. The two
536 files contain identical data; the only difference is the type of compression.
537 The &_.bz2_& file is usually a lot smaller than the &_.gz_& file.
539 .cindex "distribution" "signing details"
540 .cindex "distribution" "public key"
541 .cindex "public key for signed distribution"
542 The distributions will be PGP signed by an individual key of the Release
543 Coordinator. This key will have a uid containing an email address in the
544 &'exim.org'& domain and will have signatures from other people, including
545 other Exim maintainers. We expect that the key will be in the "strong set" of
546 PGP keys. There should be a trust path to that key from Nigel Metheringham's
547 PGP key, a version of which can be found in the release directory in the file
548 &_nigel-pubkey.asc_&. All keys used will be available in public keyserver pools,
549 such as &'pool.sks-keyservers.net'&.
551 At time of last update, releases were being made by Phil Pennock and signed with
552 key &'0x403043153903637F'&, although that key is expected to be replaced in 2013.
553 A trust path from Nigel's key to Phil's can be observed at
554 &url(https://www.security.spodhuis.org/exim-trustpath).
556 Releases have also been authorized to be performed by Todd Lyons who signs with
557 key &'0xC4F4F94804D29EBA'&. A direct trust path exists between previous RE Phil
558 Pennock and Todd Lyons through a common associate.
560 The signatures for the tar bundles are in:
561 .display
562 &_exim-n.nn.tar.gz.asc_&
563 &_exim-n.nn.tar.bz2.asc_&
564 .endd
565 For each released version, the log of changes is made separately available in a
566 separate file in the directory &_ChangeLogs_& so that it is possible to
567 find out what has changed without having to download the entire distribution.
569 .cindex "documentation" "available formats"
570 The main distribution contains ASCII versions of this specification and other
571 documentation; other formats of the documents are available in separate files
572 inside the &_exim4_& directory of the FTP site:
573 .display
574 &_exim-html-n.nn.tar.gz_&
575 &_exim-pdf-n.nn.tar.gz_&
576 &_exim-postscript-n.nn.tar.gz_&
577 &_exim-texinfo-n.nn.tar.gz_&
578 .endd
579 These tar files contain only the &_doc_& directory, not the complete
580 distribution, and are also available in &_.bz2_& as well as &_.gz_& forms.
583 .section "Limitations" "SECID6"
584 .ilist
585 .cindex "limitations of Exim"
586 .cindex "bang paths" "not handled by Exim"
587 Exim is designed for use as an Internet MTA, and therefore handles addresses in
588 RFC 2822 domain format only. It cannot handle UUCP &"bang paths"&, though
589 simple two-component bang paths can be converted by a straightforward rewriting
590 configuration. This restriction does not prevent Exim from being interfaced to
591 UUCP as a transport mechanism, provided that domain addresses are used.
592 .next
593 .cindex "domainless addresses"
594 .cindex "address" "without domain"
595 Exim insists that every address it handles has a domain attached. For incoming
596 local messages, domainless addresses are automatically qualified with a
597 configured domain value. Configuration options specify from which remote
598 systems unqualified addresses are acceptable. These are then qualified on
599 arrival.
600 .next
601 .cindex "transport" "external"
602 .cindex "external transports"
603 The only external transport mechanisms that are currently implemented are SMTP
604 and LMTP over a TCP/IP network (including support for IPv6). However, a pipe
605 transport is available, and there are facilities for writing messages to files
606 and pipes, optionally in &'batched SMTP'& format; these facilities can be used
607 to send messages to other transport mechanisms such as UUCP, provided they can
608 handle domain-style addresses. Batched SMTP input is also catered for.
609 .next
610 Exim is not designed for storing mail for dial-in hosts. When the volumes of
611 such mail are large, it is better to get the messages &"delivered"& into files
612 (that is, off Exim's queue) and subsequently passed on to the dial-in hosts by
613 other means.
614 .next
615 Although Exim does have basic facilities for scanning incoming messages, these
616 are not comprehensive enough to do full virus or spam scanning. Such operations
617 are best carried out using additional specialized software packages. If you
618 compile Exim with the content-scanning extension, straightforward interfaces to
619 a number of common scanners are provided.
620 .endlist
623 .section "Run time configuration" "SECID7"
624 Exim's run time configuration is held in a single text file that is divided
625 into a number of sections. The entries in this file consist of keywords and
626 values, in the style of Smail 3 configuration files. A default configuration
627 file which is suitable for simple online installations is provided in the
628 distribution, and is described in chapter &<<CHAPdefconfil>>& below.
631 .section "Calling interface" "SECID8"
632 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "command line interface"
633 Like many MTAs, Exim has adopted the Sendmail command line interface so that it
634 can be a straight replacement for &_/usr/lib/sendmail_& or
635 &_/usr/sbin/sendmail_& when sending mail, but you do not need to know anything
636 about Sendmail in order to run Exim. For actions other than sending messages,
637 Sendmail-compatible options also exist, but those that produce output (for
638 example, &%-bp%&, which lists the messages on the queue) do so in Exim's own
639 format. There are also some additional options that are compatible with Smail
640 3, and some further options that are new to Exim. Chapter &<<CHAPcommandline>>&
641 documents all Exim's command line options. This information is automatically
642 made into the man page that forms part of the Exim distribution.
644 Control of messages on the queue can be done via certain privileged command
645 line options. There is also an optional monitor program called &'eximon'&,
646 which displays current information in an X window, and which contains a menu
647 interface to Exim's command line administration options.
651 .section "Terminology" "SECID9"
652 .cindex "terminology definitions"
653 .cindex "body of message" "definition of"
654 The &'body'& of a message is the actual data that the sender wants to transmit.
655 It is the last part of a message, and is separated from the &'header'& (see
656 below) by a blank line.
658 .cindex "bounce message" "definition of"
659 When a message cannot be delivered, it is normally returned to the sender in a
660 delivery failure message or a &"non-delivery report"& (NDR). The term
661 &'bounce'& is commonly used for this action, and the error reports are often
662 called &'bounce messages'&. This is a convenient shorthand for &"delivery
663 failure error report"&. Such messages have an empty sender address in the
664 message's &'envelope'& (see below) to ensure that they cannot themselves give
665 rise to further bounce messages.
667 The term &'default'& appears frequently in this manual. It is used to qualify a
668 value which is used in the absence of any setting in the configuration. It may
669 also qualify an action which is taken unless a configuration setting specifies
670 otherwise.
672 The term &'defer'& is used when the delivery of a message to a specific
673 destination cannot immediately take place for some reason (a remote host may be
674 down, or a user's local mailbox may be full). Such deliveries are &'deferred'&
675 until a later time.
677 The word &'domain'& is sometimes used to mean all but the first component of a
678 host's name. It is &'not'& used in that sense here, where it normally refers to
679 the part of an email address following the @ sign.
681 .cindex "envelope, definition of"
682 .cindex "sender" "definition of"
683 A message in transit has an associated &'envelope'&, as well as a header and a
684 body. The envelope contains a sender address (to which bounce messages should
685 be delivered), and any number of recipient addresses. References to the
686 sender or the recipients of a message usually mean the addresses in the
687 envelope. An MTA uses these addresses for delivery, and for returning bounce
688 messages, not the addresses that appear in the header lines.
690 .cindex "message" "header, definition of"
691 .cindex "header section" "definition of"
692 The &'header'& of a message is the first part of a message's text, consisting
693 of a number of lines, each of which has a name such as &'From:'&, &'To:'&,
694 &'Subject:'&, etc. Long header lines can be split over several text lines by
695 indenting the continuations. The header is separated from the body by a blank
696 line.
698 .cindex "local part" "definition of"
699 .cindex "domain" "definition of"
700 The term &'local part'&, which is taken from RFC 2822, is used to refer to that
701 part of an email address that precedes the @ sign. The part that follows the
702 @ sign is called the &'domain'& or &'mail domain'&.
704 .cindex "local delivery" "definition of"
705 .cindex "remote delivery, definition of"
706 The terms &'local delivery'& and &'remote delivery'& are used to distinguish
707 delivery to a file or a pipe on the local host from delivery by SMTP over
708 TCP/IP to another host. As far as Exim is concerned, all hosts other than the
709 host it is running on are &'remote'&.
711 .cindex "return path" "definition of"
712 &'Return path'& is another name that is used for the sender address in a
713 message's envelope.
715 .cindex "queue" "definition of"
716 The term &'queue'& is used to refer to the set of messages awaiting delivery,
717 because this term is in widespread use in the context of MTAs. However, in
718 Exim's case the reality is more like a pool than a queue, because there is
719 normally no ordering of waiting messages.
721 .cindex "queue runner" "definition of"
722 The term &'queue runner'& is used to describe a process that scans the queue
723 and attempts to deliver those messages whose retry times have come. This term
724 is used by other MTAs, and also relates to the command &%runq%&, but in Exim
725 the waiting messages are normally processed in an unpredictable order.
727 .cindex "spool directory" "definition of"
728 The term &'spool directory'& is used for a directory in which Exim keeps the
729 messages on its queue &-- that is, those that it is in the process of
730 delivering. This should not be confused with the directory in which local
731 mailboxes are stored, which is called a &"spool directory"& by some people. In
732 the Exim documentation, &"spool"& is always used in the first sense.
739 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
740 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
742 .chapter "Incorporated code" "CHID2"
743 .cindex "incorporated code"
744 .cindex "regular expressions" "library"
745 .cindex "PCRE"
746 .cindex "OpenDMARC"
747 A number of pieces of external code are included in the Exim distribution.
749 .ilist
750 Regular expressions are supported in the main Exim program and in the
751 Exim monitor using the freely-distributable PCRE library, copyright
752 &copy; University of Cambridge. The source to PCRE is no longer shipped with
753 Exim, so you will need to use the version of PCRE shipped with your system,
754 or obtain and install the full version of the library from
755 &url(ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre).
756 .next
757 .cindex "cdb" "acknowledgment"
758 Support for the cdb (Constant DataBase) lookup method is provided by code
759 contributed by Nigel Metheringham of (at the time he contributed it) Planet
760 Online Ltd. The implementation is completely contained within the code of Exim.
761 It does not link against an external cdb library. The code contains the
762 following statements:
764 .blockquote
765 Copyright &copy; 1998 Nigel Metheringham, Planet Online Ltd
767 This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
768 the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
769 Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later
770 version.
771 This code implements Dan Bernstein's Constant DataBase (cdb) spec. Information,
772 the spec and sample code for cdb can be obtained from
773 &url(http://www.pobox.com/~djb/cdb.html). This implementation borrows
774 some code from Dan Bernstein's implementation (which has no license
775 restrictions applied to it).
776 .endblockquote
777 .next
778 .cindex "SPA authentication"
779 .cindex "Samba project"
780 .cindex "Microsoft Secure Password Authentication"
781 Client support for Microsoft's &'Secure Password Authentication'& is provided
782 by code contributed by Marc Prud'hommeaux. Server support was contributed by
783 Tom Kistner. This includes code taken from the Samba project, which is released
784 under the Gnu GPL.
785 .next
786 .cindex "Cyrus"
787 .cindex "&'pwcheck'& daemon"
788 .cindex "&'pwauthd'& daemon"
789 Support for calling the Cyrus &'pwcheck'& and &'saslauthd'& daemons is provided
790 by code taken from the Cyrus-SASL library and adapted by Alexander S.
791 Sabourenkov. The permission notice appears below, in accordance with the
792 conditions expressed therein.
794 .blockquote
795 Copyright &copy; 2001 Carnegie Mellon University. All rights reserved.
797 Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
798 modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
799 are met:
801 .olist
802 Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
803 notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
804 .next
805 Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
806 notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
807 the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
808 distribution.
809 .next
810 The name &"Carnegie Mellon University"& must not be used to
811 endorse or promote products derived from this software without
812 prior written permission. For permission or any other legal
813 details, please contact
814 .display
815 Office of Technology Transfer
816 Carnegie Mellon University
817 5000 Forbes Avenue
818 Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890
819 (412) 268-4387, fax: (412) 268-7395
820 tech-transfer@andrew.cmu.edu
821 .endd
822 .next
823 Redistributions of any form whatsoever must retain the following
824 acknowledgment:
826 &"This product includes software developed by Computing Services
827 at Carnegie Mellon University (&url(http://www.cmu.edu/computing/)."&
836 .endlist
837 .endblockquote
839 .next
840 .cindex "Exim monitor" "acknowledgment"
841 .cindex "X-windows"
842 .cindex "Athena"
843 The Exim Monitor program, which is an X-Window application, includes
844 modified versions of the Athena StripChart and TextPop widgets.
845 This code is copyright by DEC and MIT, and their permission notice appears
846 below, in accordance with the conditions expressed therein.
848 .blockquote
849 Copyright 1987, 1988 by Digital Equipment Corporation, Maynard, Massachusetts,
850 and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
852 All Rights Reserved
854 Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its
855 documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted,
856 provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that
857 both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in
858 supporting documentation, and that the names of Digital or MIT not be
859 used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the
860 software without specific, written prior permission.
869 .endblockquote
871 .next
872 .cindex "opendmarc" "acknowledgment"
873 The DMARC implementation uses the OpenDMARC library which is Copyrighted by
874 The Trusted Domain Project. Portions of Exim source which use OpenDMARC
875 derived code are indicated in the respective source files. The full OpenDMARC
876 license is provided in the LICENSE.opendmarc file contained in the distributed
877 source code.
879 .next
880 Many people have contributed code fragments, some large, some small, that were
881 not covered by any specific licence requirements. It is assumed that the
882 contributors are happy to see their code incorporated into Exim under the GPL.
883 .endlist
889 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
890 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
892 .chapter "How Exim receives and delivers mail" "CHID11" &&&
893 "Receiving and delivering mail"
896 .section "Overall philosophy" "SECID10"
897 .cindex "design philosophy"
898 Exim is designed to work efficiently on systems that are permanently connected
899 to the Internet and are handling a general mix of mail. In such circumstances,
900 most messages can be delivered immediately. Consequently, Exim does not
901 maintain independent queues of messages for specific domains or hosts, though
902 it does try to send several messages in a single SMTP connection after a host
903 has been down, and it also maintains per-host retry information.
906 .section "Policy control" "SECID11"
907 .cindex "policy control" "overview"
908 Policy controls are now an important feature of MTAs that are connected to the
909 Internet. Perhaps their most important job is to stop MTAs being abused as
910 &"open relays"& by misguided individuals who send out vast amounts of
911 unsolicited junk, and want to disguise its source. Exim provides flexible
912 facilities for specifying policy controls on incoming mail:
914 .ilist
915 .cindex "&ACL;" "introduction"
916 Exim 4 (unlike previous versions of Exim) implements policy controls on
917 incoming mail by means of &'Access Control Lists'& (ACLs). Each list is a
918 series of statements that may either grant or deny access. ACLs can be used at
919 several places in the SMTP dialogue while receiving a message from a remote
920 host. However, the most common places are after each RCPT command, and at the
921 very end of the message. The sysadmin can specify conditions for accepting or
922 rejecting individual recipients or the entire message, respectively, at these
923 two points (see chapter &<<CHAPACL>>&). Denial of access results in an SMTP
924 error code.
925 .next
926 An ACL is also available for locally generated, non-SMTP messages. In this
927 case, the only available actions are to accept or deny the entire message.
928 .next
929 When Exim is compiled with the content-scanning extension, facilities are
930 provided in the ACL mechanism for passing the message to external virus and/or
931 spam scanning software. The result of such a scan is passed back to the ACL,
932 which can then use it to decide what to do with the message.
933 .next
934 When a message has been received, either from a remote host or from the local
935 host, but before the final acknowledgment has been sent, a locally supplied C
936 function called &[local_scan()]& can be run to inspect the message and decide
937 whether to accept it or not (see chapter &<<CHAPlocalscan>>&). If the message
938 is accepted, the list of recipients can be modified by the function.
939 .next
940 Using the &[local_scan()]& mechanism is another way of calling external scanner
941 software. The &%SA-Exim%& add-on package works this way. It does not require
942 Exim to be compiled with the content-scanning extension.
943 .next
944 After a message has been accepted, a further checking mechanism is available in
945 the form of the &'system filter'& (see chapter &<<CHAPsystemfilter>>&). This
946 runs at the start of every delivery process.
947 .endlist
951 .section "User filters" "SECID12"
952 .cindex "filter" "introduction"
953 .cindex "Sieve filter"
954 In a conventional Exim configuration, users are able to run private filters by
955 setting up appropriate &_.forward_& files in their home directories. See
956 chapter &<<CHAPredirect>>& (about the &(redirect)& router) for the
957 configuration needed to support this, and the separate document entitled
958 &'Exim's interfaces to mail filtering'& for user details. Two different kinds
959 of filtering are available:
961 .ilist
962 Sieve filters are written in the standard filtering language that is defined
963 by RFC 3028.
964 .next
965 Exim filters are written in a syntax that is unique to Exim, but which is more
966 powerful than Sieve, which it pre-dates.
967 .endlist
969 User filters are run as part of the routing process, described below.
973 .section "Message identification" "SECTmessiden"
974 .cindex "message ids" "details of format"
975 .cindex "format" "of message id"
976 .cindex "id of message"
977 .cindex "base62"
978 .cindex "base36"
979 .cindex "Darwin"
980 .cindex "Cygwin"
981 Every message handled by Exim is given a &'message id'& which is sixteen
982 characters long. It is divided into three parts, separated by hyphens, for
983 example &`16VDhn-0001bo-D3`&. Each part is a sequence of letters and digits,
984 normally encoding numbers in base 62. However, in the Darwin operating
985 system (Mac OS X) and when Exim is compiled to run under Cygwin, base 36
986 (avoiding the use of lower case letters) is used instead, because the message
987 id is used to construct file names, and the names of files in those systems are
988 not always case-sensitive.
990 .cindex "pid (process id)" "re-use of"
991 The detail of the contents of the message id have changed as Exim has evolved.
992 Earlier versions relied on the operating system not re-using a process id (pid)
993 within one second. On modern operating systems, this assumption can no longer
994 be made, so the algorithm had to be changed. To retain backward compatibility,
995 the format of the message id was retained, which is why the following rules are
996 somewhat eccentric:
998 .ilist
999 The first six characters of the message id are the time at which the message
1000 started to be received, to a granularity of one second. That is, this field
1001 contains the number of seconds since the start of the epoch (the normal Unix
1002 way of representing the date and time of day).
1003 .next
1004 After the first hyphen, the next six characters are the id of the process that
1005 received the message.
1006 .next
1007 There are two different possibilities for the final two characters:
1008 .olist
1009 .oindex "&%localhost_number%&"
1010 If &%localhost_number%& is not set, this value is the fractional part of the
1011 time of reception, normally in units of 1/2000 of a second, but for systems
1012 that must use base 36 instead of base 62 (because of case-insensitive file
1013 systems), the units are 1/1000 of a second.
1014 .next
1015 If &%localhost_number%& is set, it is multiplied by 200 (100) and added to
1016 the fractional part of the time, which in this case is in units of 1/200
1017 (1/100) of a second.
1018 .endlist
1019 .endlist
1021 After a message has been received, Exim waits for the clock to tick at the
1022 appropriate resolution before proceeding, so that if another message is
1023 received by the same process, or by another process with the same (re-used)
1024 pid, it is guaranteed that the time will be different. In most cases, the clock
1025 will already have ticked while the message was being received.
1028 .section "Receiving mail" "SECID13"
1029 .cindex "receiving mail"
1030 .cindex "message" "reception"
1031 The only way Exim can receive mail from another host is using SMTP over
1032 TCP/IP, in which case the sender and recipient addresses are transferred using
1033 SMTP commands. However, from a locally running process (such as a user's MUA),
1034 there are several possibilities:
1036 .ilist
1037 If the process runs Exim with the &%-bm%& option, the message is read
1038 non-interactively (usually via a pipe), with the recipients taken from the
1039 command line, or from the body of the message if &%-t%& is also used.
1040 .next
1041 If the process runs Exim with the &%-bS%& option, the message is also read
1042 non-interactively, but in this case the recipients are listed at the start of
1043 the message in a series of SMTP RCPT commands, terminated by a DATA
1044 command. This is so-called &"batch SMTP"& format,
1045 but it isn't really SMTP. The SMTP commands are just another way of passing
1046 envelope addresses in a non-interactive submission.
1047 .next
1048 If the process runs Exim with the &%-bs%& option, the message is read
1049 interactively, using the SMTP protocol. A two-way pipe is normally used for
1050 passing data between the local process and the Exim process.
1051 This is &"real"& SMTP and is handled in the same way as SMTP over TCP/IP. For
1052 example, the ACLs for SMTP commands are used for this form of submission.
1053 .next
1054 A local process may also make a TCP/IP call to the host's loopback address
1055 ( or any other of its IP addresses. When receiving messages, Exim
1056 does not treat the loopback address specially. It treats all such connections
1057 in the same way as connections from other hosts.
1058 .endlist
1061 .cindex "message sender, constructed by Exim"
1062 .cindex "sender" "constructed by Exim"
1063 In the three cases that do not involve TCP/IP, the sender address is
1064 constructed from the login name of the user that called Exim and a default
1065 qualification domain (which can be set by the &%qualify_domain%& configuration
1066 option). For local or batch SMTP, a sender address that is passed using the
1067 SMTP MAIL command is ignored. However, the system administrator may allow
1068 certain users (&"trusted users"&) to specify a different sender address
1069 unconditionally, or all users to specify certain forms of different sender
1070 address. The &%-f%& option or the SMTP MAIL command is used to specify these
1071 different addresses. See section &<<SECTtrustedadmin>>& for details of trusted
1072 users, and the &%untrusted_set_sender%& option for a way of allowing untrusted
1073 users to change sender addresses.
1075 Messages received by either of the non-interactive mechanisms are subject to
1076 checking by the non-SMTP ACL, if one is defined. Messages received using SMTP
1077 (either over TCP/IP, or interacting with a local process) can be checked by a
1078 number of ACLs that operate at different times during the SMTP session. Either
1079 individual recipients, or the entire message, can be rejected if local policy
1080 requirements are not met. The &[local_scan()]& function (see chapter
1081 &<<CHAPlocalscan>>&) is run for all incoming messages.
1083 Exim can be configured not to start a delivery process when a message is
1084 received; this can be unconditional, or depend on the number of incoming SMTP
1085 connections or the system load. In these situations, new messages wait on the
1086 queue until a queue runner process picks them up. However, in standard
1087 configurations under normal conditions, delivery is started as soon as a
1088 message is received.
1094 .section "Handling an incoming message" "SECID14"
1095 .cindex "spool directory" "files that hold a message"
1096 .cindex "file" "how a message is held"
1097 When Exim accepts a message, it writes two files in its spool directory. The
1098 first contains the envelope information, the current status of the message, and
1099 the header lines, and the second contains the body of the message. The names of
1100 the two spool files consist of the message id, followed by &`-H`& for the
1101 file containing the envelope and header, and &`-D`& for the data file.
1103 .cindex "spool directory" "&_input_& sub-directory"
1104 By default all these message files are held in a single directory called
1105 &_input_& inside the general Exim spool directory. Some operating systems do
1106 not perform very well if the number of files in a directory gets large; to
1107 improve performance in such cases, the &%split_spool_directory%& option can be
1108 used. This causes Exim to split up the input files into 62 sub-directories
1109 whose names are single letters or digits. When this is done, the queue is
1110 processed one sub-directory at a time instead of all at once, which can improve
1111 overall performance even when there are not enough files in each directory to
1112 affect file system performance.
1114 The envelope information consists of the address of the message's sender and
1115 the addresses of the recipients. This information is entirely separate from
1116 any addresses contained in the header lines. The status of the message includes
1117 a list of recipients who have already received the message. The format of the
1118 first spool file is described in chapter &<<CHAPspool>>&.
1120 .cindex "rewriting" "addresses"
1121 Address rewriting that is specified in the rewrite section of the configuration
1122 (see chapter &<<CHAPrewrite>>&) is done once and for all on incoming addresses,
1123 both in the header lines and the envelope, at the time the message is accepted.
1124 If during the course of delivery additional addresses are generated (for
1125 example, via aliasing), these new addresses are rewritten as soon as they are
1126 generated. At the time a message is actually delivered (transported) further
1127 rewriting can take place; because this is a transport option, it can be
1128 different for different forms of delivery. It is also possible to specify the
1129 addition or removal of certain header lines at the time the message is
1130 delivered (see chapters &<<CHAProutergeneric>>& and
1131 &<<CHAPtransportgeneric>>&).
1135 .section "Life of a message" "SECID15"
1136 .cindex "message" "life of"
1137 .cindex "message" "frozen"
1138 A message remains in the spool directory until it is completely delivered to
1139 its recipients or to an error address, or until it is deleted by an
1140 administrator or by the user who originally created it. In cases when delivery
1141 cannot proceed &-- for example, when a message can neither be delivered to its
1142 recipients nor returned to its sender, the message is marked &"frozen"& on the
1143 spool, and no more deliveries are attempted.
1145 .cindex "frozen messages" "thawing"
1146 .cindex "message" "thawing frozen"
1147 An administrator can &"thaw"& such messages when the problem has been
1148 corrected, and can also freeze individual messages by hand if necessary. In
1149 addition, an administrator can force a delivery error, causing a bounce message
1150 to be sent.
1152 .oindex "&%timeout_frozen_after%&"
1153 .oindex "&%ignore_bounce_errors_after%&"
1154 There are options called &%ignore_bounce_errors_after%& and
1155 &%timeout_frozen_after%&, which discard frozen messages after a certain time.
1156 The first applies only to frozen bounces, the second to any frozen messages.
1158 .cindex "message" "log file for"
1159 .cindex "log" "file for each message"
1160 While Exim is working on a message, it writes information about each delivery
1161 attempt to its main log file. This includes successful, unsuccessful, and
1162 delayed deliveries for each recipient (see chapter &<<CHAPlog>>&). The log
1163 lines are also written to a separate &'message log'& file for each message.
1164 These logs are solely for the benefit of the administrator, and are normally
1165 deleted along with the spool files when processing of a message is complete.
1166 The use of individual message logs can be disabled by setting
1167 &%no_message_logs%&; this might give an improvement in performance on very busy
1168 systems.
1170 .cindex "journal file"
1171 .cindex "file" "journal"
1172 All the information Exim itself needs to set up a delivery is kept in the first
1173 spool file, along with the header lines. When a successful delivery occurs, the
1174 address is immediately written at the end of a journal file, whose name is the
1175 message id followed by &`-J`&. At the end of a delivery run, if there are some
1176 addresses left to be tried again later, the first spool file (the &`-H`& file)
1177 is updated to indicate which these are, and the journal file is then deleted.
1178 Updating the spool file is done by writing a new file and renaming it, to
1179 minimize the possibility of data loss.
1181 Should the system or the program crash after a successful delivery but before
1182 the spool file has been updated, the journal is left lying around. The next
1183 time Exim attempts to deliver the message, it reads the journal file and
1184 updates the spool file before proceeding. This minimizes the chances of double
1185 deliveries caused by crashes.
1189 .section "Processing an address for delivery" "SECTprocaddress"
1190 .cindex "drivers" "definition of"
1191 .cindex "router" "definition of"
1192 .cindex "transport" "definition of"
1193 The main delivery processing elements of Exim are called &'routers'& and
1194 &'transports'&, and collectively these are known as &'drivers'&. Code for a
1195 number of them is provided in the source distribution, and compile-time options
1196 specify which ones are included in the binary. Run time options specify which
1197 ones are actually used for delivering messages.
1199 .cindex "drivers" "instance definition"
1200 Each driver that is specified in the run time configuration is an &'instance'&
1201 of that particular driver type. Multiple instances are allowed; for example,
1202 you can set up several different &(smtp)& transports, each with different
1203 option values that might specify different ports or different timeouts. Each
1204 instance has its own identifying name. In what follows we will normally use the
1205 instance name when discussing one particular instance (that is, one specific
1206 configuration of the driver), and the generic driver name when discussing
1207 the driver's features in general.
1209 A &'router'& is a driver that operates on an address, either determining how
1210 its delivery should happen, by assigning it to a specific transport, or
1211 converting the address into one or more new addresses (for example, via an
1212 alias file). A router may also explicitly choose to fail an address, causing it
1213 to be bounced.
1215 A &'transport'& is a driver that transmits a copy of the message from Exim's
1216 spool to some destination. There are two kinds of transport: for a &'local'&
1217 transport, the destination is a file or a pipe on the local host, whereas for a
1218 &'remote'& transport the destination is some other host. A message is passed
1219 to a specific transport as a result of successful routing. If a message has
1220 several recipients, it may be passed to a number of different transports.
1222 .cindex "preconditions" "definition of"
1223 An address is processed by passing it to each configured router instance in
1224 turn, subject to certain preconditions, until a router accepts the address or
1225 specifies that it should be bounced. We will describe this process in more
1226 detail shortly. First, as a simple example, we consider how each recipient
1227 address in a message is processed in a small configuration of three routers.
1229 To make this a more concrete example, it is described in terms of some actual
1230 routers, but remember, this is only an example. You can configure Exim's
1231 routers in many different ways, and there may be any number of routers in a
1232 configuration.
1234 The first router that is specified in a configuration is often one that handles
1235 addresses in domains that are not recognized specially by the local host. These
1236 are typically addresses for arbitrary domains on the Internet. A precondition
1237 is set up which looks for the special domains known to the host (for example,
1238 its own domain name), and the router is run for addresses that do &'not'&
1239 match. Typically, this is a router that looks up domains in the DNS in order to
1240 find the hosts to which this address routes. If it succeeds, the address is
1241 assigned to a suitable SMTP transport; if it does not succeed, the router is
1242 configured to fail the address.
1244 The second router is reached only when the domain is recognized as one that
1245 &"belongs"& to the local host. This router does redirection &-- also known as
1246 aliasing and forwarding. When it generates one or more new addresses from the
1247 original, each of them is routed independently from the start. Otherwise, the
1248 router may cause an address to fail, or it may simply decline to handle the
1249 address, in which case the address is passed to the next router.
1251 The final router in many configurations is one that checks to see if the
1252 address belongs to a local mailbox. The precondition may involve a check to
1253 see if the local part is the name of a login account, or it may look up the
1254 local part in a file or a database. If its preconditions are not met, or if
1255 the router declines, we have reached the end of the routers. When this happens,
1256 the address is bounced.
1260 .section "Processing an address for verification" "SECID16"
1261 .cindex "router" "for verification"
1262 .cindex "verifying address" "overview"
1263 As well as being used to decide how to deliver to an address, Exim's routers
1264 are also used for &'address verification'&. Verification can be requested as
1265 one of the checks to be performed in an ACL for incoming messages, on both
1266 sender and recipient addresses, and it can be tested using the &%-bv%& and
1267 &%-bvs%& command line options.
1269 When an address is being verified, the routers are run in &"verify mode"&. This
1270 does not affect the way the routers work, but it is a state that can be
1271 detected. By this means, a router can be skipped or made to behave differently
1272 when verifying. A common example is a configuration in which the first router
1273 sends all messages to a message-scanning program, unless they have been
1274 previously scanned. Thus, the first router accepts all addresses without any
1275 checking, making it useless for verifying. Normally, the &%no_verify%& option
1276 would be set for such a router, causing it to be skipped in verify mode.
1281 .section "Running an individual router" "SECTrunindrou"
1282 .cindex "router" "running details"
1283 .cindex "preconditions" "checking"
1284 .cindex "router" "result of running"
1285 As explained in the example above, a number of preconditions are checked before
1286 running a router. If any are not met, the router is skipped, and the address is
1287 passed to the next router. When all the preconditions on a router &'are'& met,
1288 the router is run. What happens next depends on the outcome, which is one of
1289 the following:
1291 .ilist
1292 &'accept'&: The router accepts the address, and either assigns it to a
1293 transport, or generates one or more &"child"& addresses. Processing the
1294 original address ceases,
1295 .oindex "&%unseen%&"
1296 unless the &%unseen%& option is set on the router. This option
1297 can be used to set up multiple deliveries with different routing (for example,
1298 for keeping archive copies of messages). When &%unseen%& is set, the address is
1299 passed to the next router. Normally, however, an &'accept'& return marks the
1300 end of routing.
1302 Any child addresses generated by the router are processed independently,
1303 starting with the first router by default. It is possible to change this by
1304 setting the &%redirect_router%& option to specify which router to start at for
1305 child addresses. Unlike &%pass_router%& (see below) the router specified by
1306 &%redirect_router%& may be anywhere in the router configuration.
1307 .next
1308 &'pass'&: The router recognizes the address, but cannot handle it itself. It
1309 requests that the address be passed to another router. By default the address
1310 is passed to the next router, but this can be changed by setting the
1311 &%pass_router%& option. However, (unlike &%redirect_router%&) the named router
1312 must be below the current router (to avoid loops).
1313 .next
1314 &'decline'&: The router declines to accept the address because it does not
1315 recognize it at all. By default, the address is passed to the next router, but
1316 this can be prevented by setting the &%no_more%& option. When &%no_more%& is
1317 set, all the remaining routers are skipped. In effect, &%no_more%& converts
1318 &'decline'& into &'fail'&.
1319 .next
1320 &'fail'&: The router determines that the address should fail, and queues it for
1321 the generation of a bounce message. There is no further processing of the
1322 original address unless &%unseen%& is set on the router.
1323 .next
1324 &'defer'&: The router cannot handle the address at the present time. (A
1325 database may be offline, or a DNS lookup may have timed out.) No further
1326 processing of the address happens in this delivery attempt. It is tried again
1327 next time the message is considered for delivery.
1328 .next
1329 &'error'&: There is some error in the router (for example, a syntax error in
1330 its configuration). The action is as for defer.
1331 .endlist
1333 If an address reaches the end of the routers without having been accepted by
1334 any of them, it is bounced as unrouteable. The default error message in this
1335 situation is &"unrouteable address"&, but you can set your own message by
1336 making use of the &%cannot_route_message%& option. This can be set for any
1337 router; the value from the last router that &"saw"& the address is used.
1339 Sometimes while routing you want to fail a delivery when some conditions are
1340 met but others are not, instead of passing the address on for further routing.
1341 You can do this by having a second router that explicitly fails the delivery
1342 when the relevant conditions are met. The &(redirect)& router has a &"fail"&
1343 facility for this purpose.
1346 .section "Duplicate addresses" "SECID17"
1347 .cindex "case of local parts"
1348 .cindex "address duplicate, discarding"
1349 .cindex "duplicate addresses"
1350 Once routing is complete, Exim scans the addresses that are assigned to local
1351 and remote transports, and discards any duplicates that it finds. During this
1352 check, local parts are treated as case-sensitive. This happens only when
1353 actually delivering a message; when testing routers with &%-bt%&, all the
1354 routed addresses are shown.
1358 .section "Router preconditions" "SECTrouprecon"
1359 .cindex "router" "preconditions, order of processing"
1360 .cindex "preconditions" "order of processing"
1361 The preconditions that are tested for each router are listed below, in the
1362 order in which they are tested. The individual configuration options are
1363 described in more detail in chapter &<<CHAProutergeneric>>&.
1365 .ilist
1366 The &%local_part_prefix%& and &%local_part_suffix%& options can specify that
1367 the local parts handled by the router may or must have certain prefixes and/or
1368 suffixes. If a mandatory affix (prefix or suffix) is not present, the router is
1369 skipped. These conditions are tested first. When an affix is present, it is
1370 removed from the local part before further processing, including the evaluation
1371 of any other conditions.
1372 .next
1373 Routers can be designated for use only when not verifying an address, that is,
1374 only when routing it for delivery (or testing its delivery routing). If the
1375 &%verify%& option is set false, the router is skipped when Exim is verifying an
1376 address.
1377 Setting the &%verify%& option actually sets two options, &%verify_sender%& and
1378 &%verify_recipient%&, which independently control the use of the router for
1379 sender and recipient verification. You can set these options directly if
1380 you want a router to be used for only one type of verification.
1381 Note that cutthrough delivery is classed as a recipient verification for this purpose.
1382 .next
1383 If the &%address_test%& option is set false, the router is skipped when Exim is
1384 run with the &%-bt%& option to test an address routing. This can be helpful
1385 when the first router sends all new messages to a scanner of some sort; it
1386 makes it possible to use &%-bt%& to test subsequent delivery routing without
1387 having to simulate the effect of the scanner.
1388 .next
1389 Routers can be designated for use only when verifying an address, as
1390 opposed to routing it for delivery. The &%verify_only%& option controls this.
1391 Again, cutthrough delivery counts as a verification.
1392 .next
1393 Individual routers can be explicitly skipped when running the routers to
1394 check an address given in the SMTP EXPN command (see the &%expn%& option).
1395 .next
1396 If the &%domains%& option is set, the domain of the address must be in the set
1397 of domains that it defines.
1398 .next
1399 .vindex "&$local_part_prefix$&"
1400 .vindex "&$local_part$&"
1401 .vindex "&$local_part_suffix$&"
1402 If the &%local_parts%& option is set, the local part of the address must be in
1403 the set of local parts that it defines. If &%local_part_prefix%& or
1404 &%local_part_suffix%& is in use, the prefix or suffix is removed from the local
1405 part before this check. If you want to do precondition tests on local parts
1406 that include affixes, you can do so by using a &%condition%& option (see below)
1407 that uses the variables &$local_part$&, &$local_part_prefix$&, and
1408 &$local_part_suffix$& as necessary.
1409 .next
1410 .vindex "&$local_user_uid$&"
1411 .vindex "&$local_user_gid$&"
1412 .vindex "&$home$&"
1413 If the &%check_local_user%& option is set, the local part must be the name of
1414 an account on the local host. If this check succeeds, the uid and gid of the
1415 local user are placed in &$local_user_uid$& and &$local_user_gid$& and the
1416 user's home directory is placed in &$home$&; these values can be used in the
1417 remaining preconditions.
1418 .next
1419 If the &%router_home_directory%& option is set, it is expanded at this point,
1420 because it overrides the value of &$home$&. If this expansion were left till
1421 later, the value of &$home$& as set by &%check_local_user%& would be used in
1422 subsequent tests. Having two different values of &$home$& in the same router
1423 could lead to confusion.
1424 .next
1425 If the &%senders%& option is set, the envelope sender address must be in the
1426 set of addresses that it defines.
1427 .next
1428 If the &%require_files%& option is set, the existence or non-existence of
1429 specified files is tested.
1430 .next
1431 .cindex "customizing" "precondition"
1432 If the &%condition%& option is set, it is evaluated and tested. This option
1433 uses an expanded string to allow you to set up your own custom preconditions.
1434 Expanded strings are described in chapter &<<CHAPexpand>>&.
1435 .endlist
1438 Note that &%require_files%& comes near the end of the list, so you cannot use
1439 it to check for the existence of a file in which to lookup up a domain, local
1440 part, or sender. However, as these options are all expanded, you can use the
1441 &%exists%& expansion condition to make such tests within each condition. The
1442 &%require_files%& option is intended for checking files that the router may be
1443 going to use internally, or which are needed by a specific transport (for
1444 example, &_.procmailrc_&).
1448 .section "Delivery in detail" "SECID18"
1449 .cindex "delivery" "in detail"
1450 When a message is to be delivered, the sequence of events is as follows:
1452 .ilist
1453 If a system-wide filter file is specified, the message is passed to it. The
1454 filter may add recipients to the message, replace the recipients, discard the
1455 message, cause a new message to be generated, or cause the message delivery to
1456 fail. The format of the system filter file is the same as for Exim user filter
1457 files, described in the separate document entitled &'Exim's interfaces to mail
1458 filtering'&.
1459 .cindex "Sieve filter" "not available for system filter"
1460 (&*Note*&: Sieve cannot be used for system filter files.)
1462 Some additional features are available in system filters &-- see chapter
1463 &<<CHAPsystemfilter>>& for details. Note that a message is passed to the system
1464 filter only once per delivery attempt, however many recipients it has. However,
1465 if there are several delivery attempts because one or more addresses could not
1466 be immediately delivered, the system filter is run each time. The filter
1467 condition &%first_delivery%& can be used to detect the first run of the system
1468 filter.
1469 .next
1470 Each recipient address is offered to each configured router in turn, subject to
1471 its preconditions, until one is able to handle it. If no router can handle the
1472 address, that is, if they all decline, the address is failed. Because routers
1473 can be targeted at particular domains, several locally handled domains can be
1474 processed entirely independently of each other.
1475 .next
1476 .cindex "routing" "loops in"
1477 .cindex "loop" "while routing"
1478 A router that accepts an address may assign it to a local or a remote
1479 transport. However, the transport is not run at this time. Instead, the address
1480 is placed on a list for the particular transport, which will be run later.
1481 Alternatively, the router may generate one or more new addresses (typically
1482 from alias, forward, or filter files). New addresses are fed back into this
1483 process from the top, but in order to avoid loops, a router ignores any address
1484 which has an identically-named ancestor that was processed by itself.
1485 .next
1486 When all the routing has been done, addresses that have been successfully
1487 handled are passed to their assigned transports. When local transports are
1488 doing real local deliveries, they handle only one address at a time, but if a
1489 local transport is being used as a pseudo-remote transport (for example, to
1490 collect batched SMTP messages for transmission by some other means) multiple
1491 addresses can be handled. Remote transports can always handle more than one
1492 address at a time, but can be configured not to do so, or to restrict multiple
1493 addresses to the same domain.
1494 .next
1495 Each local delivery to a file or a pipe runs in a separate process under a
1496 non-privileged uid, and these deliveries are run one at a time. Remote
1497 deliveries also run in separate processes, normally under a uid that is private
1498 to Exim (&"the Exim user"&), but in this case, several remote deliveries can be
1499 run in parallel. The maximum number of simultaneous remote deliveries for any
1500 one message is set by the &%remote_max_parallel%& option.
1501 The order in which deliveries are done is not defined, except that all local
1502 deliveries happen before any remote deliveries.
1503 .next
1504 .cindex "queue runner"
1505 When it encounters a local delivery during a queue run, Exim checks its retry
1506 database to see if there has been a previous temporary delivery failure for the
1507 address before running the local transport. If there was a previous failure,
1508 Exim does not attempt a new delivery until the retry time for the address is
1509 reached. However, this happens only for delivery attempts that are part of a
1510 queue run. Local deliveries are always attempted when delivery immediately
1511 follows message reception, even if retry times are set for them. This makes for
1512 better behaviour if one particular message is causing problems (for example,
1513 causing quota overflow, or provoking an error in a filter file).
1514 .next
1515 .cindex "delivery" "retry in remote transports"
1516 Remote transports do their own retry handling, since an address may be
1517 deliverable to one of a number of hosts, each of which may have a different
1518 retry time. If there have been previous temporary failures and no host has
1519 reached its retry time, no delivery is attempted, whether in a queue run or
1520 not. See chapter &<<CHAPretry>>& for details of retry strategies.
1521 .next
1522 If there were any permanent errors, a bounce message is returned to an
1523 appropriate address (the sender in the common case), with details of the error
1524 for each failing address. Exim can be configured to send copies of bounce
1525 messages to other addresses.
1526 .next
1527 .cindex "delivery" "deferral"
1528 If one or more addresses suffered a temporary failure, the message is left on
1529 the queue, to be tried again later. Delivery of these addresses is said to be
1530 &'deferred'&.
1531 .next
1532 When all the recipient addresses have either been delivered or bounced,
1533 handling of the message is complete. The spool files and message log are
1534 deleted, though the message log can optionally be preserved if required.
1535 .endlist
1540 .section "Retry mechanism" "SECID19"
1541 .cindex "delivery" "retry mechanism"
1542 .cindex "retry" "description of mechanism"
1543 .cindex "queue runner"
1544 Exim's mechanism for retrying messages that fail to get delivered at the first
1545 attempt is the queue runner process. You must either run an Exim daemon that
1546 uses the &%-q%& option with a time interval to start queue runners at regular
1547 intervals, or use some other means (such as &'cron'&) to start them. If you do
1548 not arrange for queue runners to be run, messages that fail temporarily at the
1549 first attempt will remain on your queue for ever. A queue runner process works
1550 its way through the queue, one message at a time, trying each delivery that has
1551 passed its retry time.
1552 You can run several queue runners at once.
1554 Exim uses a set of configured rules to determine when next to retry the failing
1555 address (see chapter &<<CHAPretry>>&). These rules also specify when Exim
1556 should give up trying to deliver to the address, at which point it generates a
1557 bounce message. If no retry rules are set for a particular host, address, and
1558 error combination, no retries are attempted, and temporary errors are treated
1559 as permanent.
1563 .section "Temporary delivery failure" "SECID20"
1564 .cindex "delivery" "temporary failure"
1565 There are many reasons why a message may not be immediately deliverable to a
1566 particular address. Failure to connect to a remote machine (because it, or the
1567 connection to it, is down) is one of the most common. Temporary failures may be
1568 detected during routing as well as during the transport stage of delivery.
1569 Local deliveries may be delayed if NFS files are unavailable, or if a mailbox
1570 is on a file system where the user is over quota. Exim can be configured to
1571 impose its own quotas on local mailboxes; where system quotas are set they will
1572 also apply.
1574 If a host is unreachable for a period of time, a number of messages may be
1575 waiting for it by the time it recovers, and sending them in a single SMTP
1576 connection is clearly beneficial. Whenever a delivery to a remote host is
1577 deferred,
1578 .cindex "hints database"
1579 Exim makes a note in its hints database, and whenever a successful
1580 SMTP delivery has happened, it looks to see if any other messages are waiting
1581 for the same host. If any are found, they are sent over the same SMTP
1582 connection, subject to a configuration limit as to the maximum number in any
1583 one connection.
1587 .section "Permanent delivery failure" "SECID21"
1588 .cindex "delivery" "permanent failure"
1589 .cindex "bounce message" "when generated"
1590 When a message cannot be delivered to some or all of its intended recipients, a
1591 bounce message is generated. Temporary delivery failures turn into permanent
1592 errors when their timeout expires. All the addresses that fail in a given
1593 delivery attempt are listed in a single message. If the original message has
1594 many recipients, it is possible for some addresses to fail in one delivery
1595 attempt and others to fail subsequently, giving rise to more than one bounce
1596 message. The wording of bounce messages can be customized by the administrator.
1597 See chapter &<<CHAPemsgcust>>& for details.
1599 .cindex "&'X-Failed-Recipients:'& header line"
1600 Bounce messages contain an &'X-Failed-Recipients:'& header line that lists the
1601 failed addresses, for the benefit of programs that try to analyse such messages
1602 automatically.
1604 .cindex "bounce message" "recipient of"
1605 A bounce message is normally sent to the sender of the original message, as
1606 obtained from the message's envelope. For incoming SMTP messages, this is the
1607 address given in the MAIL command. However, when an address is expanded via a
1608 forward or alias file, an alternative address can be specified for delivery
1609 failures of the generated addresses. For a mailing list expansion (see section
1610 &<<SECTmailinglists>>&) it is common to direct bounce messages to the manager
1611 of the list.
1615 .section "Failures to deliver bounce messages" "SECID22"
1616 .cindex "bounce message" "failure to deliver"
1617 If a bounce message (either locally generated or received from a remote host)
1618 itself suffers a permanent delivery failure, the message is left on the queue,
1619 but it is frozen, awaiting the attention of an administrator. There are options
1620 that can be used to make Exim discard such failed messages, or to keep them
1621 for only a short time (see &%timeout_frozen_after%& and
1622 &%ignore_bounce_errors_after%&).
1628 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
1629 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
1631 .chapter "Building and installing Exim" "CHID3"
1632 .scindex IIDbuex "building Exim"
1634 .section "Unpacking" "SECID23"
1635 Exim is distributed as a gzipped or bzipped tar file which, when unpacked,
1636 creates a directory with the name of the current release (for example,
1637 &_exim-&version()_&) into which the following files are placed:
1639 .table2 140pt
1640 .irow &_ACKNOWLEDGMENTS_& "contains some acknowledgments"
1641 .irow &_CHANGES_& "contains a reference to where changes are &&&
1642 documented"
1643 .irow &_LICENCE_& "the GNU General Public Licence"
1644 .irow &_Makefile_& "top-level make file"
1645 .irow &_NOTICE_& "conditions for the use of Exim"
1646 .irow &_README_& "list of files, directories and simple build &&&
1647 instructions"
1648 .endtable
1650 Other files whose names begin with &_README_& may also be present. The
1651 following subdirectories are created:
1653 .table2 140pt
1654 .irow &_Local_& "an empty directory for local configuration files"
1655 .irow &_OS_& "OS-specific files"
1656 .irow &_doc_& "documentation files"
1657 .irow &_exim_monitor_& "source files for the Exim monitor"
1658 .irow &_scripts_& "scripts used in the build process"
1659 .irow &_src_& "remaining source files"
1660 .irow &_util_& "independent utilities"
1661 .endtable
1663 The main utility programs are contained in the &_src_& directory, and are built
1664 with the Exim binary. The &_util_& directory contains a few optional scripts
1665 that may be useful to some sites.
1668 .section "Multiple machine architectures and operating systems" "SECID24"
1669 .cindex "building Exim" "multiple OS/architectures"
1670 The building process for Exim is arranged to make it easy to build binaries for
1671 a number of different architectures and operating systems from the same set of
1672 source files. Compilation does not take place in the &_src_& directory.
1673 Instead, a &'build directory'& is created for each architecture and operating
1674 system.
1675 .cindex "symbolic link" "to build directory"
1676 Symbolic links to the sources are installed in this directory, which is where
1677 the actual building takes place. In most cases, Exim can discover the machine
1678 architecture and operating system for itself, but the defaults can be
1679 overridden if necessary.
1682 .section "PCRE library" "SECTpcre"
1683 .cindex "PCRE library"
1684 Exim no longer has an embedded PCRE library as the vast majority of
1685 modern systems include PCRE as a system library, although you may need
1686 to install the PCRE or PCRE development package for your operating
1687 system. If your system has a normal PCRE installation the Exim build
1688 process will need no further configuration. If the library or the
1689 headers are in an unusual location you will need to either set the PCRE_LIBS
1690 and INCLUDE directives appropriately,
1691 or set PCRE_CONFIG=yes to use the installed &(pcre-config)& command.
1692 If your operating system has no
1693 PCRE support then you will need to obtain and build the current PCRE
1694 from &url(ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/).
1695 More information on PCRE is available at &url(http://www.pcre.org/).
1697 .section "DBM libraries" "SECTdb"
1698 .cindex "DBM libraries" "discussion of"
1699 .cindex "hints database" "DBM files used for"
1700 Even if you do not use any DBM files in your configuration, Exim still needs a
1701 DBM library in order to operate, because it uses indexed files for its hints
1702 databases. Unfortunately, there are a number of DBM libraries in existence, and
1703 different operating systems often have different ones installed.
1705 .cindex "Solaris" "DBM library for"
1706 .cindex "IRIX, DBM library for"
1707 .cindex "BSD, DBM library for"
1708 .cindex "Linux, DBM library for"
1709 If you are using Solaris, IRIX, one of the modern BSD systems, or a modern
1710 Linux distribution, the DBM configuration should happen automatically, and you
1711 may be able to ignore this section. Otherwise, you may have to learn more than
1712 you would like about DBM libraries from what follows.
1714 .cindex "&'ndbm'& DBM library"
1715 Licensed versions of Unix normally contain a library of DBM functions operating
1716 via the &'ndbm'& interface, and this is what Exim expects by default. Free
1717 versions of Unix seem to vary in what they contain as standard. In particular,
1718 some early versions of Linux have no default DBM library, and different
1719 distributors have chosen to bundle different libraries with their packaged
1720 versions. However, the more recent releases seem to have standardized on the
1721 Berkeley DB library.
1723 Different DBM libraries have different conventions for naming the files they
1724 use. When a program opens a file called &_dbmfile_&, there are several
1725 possibilities:
1727 .olist
1728 A traditional &'ndbm'& implementation, such as that supplied as part of
1729 Solaris, operates on two files called &_dbmfile.dir_& and &_dbmfile.pag_&.
1730 .next
1731 .cindex "&'gdbm'& DBM library"
1732 The GNU library, &'gdbm'&, operates on a single file. If used via its &'ndbm'&
1733 compatibility interface it makes two different hard links to it with names
1734 &_dbmfile.dir_& and &_dbmfile.pag_&, but if used via its native interface, the
1735 file name is used unmodified.
1736 .next
1737 .cindex "Berkeley DB library"
1738 The Berkeley DB package, if called via its &'ndbm'& compatibility interface,
1739 operates on a single file called &_dbmfile.db_&, but otherwise looks to the
1740 programmer exactly the same as the traditional &'ndbm'& implementation.
1741 .next
1742 If the Berkeley package is used in its native mode, it operates on a single
1743 file called &_dbmfile_&; the programmer's interface is somewhat different to
1744 the traditional &'ndbm'& interface.
1745 .next
1746 To complicate things further, there are several very different versions of the
1747 Berkeley DB package. Version 1.85 was stable for a very long time, releases
1748 2.&'x'& and 3.&'x'& were current for a while, but the latest versions are now
1749 numbered 4.&'x'&. Maintenance of some of the earlier releases has ceased. All
1750 versions of Berkeley DB can be obtained from
1751 &url(http://www.sleepycat.com/).
1752 .next
1753 .cindex "&'tdb'& DBM library"
1754 Yet another DBM library, called &'tdb'&, is available from
1755 &url(http://download.sourceforge.net/tdb). It has its own interface, and also
1756 operates on a single file.
1757 .endlist
1759 .cindex "USE_DB"
1760 .cindex "DBM libraries" "configuration for building"
1761 Exim and its utilities can be compiled to use any of these interfaces. In order
1762 to use any version of the Berkeley DB package in native mode, you must set
1763 USE_DB in an appropriate configuration file (typically
1764 &_Local/Makefile_&). For example:
1765 .code
1766 USE_DB=yes
1767 .endd
1768 Similarly, for gdbm you set USE_GDBM, and for tdb you set USE_TDB. An
1769 error is diagnosed if you set more than one of these.
1771 At the lowest level, the build-time configuration sets none of these options,
1772 thereby assuming an interface of type (1). However, some operating system
1773 configuration files (for example, those for the BSD operating systems and
1774 Linux) assume type (4) by setting USE_DB as their default, and the
1775 configuration files for Cygwin set USE_GDBM. Anything you set in
1776 &_Local/Makefile_&, however, overrides these system defaults.
1778 As well as setting USE_DB, USE_GDBM, or USE_TDB, it may also be
1779 necessary to set DBMLIB, to cause inclusion of the appropriate library, as
1780 in one of these lines:
1781 .code
1782 DBMLIB = -ldb
1783 DBMLIB = -ltdb
1784 .endd
1785 Settings like that will work if the DBM library is installed in the standard
1786 place. Sometimes it is not, and the library's header file may also not be in
1787 the default path. You may need to set INCLUDE to specify where the header
1788 file is, and to specify the path to the library more fully in DBMLIB, as in
1789 this example:
1790 .code
1791 INCLUDE=-I/usr/local/include/db-4.1
1792 DBMLIB=/usr/local/lib/db-4.1/libdb.a
1793 .endd
1794 There is further detailed discussion about the various DBM libraries in the
1795 file &_doc/dbm.discuss.txt_& in the Exim distribution.
1799 .section "Pre-building configuration" "SECID25"
1800 .cindex "building Exim" "pre-building configuration"
1801 .cindex "configuration for building Exim"
1802 .cindex "&_Local/Makefile_&"
1803 .cindex "&_src/EDITME_&"
1804 Before building Exim, a local configuration file that specifies options
1805 independent of any operating system has to be created with the name
1806 &_Local/Makefile_&. A template for this file is supplied as the file
1807 &_src/EDITME_&, and it contains full descriptions of all the option settings
1808 therein. These descriptions are therefore not repeated here. If you are
1809 building Exim for the first time, the simplest thing to do is to copy
1810 &_src/EDITME_& to &_Local/Makefile_&, then read it and edit it appropriately.
1812 There are three settings that you must supply, because Exim will not build
1813 without them. They are the location of the run time configuration file
1814 (CONFIGURE_FILE), the directory in which Exim binaries will be installed
1815 (BIN_DIRECTORY), and the identity of the Exim user (EXIM_USER and
1816 maybe EXIM_GROUP as well). The value of CONFIGURE_FILE can in fact be
1817 a colon-separated list of file names; Exim uses the first of them that exists.
1819 There are a few other parameters that can be specified either at build time or
1820 at run time, to enable the same binary to be used on a number of different
1821 machines. However, if the locations of Exim's spool directory and log file
1822 directory (if not within the spool directory) are fixed, it is recommended that
1823 you specify them in &_Local/Makefile_& instead of at run time, so that errors
1824 detected early in Exim's execution (such as a malformed configuration file) can
1825 be logged.
1827 .cindex "content scanning" "specifying at build time"
1828 Exim's interfaces for calling virus and spam scanning software directly from
1829 access control lists are not compiled by default. If you want to include these
1830 facilities, you need to set
1831 .code
1833 .endd
1834 in your &_Local/Makefile_&. For details of the facilities themselves, see
1835 chapter &<<CHAPexiscan>>&.
1838 .cindex "&_Local/eximon.conf_&"
1839 .cindex "&_exim_monitor/EDITME_&"
1840 If you are going to build the Exim monitor, a similar configuration process is
1841 required. The file &_exim_monitor/EDITME_& must be edited appropriately for
1842 your installation and saved under the name &_Local/eximon.conf_&. If you are
1843 happy with the default settings described in &_exim_monitor/EDITME_&,
1844 &_Local/eximon.conf_& can be empty, but it must exist.
1846 This is all the configuration that is needed in straightforward cases for known
1847 operating systems. However, the building process is set up so that it is easy
1848 to override options that are set by default or by operating-system-specific
1849 configuration files, for example to change the name of the C compiler, which
1850 defaults to &%gcc%&. See section &<<SECToverride>>& below for details of how to
1851 do this.
1855 .section "Support for iconv()" "SECID26"
1856 .cindex "&[iconv()]& support"
1857 .cindex "RFC 2047"
1858 The contents of header lines in messages may be encoded according to the rules
1859 described RFC 2047. This makes it possible to transmit characters that are not
1860 in the ASCII character set, and to label them as being in a particular
1861 character set. When Exim is inspecting header lines by means of the &%$h_%&
1862 mechanism, it decodes them, and translates them into a specified character set
1863 (default ISO-8859-1). The translation is possible only if the operating system
1864 supports the &[iconv()]& function.
1866 However, some of the operating systems that supply &[iconv()]& do not support
1867 very many conversions. The GNU &%libiconv%& library (available from
1868 &url(http://www.gnu.org/software/libiconv/)) can be installed on such
1869 systems to remedy this deficiency, as well as on systems that do not supply
1870 &[iconv()]& at all. After installing &%libiconv%&, you should add
1871 .code
1872 HAVE_ICONV=yes
1873 .endd
1874 to your &_Local/Makefile_& and rebuild Exim.
1878 .section "Including TLS/SSL encryption support" "SECTinctlsssl"
1879 .cindex "TLS" "including support for TLS"
1880 .cindex "encryption" "including support for"
1881 .cindex "SUPPORT_TLS"
1882 .cindex "OpenSSL" "building Exim with"
1883 .cindex "GnuTLS" "building Exim with"
1884 Exim can be built to support encrypted SMTP connections, using the STARTTLS
1885 command as per RFC 2487. It can also support legacy clients that expect to
1886 start a TLS session immediately on connection to a non-standard port (see the
1887 &%tls_on_connect_ports%& runtime option and the &%-tls-on-connect%& command
1888 line option).
1890 If you want to build Exim with TLS support, you must first install either the
1891 OpenSSL or GnuTLS library. There is no cryptographic code in Exim itself for
1892 implementing SSL.
1894 If OpenSSL is installed, you should set
1895 .code
1896 SUPPORT_TLS=yes
1897 TLS_LIBS=-lssl -lcrypto
1898 .endd
1899 in &_Local/Makefile_&. You may also need to specify the locations of the
1900 OpenSSL library and include files. For example:
1901 .code
1902 SUPPORT_TLS=yes
1903 TLS_LIBS=-L/usr/local/openssl/lib -lssl -lcrypto
1904 TLS_INCLUDE=-I/usr/local/openssl/include/
1905 .endd
1906 .cindex "pkg-config" "OpenSSL"
1907 If you have &'pkg-config'& available, then instead you can just use:
1908 .code
1909 SUPPORT_TLS=yes
1910 USE_OPENSSL_PC=openssl
1911 .endd
1912 .cindex "USE_GNUTLS"
1913 If GnuTLS is installed, you should set
1914 .code
1915 SUPPORT_TLS=yes
1916 USE_GNUTLS=yes
1917 TLS_LIBS=-lgnutls -ltasn1 -lgcrypt
1918 .endd
1919 in &_Local/Makefile_&, and again you may need to specify the locations of the
1920 library and include files. For example:
1921 .code
1922 SUPPORT_TLS=yes
1923 USE_GNUTLS=yes
1924 TLS_LIBS=-L/usr/gnu/lib -lgnutls -ltasn1 -lgcrypt
1925 TLS_INCLUDE=-I/usr/gnu/include
1926 .endd
1927 .cindex "pkg-config" "GnuTLS"
1928 If you have &'pkg-config'& available, then instead you can just use:
1929 .code
1930 SUPPORT_TLS=yes
1931 USE_GNUTLS=yes
1932 USE_GNUTLS_PC=gnutls
1933 .endd
1935 You do not need to set TLS_INCLUDE if the relevant directory is already
1936 specified in INCLUDE. Details of how to configure Exim to make use of TLS are
1937 given in chapter &<<CHAPTLS>>&.
1942 .section "Use of tcpwrappers" "SECID27"
1944 .cindex "tcpwrappers, building Exim to support"
1945 .cindex "USE_TCP_WRAPPERS"
1947 .cindex "tcp_wrappers_daemon_name"
1948 Exim can be linked with the &'tcpwrappers'& library in order to check incoming
1949 SMTP calls using the &'tcpwrappers'& control files. This may be a convenient
1950 alternative to Exim's own checking facilities for installations that are
1951 already making use of &'tcpwrappers'& for other purposes. To do this, you
1952 should set USE_TCP_WRAPPERS in &_Local/Makefile_&, arrange for the file
1953 &_tcpd.h_& to be available at compile time, and also ensure that the library
1954 &_libwrap.a_& is available at link time, typically by including &%-lwrap%& in
1955 EXTRALIBS_EXIM. For example, if &'tcpwrappers'& is installed in &_/usr/local_&,
1956 you might have
1957 .code
1959 CFLAGS=-O -I/usr/local/include
1960 EXTRALIBS_EXIM=-L/usr/local/lib -lwrap
1961 .endd
1962 in &_Local/Makefile_&. The daemon name to use in the &'tcpwrappers'& control
1963 files is &"exim"&. For example, the line
1964 .code
1965 exim : LOCAL 192.168.1. .friendly.domain.example
1966 .endd
1967 in your &_/etc/hosts.allow_& file allows connections from the local host, from
1968 the subnet, and from all hosts in &'friendly.domain.example'&.
1969 All other connections are denied. The daemon name used by &'tcpwrappers'&
1970 can be changed at build time by setting TCP_WRAPPERS_DAEMON_NAME in
1971 &_Local/Makefile_&, or by setting tcp_wrappers_daemon_name in the
1972 configure file. Consult the &'tcpwrappers'& documentation for
1973 further details.
1976 .section "Including support for IPv6" "SECID28"
1977 .cindex "IPv6" "including support for"
1978 Exim contains code for use on systems that have IPv6 support. Setting
1979 &`HAVE_IPV6=YES`& in &_Local/Makefile_& causes the IPv6 code to be included;
1980 it may also be necessary to set IPV6_INCLUDE and IPV6_LIBS on systems
1981 where the IPv6 support is not fully integrated into the normal include and
1982 library files.
1984 Two different types of DNS record for handling IPv6 addresses have been
1985 defined. AAAA records (analogous to A records for IPv4) are in use, and are
1986 currently seen as the mainstream. Another record type called A6 was proposed
1987 as better than AAAA because it had more flexibility. However, it was felt to be
1988 over-complex, and its status was reduced to &"experimental"&. It is not known
1989 if anyone is actually using A6 records. Exim has support for A6 records, but
1990 this is included only if you set &`SUPPORT_A6=YES`& in &_Local/Makefile_&. The
1991 support has not been tested for some time.
1995 .section "Dynamically loaded lookup module support" "SECTdynamicmodules"
1996 .cindex "lookup modules"
1997 .cindex "dynamic modules"
1998 .cindex ".so building"
1999 On some platforms, Exim supports not compiling all lookup types directly into
2000 the main binary, instead putting some into external modules which can be loaded
2001 on demand.
2002 This permits packagers to build Exim with support for lookups with extensive
2003 library dependencies without requiring all users to install all of those
2004 dependencies.
2005 Most, but not all, lookup types can be built this way.
2007 Set &`LOOKUP_MODULE_DIR`& to the directory into which the modules will be
2008 installed; Exim will only load modules from that directory, as a security
2009 measure. You will need to set &`CFLAGS_DYNAMIC`& if not already defined
2010 for your OS; see &_OS/Makefile-Linux_& for an example.
2011 Some other requirements for adjusting &`EXTRALIBS`& may also be necessary,
2012 see &_src/EDITME_& for details.
2014 Then, for each module to be loaded dynamically, define the relevant
2015 &`LOOKUP_`&<&'lookup_type'&> flags to have the value "2" instead of "yes".
2016 For example, this will build in lsearch but load sqlite and mysql support
2017 on demand:
2018 .code
2022 .endd
2025 .section "The building process" "SECID29"
2026 .cindex "build directory"
2027 Once &_Local/Makefile_& (and &_Local/eximon.conf_&, if required) have been
2028 created, run &'make'& at the top level. It determines the architecture and
2029 operating system types, and creates a build directory if one does not exist.
2030 For example, on a Sun system running Solaris 8, the directory
2031 &_build-SunOS5-5.8-sparc_& is created.
2032 .cindex "symbolic link" "to source files"
2033 Symbolic links to relevant source files are installed in the build directory.
2035 &*Warning*&: The &%-j%& (parallel) flag must not be used with &'make'&; the
2036 building process fails if it is set.
2038 If this is the first time &'make'& has been run, it calls a script that builds
2039 a make file inside the build directory, using the configuration files from the
2040 &_Local_& directory. The new make file is then passed to another instance of
2041 &'make'&. This does the real work, building a number of utility scripts, and
2042 then compiling and linking the binaries for the Exim monitor (if configured), a
2043 number of utility programs, and finally Exim itself. The command &`make
2044 makefile`& can be used to force a rebuild of the make file in the build
2045 directory, should this ever be necessary.
2047 If you have problems building Exim, check for any comments there may be in the
2048 &_README_& file concerning your operating system, and also take a look at the
2049 FAQ, where some common problems are covered.
2053 .section 'Output from &"make"&' "SECID283"
2054 The output produced by the &'make'& process for compile lines is often very
2055 unreadable, because these lines can be very long. For this reason, the normal
2056 output is suppressed by default, and instead output similar to that which
2057 appears when compiling the 2.6 Linux kernel is generated: just a short line for
2058 each module that is being compiled or linked. However, it is still possible to
2059 get the full output, by calling &'make'& like this:
2060 .code
2061 FULLECHO='' make -e
2062 .endd
2063 The value of FULLECHO defaults to &"@"&, the flag character that suppresses
2064 command reflection in &'make'&. When you ask for the full output, it is
2065 given in addition to the short output.
2069 .section "Overriding build-time options for Exim" "SECToverride"
2070 .cindex "build-time options, overriding"
2071 The main make file that is created at the beginning of the building process
2072 consists of the concatenation of a number of files which set configuration
2073 values, followed by a fixed set of &'make'& instructions. If a value is set
2074 more than once, the last setting overrides any previous ones. This provides a
2075 convenient way of overriding defaults. The files that are concatenated are, in
2076 order:
2077 .display
2078 &_OS/Makefile-Default_&
2079 &_OS/Makefile-_&<&'ostype'&>
2080 &_Local/Makefile_&
2081 &_Local/Makefile-_&<&'ostype'&>
2082 &_Local/Makefile-_&<&'archtype'&>
2083 &_Local/Makefile-_&<&'ostype'&>-<&'archtype'&>
2084 &_OS/Makefile-Base_&
2085 .endd
2086 .cindex "&_Local/Makefile_&"
2087 .cindex "building Exim" "operating system type"
2088 .cindex "building Exim" "architecture type"
2089 where <&'ostype'&> is the operating system type and <&'archtype'&> is the
2090 architecture type. &_Local/Makefile_& is required to exist, and the building
2091 process fails if it is absent. The other three &_Local_& files are optional,
2092 and are often not needed.
2094 The values used for <&'ostype'&> and <&'archtype'&> are obtained from scripts
2095 called &_scripts/os-type_& and &_scripts/arch-type_& respectively. If either of
2096 the environment variables EXIM_OSTYPE or EXIM_ARCHTYPE is set, their
2097 values are used, thereby providing a means of forcing particular settings.
2098 Otherwise, the scripts try to get values from the &%uname%& command. If this
2099 fails, the shell variables OSTYPE and ARCHTYPE are inspected. A number
2100 of &'ad hoc'& transformations are then applied, to produce the standard names
2101 that Exim expects. You can run these scripts directly from the shell in order
2102 to find out what values are being used on your system.
2105 &_OS/Makefile-Default_& contains comments about the variables that are set
2106 therein. Some (but not all) are mentioned below. If there is something that
2107 needs changing, review the contents of this file and the contents of the make
2108 file for your operating system (&_OS/Makefile-<ostype>_&) to see what the
2109 default values are.
2112 .cindex "building Exim" "overriding default settings"
2113 If you need to change any of the values that are set in &_OS/Makefile-Default_&
2114 or in &_OS/Makefile-<ostype>_&, or to add any new definitions, you do not
2115 need to change the original files. Instead, you should make the changes by
2116 putting the new values in an appropriate &_Local_& file. For example,
2117 .cindex "Tru64-Unix build-time settings"
2118 when building Exim in many releases of the Tru64-Unix (formerly Digital UNIX,
2119 formerly DEC-OSF1) operating system, it is necessary to specify that the C
2120 compiler is called &'cc'& rather than &'gcc'&. Also, the compiler must be
2121 called with the option &%-std1%&, to make it recognize some of the features of
2122 Standard C that Exim uses. (Most other compilers recognize Standard C by
2123 default.) To do this, you should create a file called &_Local/Makefile-OSF1_&
2124 containing the lines
2125 .code
2126 CC=cc
2127 CFLAGS=-std1
2128 .endd
2129 If you are compiling for just one operating system, it may be easier to put
2130 these lines directly into &_Local/Makefile_&.
2132 Keeping all your local configuration settings separate from the distributed
2133 files makes it easy to transfer them to new versions of Exim simply by copying
2134 the contents of the &_Local_& directory.
2137 .cindex "NIS lookup type" "including support for"
2138 .cindex "NIS+ lookup type" "including support for"
2139 .cindex "LDAP" "including support for"
2140 .cindex "lookup" "inclusion in binary"
2141 Exim contains support for doing LDAP, NIS, NIS+, and other kinds of file
2142 lookup, but not all systems have these components installed, so the default is
2143 not to include the relevant code in the binary. All the different kinds of file
2144 and database lookup that Exim supports are implemented as separate code modules
2145 which are included only if the relevant compile-time options are set. In the
2146 case of LDAP, NIS, and NIS+, the settings for &_Local/Makefile_& are:
2147 .code
2148 LOOKUP_LDAP=yes
2149 LOOKUP_NIS=yes
2151 .endd
2152 and similar settings apply to the other lookup types. They are all listed in
2153 &_src/EDITME_&. In many cases the relevant include files and interface
2154 libraries need to be installed before compiling Exim.
2155 .cindex "cdb" "including support for"
2156 However, there are some optional lookup types (such as cdb) for which
2157 the code is entirely contained within Exim, and no external include
2158 files or libraries are required. When a lookup type is not included in the
2159 binary, attempts to configure Exim to use it cause run time configuration
2160 errors.
2162 .cindex "pkg-config" "lookups"
2163 .cindex "pkg-config" "authenticators"
2164 Many systems now use a tool called &'pkg-config'& to encapsulate information
2165 about how to compile against a library; Exim has some initial support for
2166 being able to use pkg-config for lookups and authenticators. For any given
2167 makefile variable which starts &`LOOKUP_`& or &`AUTH_`&, you can add a new
2168 variable with the &`_PC`& suffix in the name and assign as the value the
2169 name of the package to be queried. The results of querying via the
2170 &'pkg-config'& command will be added to the appropriate Makefile variables
2171 with &`+=`& directives, so your version of &'make'& will need to support that
2172 syntax. For instance:
2173 .code
2175 LOOKUP_SQLITE_PC=sqlite3
2176 AUTH_GSASL=yes
2177 AUTH_GSASL_PC=libgsasl
2179 AUTH_HEIMDAL_GSSAPI_PC=heimdal-gssapi
2180 .endd
2182 .cindex "Perl" "including support for"
2183 Exim can be linked with an embedded Perl interpreter, allowing Perl
2184 subroutines to be called during string expansion. To enable this facility,
2185 .code
2186 EXIM_PERL=perl.o
2187 .endd
2188 must be defined in &_Local/Makefile_&. Details of this facility are given in
2189 chapter &<<CHAPperl>>&.
2191 .cindex "X11 libraries, location of"
2192 The location of the X11 libraries is something that varies a lot between
2193 operating systems, and there may be different versions of X11 to cope
2194 with. Exim itself makes no use of X11, but if you are compiling the Exim
2195 monitor, the X11 libraries must be available.
2196 The following three variables are set in &_OS/Makefile-Default_&:
2197 .code
2198 X11=/usr/X11R6
2199 XINCLUDE=-I$(X11)/include
2200 XLFLAGS=-L$(X11)/lib
2201 .endd
2202 These are overridden in some of the operating-system configuration files. For
2203 example, in &_OS/Makefile-SunOS5_& there is
2204 .code
2205 X11=/usr/openwin
2206 XINCLUDE=-I$(X11)/include
2207 XLFLAGS=-L$(X11)/lib -R$(X11)/lib
2208 .endd
2209 If you need to override the default setting for your operating system, place a
2210 definition of all three of these variables into your
2211 &_Local/Makefile-<ostype>_& file.
2213 .cindex "EXTRALIBS"
2214 If you need to add any extra libraries to the link steps, these can be put in a
2215 variable called EXTRALIBS, which appears in all the link commands, but by
2216 default is not defined. In contrast, EXTRALIBS_EXIM is used only on the
2217 command for linking the main Exim binary, and not for any associated utilities.
2219 .cindex "DBM libraries" "configuration for building"
2220 There is also DBMLIB, which appears in the link commands for binaries that
2221 use DBM functions (see also section &<<SECTdb>>&). Finally, there is
2222 EXTRALIBS_EXIMON, which appears only in the link step for the Exim monitor
2223 binary, and which can be used, for example, to include additional X11
2224 libraries.
2226 .cindex "configuration file" "editing"
2227 The make file copes with rebuilding Exim correctly if any of the configuration
2228 files are edited. However, if an optional configuration file is deleted, it is
2229 necessary to touch the associated non-optional file (that is,
2230 &_Local/Makefile_& or &_Local/eximon.conf_&) before rebuilding.
2233 .section "OS-specific header files" "SECID30"
2234 .cindex "&_os.h_&"
2235 .cindex "building Exim" "OS-specific C header files"
2236 The &_OS_& directory contains a number of files with names of the form
2237 &_os.h-<ostype>_&. These are system-specific C header files that should not
2238 normally need to be changed. There is a list of macro settings that are
2239 recognized in the file &_OS/os.configuring_&, which should be consulted if you
2240 are porting Exim to a new operating system.
2244 .section "Overriding build-time options for the monitor" "SECID31"
2245 .cindex "building Eximon"
2246 A similar process is used for overriding things when building the Exim monitor,
2247 where the files that are involved are
2248 .display
2249 &_OS/eximon.conf-Default_&
2250 &_OS/eximon.conf-_&<&'ostype'&>
2251 &_Local/eximon.conf_&
2252 &_Local/eximon.conf-_&<&'ostype'&>
2253 &_Local/eximon.conf-_&<&'archtype'&>
2254 &_Local/eximon.conf-_&<&'ostype'&>-<&'archtype'&>
2255 .endd
2256 .cindex "&_Local/eximon.conf_&"
2257 As with Exim itself, the final three files need not exist, and in this case the
2258 &_OS/eximon.conf-<ostype>_& file is also optional. The default values in
2259 &_OS/eximon.conf-Default_& can be overridden dynamically by setting environment
2260 variables of the same name, preceded by EXIMON_. For example, setting
2261 EXIMON_LOG_DEPTH in the environment overrides the value of
2262 LOG_DEPTH at run time.
2263 .ecindex IIDbuex
2266 .section "Installing Exim binaries and scripts" "SECID32"
2267 .cindex "installing Exim"
2268 .cindex "BIN_DIRECTORY"
2269 The command &`make install`& runs the &(exim_install)& script with no
2270 arguments. The script copies binaries and utility scripts into the directory
2271 whose name is specified by the BIN_DIRECTORY setting in &_Local/Makefile_&.
2272 .cindex "setuid" "installing Exim with"
2273 The install script copies files only if they are newer than the files they are
2274 going to replace. The Exim binary is required to be owned by root and have the
2275 &'setuid'& bit set, for normal configurations. Therefore, you must run &`make
2276 install`& as root so that it can set up the Exim binary in this way. However, in
2277 some special situations (for example, if a host is doing no local deliveries)
2278 it may be possible to run Exim without making the binary setuid root (see
2279 chapter &<<CHAPsecurity>>& for details).
2281 .cindex "CONFIGURE_FILE"
2282 Exim's run time configuration file is named by the CONFIGURE_FILE setting
2283 in &_Local/Makefile_&. If this names a single file, and the file does not
2284 exist, the default configuration file &_src/configure.default_& is copied there
2285 by the installation script. If a run time configuration file already exists, it
2286 is left alone. If CONFIGURE_FILE is a colon-separated list, naming several
2287 alternative files, no default is installed.
2289 .cindex "system aliases file"
2290 .cindex "&_/etc/aliases_&"
2291 One change is made to the default configuration file when it is installed: the
2292 default configuration contains a router that references a system aliases file.
2293 The path to this file is set to the value specified by
2294 SYSTEM_ALIASES_FILE in &_Local/Makefile_& (&_/etc/aliases_& by default).
2295 If the system aliases file does not exist, the installation script creates it,
2296 and outputs a comment to the user.
2298 The created file contains no aliases, but it does contain comments about the
2299 aliases a site should normally have. Mail aliases have traditionally been
2300 kept in &_/etc/aliases_&. However, some operating systems are now using
2301 &_/etc/mail/aliases_&. You should check if yours is one of these, and change
2302 Exim's configuration if necessary.
2304 The default configuration uses the local host's name as the only local domain,
2305 and is set up to do local deliveries into the shared directory &_/var/mail_&,
2306 running as the local user. System aliases and &_.forward_& files in users' home
2307 directories are supported, but no NIS or NIS+ support is configured. Domains
2308 other than the name of the local host are routed using the DNS, with delivery
2309 over SMTP.
2311 It is possible to install Exim for special purposes (such as building a binary
2312 distribution) in a private part of the file system. You can do this by a
2313 command such as
2314 .code
2315 make DESTDIR=/some/directory/ install
2316 .endd
2317 This has the effect of pre-pending the specified directory to all the file
2318 paths, except the name of the system aliases file that appears in the default
2319 configuration. (If a default alias file is created, its name &'is'& modified.)
2320 For backwards compatibility, ROOT is used if DESTDIR is not set,
2321 but this usage is deprecated.
2323 .cindex "installing Exim" "what is not installed"
2324 Running &'make install'& does not copy the Exim 4 conversion script
2325 &'convert4r4'&. You will probably run this only once if you are
2326 upgrading from Exim 3. None of the documentation files in the &_doc_&
2327 directory are copied, except for the info files when you have set
2328 INFO_DIRECTORY, as described in section &<<SECTinsinfdoc>>& below.
2330 For the utility programs, old versions are renamed by adding the suffix &_.O_&
2331 to their names. The Exim binary itself, however, is handled differently. It is
2332 installed under a name that includes the version number and the compile number,
2333 for example &_exim-&version()-1_&. The script then arranges for a symbolic link
2334 called &_exim_& to point to the binary. If you are updating a previous version
2335 of Exim, the script takes care to ensure that the name &_exim_& is never absent
2336 from the directory (as seen by other processes).
2338 .cindex "installing Exim" "testing the script"
2339 If you want to see what the &'make install'& will do before running it for
2340 real, you can pass the &%-n%& option to the installation script by this
2341 command:
2342 .code
2343 make INSTALL_ARG=-n install
2344 .endd
2345 The contents of the variable INSTALL_ARG are passed to the installation
2346 script. You do not need to be root to run this test. Alternatively, you can run
2347 the installation script directly, but this must be from within the build
2348 directory. For example, from the top-level Exim directory you could use this
2349 command:
2350 .code
2351 (cd build-SunOS5-5.5.1-sparc; ../scripts/exim_install -n)
2352 .endd
2353 .cindex "installing Exim" "install script options"
2354 There are two other options that can be supplied to the installation script.
2356 .ilist
2357 &%-no_chown%& bypasses the call to change the owner of the installed binary
2358 to root, and the call to make it a setuid binary.
2359 .next
2360 &%-no_symlink%& bypasses the setting up of the symbolic link &_exim_& to the
2361 installed binary.
2362 .endlist
2364 INSTALL_ARG can be used to pass these options to the script. For example:
2365 .code
2366 make INSTALL_ARG=-no_symlink install
2367 .endd
2368 The installation script can also be given arguments specifying which files are
2369 to be copied. For example, to install just the Exim binary, and nothing else,
2370 without creating the symbolic link, you could use:
2371 .code
2372 make INSTALL_ARG='-no_symlink exim' install
2373 .endd
2377 .section "Installing info documentation" "SECTinsinfdoc"
2378 .cindex "installing Exim" "&'info'& documentation"
2379 Not all systems use the GNU &'info'& system for documentation, and for this
2380 reason, the Texinfo source of Exim's documentation is not included in the main
2381 distribution. Instead it is available separately from the ftp site (see section
2382 &<<SECTavail>>&).
2384 If you have defined INFO_DIRECTORY in &_Local/Makefile_& and the Texinfo
2385 source of the documentation is found in the source tree, running &`make
2386 install`& automatically builds the info files and installs them.
2390 .section "Setting up the spool directory" "SECID33"
2391 .cindex "spool directory" "creating"
2392 When it starts up, Exim tries to create its spool directory if it does not
2393 exist. The Exim uid and gid are used for the owner and group of the spool
2394 directory. Sub-directories are automatically created in the spool directory as
2395 necessary.
2400 .section "Testing" "SECID34"
2401 .cindex "testing" "installation"
2402 Having installed Exim, you can check that the run time configuration file is
2403 syntactically valid by running the following command, which assumes that the
2404 Exim binary directory is within your PATH environment variable:
2405 .code
2406 exim -bV
2407 .endd
2408 If there are any errors in the configuration file, Exim outputs error messages.
2409 Otherwise it outputs the version number and build date,
2410 the DBM library that is being used, and information about which drivers and
2411 other optional code modules are included in the binary.
2412 Some simple routing tests can be done by using the address testing option. For
2413 example,
2414 .display
2415 &`exim -bt`& <&'local username'&>
2416 .endd
2417 should verify that it recognizes a local mailbox, and
2418 .display
2419 &`exim -bt`& <&'remote address'&>
2420 .endd
2421 a remote one. Then try getting it to deliver mail, both locally and remotely.
2422 This can be done by passing messages directly to Exim, without going through a
2423 user agent. For example:
2424 .code
2425 exim -v postmaster@your.domain.example
2426 From: user@your.domain.example
2427 To: postmaster@your.domain.example
2428 Subject: Testing Exim
2430 This is a test message.
2431 ^D
2432 .endd
2433 The &%-v%& option causes Exim to output some verification of what it is doing.
2434 In this case you should see copies of three log lines, one for the message's
2435 arrival, one for its delivery, and one containing &"Completed"&.
2437 .cindex "delivery" "problems with"
2438 If you encounter problems, look at Exim's log files (&'mainlog'& and
2439 &'paniclog'&) to see if there is any relevant information there. Another source
2440 of information is running Exim with debugging turned on, by specifying the
2441 &%-d%& option. If a message is stuck on Exim's spool, you can force a delivery
2442 with debugging turned on by a command of the form
2443 .display
2444 &`exim -d -M`& <&'exim-message-id'&>
2445 .endd
2446 You must be root or an &"admin user"& in order to do this. The &%-d%& option
2447 produces rather a lot of output, but you can cut this down to specific areas.
2448 For example, if you use &%-d-all+route%& only the debugging information
2449 relevant to routing is included. (See the &%-d%& option in chapter
2450 &<<CHAPcommandline>>& for more details.)
2452 .cindex '&"sticky"& bit'
2453 .cindex "lock files"
2454 One specific problem that has shown up on some sites is the inability to do
2455 local deliveries into a shared mailbox directory, because it does not have the
2456 &"sticky bit"& set on it. By default, Exim tries to create a lock file before
2457 writing to a mailbox file, and if it cannot create the lock file, the delivery
2458 is deferred. You can get round this either by setting the &"sticky bit"& on the
2459 directory, or by setting a specific group for local deliveries and allowing
2460 that group to create files in the directory (see the comments above the
2461 &(local_delivery)& transport in the default configuration file). Another
2462 approach is to configure Exim not to use lock files, but just to rely on
2463 &[fcntl()]& locking instead. However, you should do this only if all user
2464 agents also use &[fcntl()]& locking. For further discussion of locking issues,
2465 see chapter &<<CHAPappendfile>>&.
2467 One thing that cannot be tested on a system that is already running an MTA is
2468 the receipt of incoming SMTP mail on the standard SMTP port. However, the
2469 &%-oX%& option can be used to run an Exim daemon that listens on some other
2470 port, or &'inetd'& can be used to do this. The &%-bh%& option and the
2471 &'exim_checkaccess'& utility can be used to check out policy controls on
2472 incoming SMTP mail.
2474 Testing a new version on a system that is already running Exim can most easily
2475 be done by building a binary with a different CONFIGURE_FILE setting. From
2476 within the run time configuration, all other file and directory names
2477 that Exim uses can be altered, in order to keep it entirely clear of the
2478 production version.
2481 .section "Replacing another MTA with Exim" "SECID35"
2482 .cindex "replacing another MTA"
2483 Building and installing Exim for the first time does not of itself put it in
2484 general use. The name by which the system's MTA is called by mail user agents
2485 is either &_/usr/sbin/sendmail_&, or &_/usr/lib/sendmail_& (depending on the
2486 operating system), and it is necessary to make this name point to the &'exim'&
2487 binary in order to get the user agents to pass messages to Exim. This is
2488 normally done by renaming any existing file and making &_/usr/sbin/sendmail_&
2489 or &_/usr/lib/sendmail_&
2490 .cindex "symbolic link" "to &'exim'& binary"
2491 a symbolic link to the &'exim'& binary. It is a good idea to remove any setuid
2492 privilege and executable status from the old MTA. It is then necessary to stop
2493 and restart the mailer daemon, if one is running.
2495 .cindex "FreeBSD, MTA indirection"
2496 .cindex "&_/etc/mail/mailer.conf_&"
2497 Some operating systems have introduced alternative ways of switching MTAs. For
2498 example, if you are running FreeBSD, you need to edit the file
2499 &_/etc/mail/mailer.conf_& instead of setting up a symbolic link as just
2500 described. A typical example of the contents of this file for running Exim is
2501 as follows:
2502 .code
2503 sendmail /usr/exim/bin/exim
2504 send-mail /usr/exim/bin/exim
2505 mailq /usr/exim/bin/exim -bp
2506 newaliases /usr/bin/true
2507 .endd
2508 Once you have set up the symbolic link, or edited &_/etc/mail/mailer.conf_&,
2509 your Exim installation is &"live"&. Check it by sending a message from your
2510 favourite user agent.
2512 You should consider what to tell your users about the change of MTA. Exim may
2513 have different capabilities to what was previously running, and there are
2514 various operational differences such as the text of messages produced by
2515 command line options and in bounce messages. If you allow your users to make
2516 use of Exim's filtering capabilities, you should make the document entitled
2517 &'Exim's interface to mail filtering'& available to them.
2521 .section "Upgrading Exim" "SECID36"
2522 .cindex "upgrading Exim"
2523 If you are already running Exim on your host, building and installing a new
2524 version automatically makes it available to MUAs, or any other programs that
2525 call the MTA directly. However, if you are running an Exim daemon, you do need
2526 to send it a HUP signal, to make it re-execute itself, and thereby pick up the
2527 new binary. You do not need to stop processing mail in order to install a new
2528 version of Exim. The install script does not modify an existing runtime
2529 configuration file.
2534 .section "Stopping the Exim daemon on Solaris" "SECID37"
2535 .cindex "Solaris" "stopping Exim on"
2536 The standard command for stopping the mailer daemon on Solaris is
2537 .code
2538 /etc/init.d/sendmail stop
2539 .endd
2540 If &_/usr/lib/sendmail_& has been turned into a symbolic link, this script
2541 fails to stop Exim because it uses the command &'ps -e'& and greps the output
2542 for the text &"sendmail"&; this is not present because the actual program name
2543 (that is, &"exim"&) is given by the &'ps'& command with these options. A
2544 solution is to replace the line that finds the process id with something like
2545 .code
2546 pid=`cat /var/spool/exim/exim-daemon.pid`
2547 .endd
2548 to obtain the daemon's pid directly from the file that Exim saves it in.
2550 Note, however, that stopping the daemon does not &"stop Exim"&. Messages can
2551 still be received from local processes, and if automatic delivery is configured
2552 (the normal case), deliveries will still occur.
2557 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2558 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2560 .chapter "The Exim command line" "CHAPcommandline"
2561 .scindex IIDclo1 "command line" "options"
2562 .scindex IIDclo2 "options" "command line"
2563 Exim's command line takes the standard Unix form of a sequence of options,
2564 each starting with a hyphen character, followed by a number of arguments. The
2565 options are compatible with the main options of Sendmail, and there are also
2566 some additional options, some of which are compatible with Smail 3. Certain
2567 combinations of options do not make sense, and provoke an error if used.
2568 The form of the arguments depends on which options are set.
2571 .section "Setting options by program name" "SECID38"
2572 .cindex "&'mailq'&"
2573 If Exim is called under the name &'mailq'&, it behaves as if the option &%-bp%&
2574 were present before any other options.
2575 The &%-bp%& option requests a listing of the contents of the mail queue on the
2576 standard output.
2577 This feature is for compatibility with some systems that contain a command of
2578 that name in one of the standard libraries, symbolically linked to
2579 &_/usr/sbin/sendmail_& or &_/usr/lib/sendmail_&.
2581 .cindex "&'rsmtp'&"
2582 If Exim is called under the name &'rsmtp'& it behaves as if the option &%-bS%&
2583 were present before any other options, for compatibility with Smail. The
2584 &%-bS%& option is used for reading in a number of messages in batched SMTP
2585 format.
2587 .cindex "&'rmail'&"
2588 If Exim is called under the name &'rmail'& it behaves as if the &%-i%& and
2589 &%-oee%& options were present before any other options, for compatibility with
2590 Smail. The name &'rmail'& is used as an interface by some UUCP systems.
2592 .cindex "&'runq'&"
2593 .cindex "queue runner"
2594 If Exim is called under the name &'runq'& it behaves as if the option &%-q%&
2595 were present before any other options, for compatibility with Smail. The &%-q%&
2596 option causes a single queue runner process to be started.
2598 .cindex "&'newaliases'&"
2599 .cindex "alias file" "building"
2600 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "calling Exim as &'newaliases'&"
2601 If Exim is called under the name &'newaliases'& it behaves as if the option
2602 &%-bi%& were present before any other options, for compatibility with Sendmail.
2603 This option is used for rebuilding Sendmail's alias file. Exim does not have
2604 the concept of a single alias file, but can be configured to run a given
2605 command if called with the &%-bi%& option.
2608 .section "Trusted and admin users" "SECTtrustedadmin"
2609 Some Exim options are available only to &'trusted users'& and others are
2610 available only to &'admin users'&. In the description below, the phrases &"Exim
2611 user"& and &"Exim group"& mean the user and group defined by EXIM_USER and
2612 EXIM_GROUP in &_Local/Makefile_& or set by the &%exim_user%& and
2613 &%exim_group%& options. These do not necessarily have to use the name &"exim"&.
2615 .ilist
2616 .cindex "trusted users" "definition of"
2617 .cindex "user" "trusted definition of"
2618 The trusted users are root, the Exim user, any user listed in the
2619 &%trusted_users%& configuration option, and any user whose current group or any
2620 supplementary group is one of those listed in the &%trusted_groups%&
2621 configuration option. Note that the Exim group is not automatically trusted.
2623 .cindex '&"From"& line'
2624 .cindex "envelope sender"
2625 Trusted users are always permitted to use the &%-f%& option or a leading
2626 &"From&~"& line to specify the envelope sender of a message that is passed to
2627 Exim through the local interface (see the &%-bm%& and &%-f%& options below).
2628 See the &%untrusted_set_sender%& option for a way of permitting non-trusted
2629 users to set envelope senders.
2631 .cindex "&'From:'& header line"
2632 .cindex "&'Sender:'& header line"
2633 For a trusted user, there is never any check on the contents of the &'From:'&
2634 header line, and a &'Sender:'& line is never added. Furthermore, any existing
2635 &'Sender:'& line in incoming local (non-TCP/IP) messages is not removed.
2637 Trusted users may also specify a host name, host address, interface address,
2638 protocol name, ident value, and authentication data when submitting a message
2639 locally. Thus, they are able to insert messages into Exim's queue locally that
2640 have the characteristics of messages received from a remote host. Untrusted
2641 users may in some circumstances use &%-f%&, but can never set the other values
2642 that are available to trusted users.
2643 .next
2644 .cindex "user" "admin definition of"
2645 .cindex "admin user" "definition of"
2646 The admin users are root, the Exim user, and any user that is a member of the
2647 Exim group or of any group listed in the &%admin_groups%& configuration option.
2648 The current group does not have to be one of these groups.
2650 Admin users are permitted to list the queue, and to carry out certain
2651 operations on messages, for example, to force delivery failures. It is also
2652 necessary to be an admin user in order to see the full information provided by
2653 the Exim monitor, and full debugging output.
2655 By default, the use of the &%-M%&, &%-q%&, &%-R%&, and &%-S%& options to cause
2656 Exim to attempt delivery of messages on its queue is restricted to admin users.
2657 However, this restriction can be relaxed by setting the &%prod_requires_admin%&
2658 option false (that is, specifying &%no_prod_requires_admin%&).
2660 Similarly, the use of the &%-bp%& option to list all the messages in the queue
2661 is restricted to admin users unless &%queue_list_requires_admin%& is set
2662 false.
2663 .endlist
2666 &*Warning*&: If you configure your system so that admin users are able to
2667 edit Exim's configuration file, you are giving those users an easy way of
2668 getting root. There is further discussion of this issue at the start of chapter
2669 &<<CHAPconf>>&.
2674 .section "Command line options" "SECID39"
2675 Exim's command line options are described in alphabetical order below. If none
2676 of the options that specifies a specific action (such as starting the daemon or
2677 a queue runner, or testing an address, or receiving a message in a specific
2678 format, or listing the queue) are present, and there is at least one argument
2679 on the command line, &%-bm%& (accept a local message on the standard input,
2680 with the arguments specifying the recipients) is assumed. Otherwise, Exim
2681 outputs a brief message about itself and exits.
2683 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2684 . Insert a stylized XML comment here, to identify the start of the command line
2685 . options. This is for the benefit of the Perl script that automatically
2686 . creates a man page for the options.
2687 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2689 .literal xml
2690 <!-- === Start of command line options === -->
2691 .literal off
2694 .vlist
2695 .vitem &%--%&
2696 .oindex "--"
2697 .cindex "options" "command line; terminating"
2698 This is a pseudo-option whose only purpose is to terminate the options and
2699 therefore to cause subsequent command line items to be treated as arguments
2700 rather than options, even if they begin with hyphens.
2702 .vitem &%--help%&
2703 .oindex "&%--help%&"
2704 This option causes Exim to output a few sentences stating what it is.
2705 The same output is generated if the Exim binary is called with no options and
2706 no arguments.
2708 .vitem &%--version%&
2709 .oindex "&%--version%&"
2710 This option is an alias for &%-bV%& and causes version information to be
2711 displayed.
2713 .vitem &%-Ac%& &&&
2714 &%-Am%&
2715 .oindex "&%-Ac%&"
2716 .oindex "&%-Am%&"
2717 These options are used by Sendmail for selecting configuration files and are
2718 ignored by Exim.
2720 .vitem &%-B%&<&'type'&>
2721 .oindex "&%-B%&"
2722 .cindex "8-bit characters"
2723 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "8-bit characters"
2724 This is a Sendmail option for selecting 7 or 8 bit processing. Exim is 8-bit
2725 clean; it ignores this option.
2727 .vitem &%-bd%&
2728 .oindex "&%-bd%&"
2729 .cindex "daemon"
2730 .cindex "SMTP" "listener"
2731 .cindex "queue runner"
2732 This option runs Exim as a daemon, awaiting incoming SMTP connections. Usually
2733 the &%-bd%& option is combined with the &%-q%&<&'time'&> option, to specify
2734 that the daemon should also initiate periodic queue runs.
2736 The &%-bd%& option can be used only by an admin user. If either of the &%-d%&
2737 (debugging) or &%-v%& (verifying) options are set, the daemon does not
2738 disconnect from the controlling terminal. When running this way, it can be
2739 stopped by pressing ctrl-C.
2741 By default, Exim listens for incoming connections to the standard SMTP port on
2742 all the host's running interfaces. However, it is possible to listen on other
2743 ports, on multiple ports, and only on specific interfaces. Chapter
2744 &<<CHAPinterfaces>>& contains a description of the options that control this.
2746 When a listening daemon
2747 .cindex "daemon" "process id (pid)"
2748 .cindex "pid (process id)" "of daemon"
2749 is started without the use of &%-oX%& (that is, without overriding the normal
2750 configuration), it writes its process id to a file called &_exim-daemon.pid_&
2751 in Exim's spool directory. This location can be overridden by setting
2752 PID_FILE_PATH in &_Local/Makefile_&. The file is written while Exim is still
2753 running as root.
2755 When &%-oX%& is used on the command line to start a listening daemon, the
2756 process id is not written to the normal pid file path. However, &%-oP%& can be
2757 used to specify a path on the command line if a pid file is required.
2759 The SIGHUP signal
2760 .cindex "SIGHUP"
2761 .cindex "daemon" "restarting"
2762 can be used to cause the daemon to re-execute itself. This should be done
2763 whenever Exim's configuration file, or any file that is incorporated into it by
2764 means of the &%.include%& facility, is changed, and also whenever a new version
2765 of Exim is installed. It is not necessary to do this when other files that are
2766 referenced from the configuration (for example, alias files) are changed,
2767 because these are reread each time they are used.
2769 .vitem &%-bdf%&
2770 .oindex "&%-bdf%&"
2771 This option has the same effect as &%-bd%& except that it never disconnects
2772 from the controlling terminal, even when no debugging is specified.
2774 .vitem &%-be%&
2775 .oindex "&%-be%&"
2776 .cindex "testing" "string expansion"
2777 .cindex "expansion" "testing"
2778 Run Exim in expansion testing mode. Exim discards its root privilege, to
2779 prevent ordinary users from using this mode to read otherwise inaccessible
2780 files. If no arguments are given, Exim runs interactively, prompting for lines
2781 of data. Otherwise, it processes each argument in turn.
2783 If Exim was built with USE_READLINE=yes in &_Local/Makefile_&, it tries
2784 to load the &%libreadline%& library dynamically whenever the &%-be%& option is
2785 used without command line arguments. If successful, it uses the &[readline()]&
2786 function, which provides extensive line-editing facilities, for reading the
2787 test data. A line history is supported.
2789 Long expansion expressions can be split over several lines by using backslash
2790 continuations. As in Exim's run time configuration, white space at the start of
2791 continuation lines is ignored. Each argument or data line is passed through the
2792 string expansion mechanism, and the result is output. Variable values from the
2793 configuration file (for example, &$qualify_domain$&) are available, but no
2794 message-specific values (such as &$sender_domain$&) are set, because no message
2795 is being processed (but see &%-bem%& and &%-Mset%&).
2797 &*Note*&: If you use this mechanism to test lookups, and you change the data
2798 files or databases you are using, you must exit and restart Exim before trying
2799 the same lookup again. Otherwise, because each Exim process caches the results
2800 of lookups, you will just get the same result as before.
2802 .vitem &%-bem%&&~<&'filename'&>
2803 .oindex "&%-bem%&"
2804 .cindex "testing" "string expansion"
2805 .cindex "expansion" "testing"
2806 This option operates like &%-be%& except that it must be followed by the name
2807 of a file. For example:
2808 .code
2809 exim -bem /tmp/testmessage
2810 .endd
2811 The file is read as a message (as if receiving a locally-submitted non-SMTP
2812 message) before any of the test expansions are done. Thus, message-specific
2813 variables such as &$message_size$& and &$header_from:$& are available. However,
2814 no &'Received:'& header is added to the message. If the &%-t%& option is set,
2815 recipients are read from the headers in the normal way, and are shown in the
2816 &$recipients$& variable. Note that recipients cannot be given on the command
2817 line, because further arguments are taken as strings to expand (just like
2818 &%-be%&).
2820 .vitem &%-bF%&&~<&'filename'&>
2821 .oindex "&%-bF%&"
2822 .cindex "system filter" "testing"
2823 .cindex "testing" "system filter"
2824 This option is the same as &%-bf%& except that it assumes that the filter being
2825 tested is a system filter. The additional commands that are available only in
2826 system filters are recognized.
2828 .vitem &%-bf%&&~<&'filename'&>
2829 .oindex "&%-bf%&"
2830 .cindex "filter" "testing"
2831 .cindex "testing" "filter file"
2832 .cindex "forward file" "testing"
2833 .cindex "testing" "forward file"
2834 .cindex "Sieve filter" "testing"
2835 This option runs Exim in user filter testing mode; the file is the filter file
2836 to be tested, and a test message must be supplied on the standard input. If
2837 there are no message-dependent tests in the filter, an empty file can be
2838 supplied.
2840 If you want to test a system filter file, use &%-bF%& instead of &%-bf%&. You
2841 can use both &%-bF%& and &%-bf%& on the same command, in order to test a system
2842 filter and a user filter in the same run. For example:
2843 .code
2844 exim -bF /system/filter -bf /user/filter </test/message
2845 .endd
2846 This is helpful when the system filter adds header lines or sets filter
2847 variables that are used by the user filter.
2849 If the test filter file does not begin with one of the special lines
2850 .code
2851 # Exim filter
2852 # Sieve filter
2853 .endd
2854 it is taken to be a normal &_.forward_& file, and is tested for validity under
2855 that interpretation. See sections &<<SECTitenonfilred>>& to
2856 &<<SECTspecitredli>>& for a description of the possible contents of non-filter
2857 redirection lists.
2859 The result of an Exim command that uses &%-bf%&, provided no errors are
2860 detected, is a list of the actions that Exim would try to take if presented
2861 with the message for real. More details of filter testing are given in the
2862 separate document entitled &'Exim's interfaces to mail filtering'&.
2864 When testing a filter file,
2865 .cindex "&""From""& line"
2866 .cindex "envelope sender"
2867 .oindex "&%-f%&" "for filter testing"
2868 the envelope sender can be set by the &%-f%& option,
2869 or by a &"From&~"& line at the start of the test message. Various parameters
2870 that would normally be taken from the envelope recipient address of the message
2871 can be set by means of additional command line options (see the next four
2872 options).
2874 .vitem &%-bfd%&&~<&'domain'&>
2875 .oindex "&%-bfd%&"
2876 .vindex "&$qualify_domain$&"
2877 This sets the domain of the recipient address when a filter file is being
2878 tested by means of the &%-bf%& option. The default is the value of
2879 &$qualify_domain$&.
2881 .vitem &%-bfl%&&~<&'local&~part'&>
2882 .oindex "&%-bfl%&"
2883 This sets the local part of the recipient address when a filter file is being
2884 tested by means of the &%-bf%& option. The default is the username of the
2885 process that calls Exim. A local part should be specified with any prefix or
2886 suffix stripped, because that is how it appears to the filter when a message is
2887 actually being delivered.
2889 .vitem &%-bfp%&&~<&'prefix'&>
2890 .oindex "&%-bfp%&"
2891 This sets the prefix of the local part of the recipient address when a filter
2892 file is being tested by means of the &%-bf%& option. The default is an empty
2893 prefix.
2895 .vitem &%-bfs%&&~<&'suffix'&>
2896 .oindex "&%-bfs%&"
2897 This sets the suffix of the local part of the recipient address when a filter
2898 file is being tested by means of the &%-bf%& option. The default is an empty
2899 suffix.
2901 .vitem &%-bh%&&~<&'IP&~address'&>
2902 .oindex "&%-bh%&"
2903 .cindex "testing" "incoming SMTP"
2904 .cindex "SMTP" "testing incoming"
2905 .cindex "testing" "relay control"
2906 .cindex "relaying" "testing configuration"
2907 .cindex "policy control" "testing"
2908 .cindex "debugging" "&%-bh%& option"
2909 This option runs a fake SMTP session as if from the given IP address, using the
2910 standard input and output. The IP address may include a port number at the end,
2911 after a full stop. For example:
2912 .code
2913 exim -bh
2914 exim -bh fe80::a00:20ff:fe86:a061.5678
2915 .endd
2916 When an IPv6 address is given, it is converted into canonical form. In the case
2917 of the second example above, the value of &$sender_host_address$& after
2918 conversion to the canonical form is
2919 &`fe80:0000:0000:0a00:20ff:fe86:a061.5678`&.
2921 Comments as to what is going on are written to the standard error file. These
2922 include lines beginning with &"LOG"& for anything that would have been logged.
2923 This facility is provided for testing configuration options for incoming
2924 messages, to make sure they implement the required policy. For example, you can
2925 test your relay controls using &%-bh%&.
2927 &*Warning 1*&:
2928 .cindex "RFC 1413"
2929 You can test features of the configuration that rely on ident (RFC 1413)
2930 information by using the &%-oMt%& option. However, Exim cannot actually perform
2931 an ident callout when testing using &%-bh%& because there is no incoming SMTP
2932 connection.
2934 &*Warning 2*&: Address verification callouts (see section &<<SECTcallver>>&)
2935 are also skipped when testing using &%-bh%&. If you want these callouts to
2936 occur, use &%-bhc%& instead.
2938 Messages supplied during the testing session are discarded, and nothing is
2939 written to any of the real log files. There may be pauses when DNS (and other)
2940 lookups are taking place, and of course these may time out. The &%-oMi%& option
2941 can be used to specify a specific IP interface and port if this is important,
2942 and &%-oMaa%& and &%-oMai%& can be used to set parameters as if the SMTP
2943 session were authenticated.
2945 The &'exim_checkaccess'& utility is a &"packaged"& version of &%-bh%& whose
2946 output just states whether a given recipient address from a given host is
2947 acceptable or not. See section &<<SECTcheckaccess>>&.
2949 Features such as authentication and encryption, where the client input is not
2950 plain text, cannot easily be tested with &%-bh%&. Instead, you should use a
2951 specialized SMTP test program such as
2952 &url(http://jetmore.org/john/code/#swaks,swaks).
2954 .vitem &%-bhc%&&~<&'IP&~address'&>
2955 .oindex "&%-bhc%&"
2956 This option operates in the same way as &%-bh%&, except that address
2957 verification callouts are performed if required. This includes consulting and
2958 updating the callout cache database.
2960 .vitem &%-bi%&
2961 .oindex "&%-bi%&"
2962 .cindex "alias file" "building"
2963 .cindex "building alias file"
2964 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&%-bi%& option"
2965 Sendmail interprets the &%-bi%& option as a request to rebuild its alias file.
2966 Exim does not have the concept of a single alias file, and so it cannot mimic
2967 this behaviour. However, calls to &_/usr/lib/sendmail_& with the &%-bi%& option
2968 tend to appear in various scripts such as NIS make files, so the option must be
2969 recognized.
2971 If &%-bi%& is encountered, the command specified by the &%bi_command%&
2972 configuration option is run, under the uid and gid of the caller of Exim. If
2973 the &%-oA%& option is used, its value is passed to the command as an argument.
2974 The command set by &%bi_command%& may not contain arguments. The command can
2975 use the &'exim_dbmbuild'& utility, or some other means, to rebuild alias files
2976 if this is required. If the &%bi_command%& option is not set, calling Exim with
2977 &%-bi%& is a no-op.
2979 . // Keep :help first, then the rest in alphabetical order
2980 .vitem &%-bI:help%&
2981 .oindex "&%-bI:help%&"
2982 .cindex "querying exim information"
2983 We shall provide various options starting &`-bI:`& for querying Exim for
2984 information. The output of many of these will be intended for machine
2985 consumption. This one is not. The &%-bI:help%& option asks Exim for a
2986 synopsis of supported options beginning &`-bI:`&. Use of any of these
2987 options shall cause Exim to exit after producing the requested output.
2989 .vitem &%-bI:dscp%&
2990 .oindex "&%-bI:dscp%&"
2991 .cindex "DSCP" "values"
2992 This option causes Exim to emit an alphabetically sorted list of all
2993 recognised DSCP names.
2995 .vitem &%-bI:sieve%&
2996 .oindex "&%-bI:sieve%&"
2997 .cindex "Sieve filter" "capabilities"
2998 This option causes Exim to emit an alphabetically sorted list of all supported
2999 Sieve protocol extensions on stdout, one per line. This is anticipated to be
3000 useful for ManageSieve (RFC 5804) implementations, in providing that protocol's
3001 &`SIEVE`& capability response line. As the precise list may depend upon
3002 compile-time build options, which this option will adapt to, this is the only
3003 way to guarantee a correct response.
3005 .vitem &%-bm%&
3006 .oindex "&%-bm%&"
3007 .cindex "local message reception"
3008 This option runs an Exim receiving process that accepts an incoming,
3009 locally-generated message on the standard input. The recipients are given as the
3010 command arguments (except when &%-t%& is also present &-- see below). Each
3011 argument can be a comma-separated list of RFC 2822 addresses. This is the
3012 default option for selecting the overall action of an Exim call; it is assumed
3013 if no other conflicting option is present.
3015 If any addresses in the message are unqualified (have no domain), they are
3016 qualified by the values of the &%qualify_domain%& or &%qualify_recipient%&
3017 options, as appropriate. The &%-bnq%& option (see below) provides a way of
3018 suppressing this for special cases.
3020 Policy checks on the contents of local messages can be enforced by means of
3021 the non-SMTP ACL. See chapter &<<CHAPACL>>& for details.
3023 .cindex "return code" "for &%-bm%&"
3024 The return code is zero if the message is successfully accepted. Otherwise, the
3025 action is controlled by the &%-oe%&&'x'& option setting &-- see below.
3027 The format
3028 .cindex "message" "format"
3029 .cindex "format" "message"
3030 .cindex "&""From""& line"
3031 .cindex "UUCP" "&""From""& line"
3032 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&""From""& line"
3033 of the message must be as defined in RFC 2822, except that, for
3034 compatibility with Sendmail and Smail, a line in one of the forms
3035 .code
3036 From sender Fri Jan 5 12:55 GMT 1997
3037 From sender Fri, 5 Jan 97 12:55:01
3038 .endd
3039 (with the weekday optional, and possibly with additional text after the date)
3040 is permitted to appear at the start of the message. There appears to be no
3041 authoritative specification of the format of this line. Exim recognizes it by
3042 matching against the regular expression defined by the &%uucp_from_pattern%&
3043 option, which can be changed if necessary.
3045 .oindex "&%-f%&" "overriding &""From""& line"
3046 The specified sender is treated as if it were given as the argument to the
3047 &%-f%& option, but if a &%-f%& option is also present, its argument is used in
3048 preference to the address taken from the message. The caller of Exim must be a
3049 trusted user for the sender of a message to be set in this way.
3051 .vitem &%-bmalware%&&~<&'filename'&>
3052 .oindex "&%-bmalware%&"
3053 .cindex "testing", "malware"
3054 .cindex "malware scan test"
3055 This debugging option causes Exim to scan the given file,
3056 using the malware scanning framework. The option of &%av_scanner%& influences
3057 this option, so if &%av_scanner%&'s value is dependent upon an expansion then
3058 the expansion should have defaults which apply to this invocation. ACLs are
3059 not invoked, so if &%av_scanner%& references an ACL variable then that variable
3060 will never be populated and &%-bmalware%& will fail.
3062 Exim will have changed working directory before resolving the filename, so
3063 using fully qualified pathnames is advisable. Exim will be running as the Exim
3064 user when it tries to open the file, rather than as the invoking user.
3065 This option requires admin privileges.
3067 The &%-bmalware%& option will not be extended to be more generally useful,
3068 there are better tools for file-scanning. This option exists to help
3069 administrators verify their Exim and AV scanner configuration.
3071 .vitem &%-bnq%&
3072 .oindex "&%-bnq%&"
3073 .cindex "address qualification, suppressing"
3074 By default, Exim automatically qualifies unqualified addresses (those
3075 without domains) that appear in messages that are submitted locally (that
3076 is, not over TCP/IP). This qualification applies both to addresses in
3077 envelopes, and addresses in header lines. Sender addresses are qualified using
3078 &%qualify_domain%&, and recipient addresses using &%qualify_recipient%& (which
3079 defaults to the value of &%qualify_domain%&).
3081 Sometimes, qualification is not wanted. For example, if &%-bS%& (batch SMTP) is
3082 being used to re-submit messages that originally came from remote hosts after
3083 content scanning, you probably do not want to qualify unqualified addresses in
3084 header lines. (Such lines will be present only if you have not enabled a header
3085 syntax check in the appropriate ACL.)
3087 The &%-bnq%& option suppresses all qualification of unqualified addresses in
3088 messages that originate on the local host. When this is used, unqualified
3089 addresses in the envelope provoke errors (causing message rejection) and
3090 unqualified addresses in header lines are left alone.
3093 .vitem &%-bP%&
3094 .oindex "&%-bP%&"
3095 .cindex "configuration options" "extracting"
3096 .cindex "options" "configuration &-- extracting"
3097 If this option is given with no arguments, it causes the values of all Exim's
3098 main configuration options to be written to the standard output. The values
3099 of one or more specific options can be requested by giving their names as
3100 arguments, for example:
3101 .code
3102 exim -bP qualify_domain hold_domains
3103 .endd
3104 .cindex "hiding configuration option values"
3105 .cindex "configuration options" "hiding value of"
3106 .cindex "options" "hiding value of"
3107 However, any option setting that is preceded by the word &"hide"& in the
3108 configuration file is not shown in full, except to an admin user. For other
3109 users, the output is as in this example:
3110 .code
3111 mysql_servers = <value not displayable>
3112 .endd
3113 If &%configure_file%& is given as an argument, the name of the run time
3114 configuration file is output.
3115 If a list of configuration files was supplied, the value that is output here
3116 is the name of the file that was actually used.
3118 .cindex "options" "hiding name of"
3119 If the &%-n%& flag is given, then for most modes of &%-bP%& operation the
3120 name will not be output.
3122 .cindex "daemon" "process id (pid)"
3123 .cindex "pid (process id)" "of daemon"
3124 If &%log_file_path%& or &%pid_file_path%& are given, the names of the
3125 directories where log files and daemon pid files are written are output,
3126 respectively. If these values are unset, log files are written in a
3127 sub-directory of the spool directory called &%log%&, and the pid file is
3128 written directly into the spool directory.
3130 If &%-bP%& is followed by a name preceded by &`+`&, for example,
3131 .code
3132 exim -bP +local_domains
3133 .endd
3134 it searches for a matching named list of any type (domain, host, address, or
3135 local part) and outputs what it finds.
3137 .cindex "options" "router &-- extracting"
3138 .cindex "options" "transport &-- extracting"
3139 .cindex "options" "authenticator &-- extracting"
3140 If one of the words &%router%&, &%transport%&, or &%authenticator%& is given,
3141 followed by the name of an appropriate driver instance, the option settings for
3142 that driver are output. For example:
3143 .code
3144 exim -bP transport local_delivery
3145 .endd
3146 The generic driver options are output first, followed by the driver's private
3147 options. A list of the names of drivers of a particular type can be obtained by
3148 using one of the words &%router_list%&, &%transport_list%&, or
3149 &%authenticator_list%&, and a complete list of all drivers with their option
3150 settings can be obtained by using &%routers%&, &%transports%&, or
3151 &%authenticators%&.
3153 .cindex "options" "macro &-- extracting"
3154 If invoked by an admin user, then &%macro%&, &%macro_list%& and &%macros%&
3155 are available, similarly to the drivers. Because macros are sometimes used
3156 for storing passwords, this option is restricted.
3157 The output format is one item per line.
3159 .vitem &%-bp%&
3160 .oindex "&%-bp%&"
3161 .cindex "queue" "listing messages on"
3162 .cindex "listing" "messages on the queue"
3163 This option requests a listing of the contents of the mail queue on the
3164 standard output. If the &%-bp%& option is followed by a list of message ids,
3165 just those messages are listed. By default, this option can be used only by an
3166 admin user. However, the &%queue_list_requires_admin%& option can be set false
3167 to allow any user to see the queue.
3169 Each message on the queue is displayed as in the following example:
3170 .code
3171 25m 2.9K 0t5C6f-0000c8-00 <alice@wonderland.fict.example>
3172 red.king@looking-glass.fict.example
3173 <other addresses>
3174 .endd
3175 .cindex "message" "size in queue listing"
3176 .cindex "size" "of message"
3177 The first line contains the length of time the message has been on the queue
3178 (in this case 25 minutes), the size of the message (2.9K), the unique local
3179 identifier for the message, and the message sender, as contained in the
3180 envelope. For bounce messages, the sender address is empty, and appears as
3181 &"<>"&. If the message was submitted locally by an untrusted user who overrode
3182 the default sender address, the user's login name is shown in parentheses
3183 before the sender address.
3185 .cindex "frozen messages" "in queue listing"
3186 If the message is frozen (attempts to deliver it are suspended) then the text
3187 &"*** frozen ***"& is displayed at the end of this line.
3189 The recipients of the message (taken from the envelope, not the headers) are
3190 displayed on subsequent lines. Those addresses to which the message has already
3191 been delivered are marked with the letter D. If an original address gets
3192 expanded into several addresses via an alias or forward file, the original is
3193 displayed with a D only when deliveries for all of its child addresses are
3194 complete.
3197 .vitem &%-bpa%&
3198 .oindex "&%-bpa%&"
3199 This option operates like &%-bp%&, but in addition it shows delivered addresses
3200 that were generated from the original top level address(es) in each message by
3201 alias or forwarding operations. These addresses are flagged with &"+D"& instead
3202 of just &"D"&.
3205 .vitem &%-bpc%&
3206 .oindex "&%-bpc%&"
3207 .cindex "queue" "count of messages on"
3208 This option counts the number of messages on the queue, and writes the total
3209 to the standard output. It is restricted to admin users, unless
3210 &%queue_list_requires_admin%& is set false.
3213 .vitem &%-bpr%&
3214 .oindex "&%-bpr%&"
3215 This option operates like &%-bp%&, but the output is not sorted into
3216 chronological order of message arrival. This can speed it up when there are
3217 lots of messages on the queue, and is particularly useful if the output is
3218 going to be post-processed in a way that doesn't need the sorting.
3220 .vitem &%-bpra%&
3221 .oindex "&%-bpra%&"
3222 This option is a combination of &%-bpr%& and &%-bpa%&.
3224 .vitem &%-bpru%&
3225 .oindex "&%-bpru%&"
3226 This option is a combination of &%-bpr%& and &%-bpu%&.
3229 .vitem &%-bpu%&
3230 .oindex "&%-bpu%&"
3231 This option operates like &%-bp%& but shows only undelivered top-level
3232 addresses for each message displayed. Addresses generated by aliasing or
3233 forwarding are not shown, unless the message was deferred after processing by a
3234 router with the &%one_time%& option set.
3237 .vitem &%-brt%&
3238 .oindex "&%-brt%&"
3239 .cindex "testing" "retry configuration"
3240 .cindex "retry" "configuration testing"
3241 This option is for testing retry rules, and it must be followed by up to three
3242 arguments. It causes Exim to look for a retry rule that matches the values
3243 and to write it to the standard output. For example:
3244 .code
3245 exim -brt bach.comp.mus.example
3246 Retry rule: *.comp.mus.example F,2h,15m; F,4d,30m;
3247 .endd
3248 See chapter &<<CHAPretry>>& for a description of Exim's retry rules. The first
3249 argument, which is required, can be a complete address in the form
3250 &'local_part@domain'&, or it can be just a domain name. If the second argument
3251 contains a dot, it is interpreted as an optional second domain name; if no
3252 retry rule is found for the first argument, the second is tried. This ties in
3253 with Exim's behaviour when looking for retry rules for remote hosts &-- if no
3254 rule is found that matches the host, one that matches the mail domain is
3255 sought. Finally, an argument that is the name of a specific delivery error, as
3256 used in setting up retry rules, can be given. For example:
3257 .code
3258 exim -brt haydn.comp.mus.example quota_3d
3259 Retry rule: *@haydn.comp.mus.example quota_3d F,1h,15m
3260 .endd
3262 .vitem &%-brw%&
3263 .oindex "&%-brw%&"
3264 .cindex "testing" "rewriting"
3265 .cindex "rewriting" "testing"
3266 This option is for testing address rewriting rules, and it must be followed by
3267 a single argument, consisting of either a local part without a domain, or a
3268 complete address with a fully qualified domain. Exim outputs how this address
3269 would be rewritten for each possible place it might appear. See chapter
3270 &<<CHAPrewrite>>& for further details.
3272 .vitem &%-bS%&
3273 .oindex "&%-bS%&"
3274 .cindex "SMTP" "batched incoming"
3275 .cindex "batched SMTP input"
3276 This option is used for batched SMTP input, which is an alternative interface
3277 for non-interactive local message submission. A number of messages can be
3278 submitted in a single run. However, despite its name, this is not really SMTP
3279 input. Exim reads each message's envelope from SMTP commands on the standard
3280 input, but generates no responses. If the caller is trusted, or
3281 &%untrusted_set_sender%& is set, the senders in the SMTP MAIL commands are
3282 believed; otherwise the sender is always the caller of Exim.
3284 The message itself is read from the standard input, in SMTP format (leading
3285 dots doubled), terminated by a line containing just a single dot. An error is
3286 provoked if the terminating dot is missing. A further message may then follow.
3288 As for other local message submissions, the contents of incoming batch SMTP
3289 messages can be checked using the non-SMTP ACL (see chapter &<<CHAPACL>>&).
3290 Unqualified addresses are automatically qualified using &%qualify_domain%& and
3291 &%qualify_recipient%&, as appropriate, unless the &%-bnq%& option is used.
3293 Some other SMTP commands are recognized in the input. HELO and EHLO act
3294 as RSET; VRFY, EXPN, ETRN, and HELP act as NOOP;
3295 QUIT quits, ignoring the rest of the standard input.
3297 .cindex "return code" "for &%-bS%&"
3298 If any error is encountered, reports are written to the standard output and
3299 error streams, and Exim gives up immediately. The return code is 0 if no error
3300 was detected; it is 1 if one or more messages were accepted before the error
3301 was detected; otherwise it is 2.
3303 More details of input using batched SMTP are given in section
3304 &<<SECTincomingbatchedSMTP>>&.
3306 .vitem &%-bs%&
3307 .oindex "&%-bs%&"
3308 .cindex "SMTP" "local input"
3309 .cindex "local SMTP input"
3310 This option causes Exim to accept one or more messages by reading SMTP commands
3311 on the standard input, and producing SMTP replies on the standard output. SMTP
3312 policy controls, as defined in ACLs (see chapter &<<CHAPACL>>&) are applied.
3313 Some user agents use this interface as a way of passing locally-generated
3314 messages to the MTA.
3316 In
3317 .cindex "sender" "source of"
3318 this usage, if the caller of Exim is trusted, or &%untrusted_set_sender%& is
3319 set, the senders of messages are taken from the SMTP MAIL commands.
3320 Otherwise the content of these commands is ignored and the sender is set up as
3321 the calling user. Unqualified addresses are automatically qualified using
3322 &%qualify_domain%& and &%qualify_recipient%&, as appropriate, unless the
3323 &%-bnq%& option is used.
3325 .cindex "inetd"
3326 The
3327 &%-bs%& option is also used to run Exim from &'inetd'&, as an alternative to
3328 using a listening daemon. Exim can distinguish the two cases by checking
3329 whether the standard input is a TCP/IP socket. When Exim is called from
3330 &'inetd'&, the source of the mail is assumed to be remote, and the comments
3331 above concerning senders and qualification do not apply. In this situation,
3332 Exim behaves in exactly the same way as it does when receiving a message via
3333 the listening daemon.
3335 .vitem &%-bt%&
3336 .oindex "&%-bt%&"
3337 .cindex "testing" "addresses"
3338 .cindex "address" "testing"
3339 This option runs Exim in address testing mode, in which each argument is taken
3340 as a recipient address to be tested for deliverability. The results are
3341 written to the standard output. If a test fails, and the caller is not an admin
3342 user, no details of the failure are output, because these might contain
3343 sensitive information such as usernames and passwords for database lookups.
3345 If no arguments are given, Exim runs in an interactive manner, prompting with a
3346 right angle bracket for addresses to be tested.
3348 Unlike the &%-be%& test option, you cannot arrange for Exim to use the
3349 &[readline()]& function, because it is running as &'root'& and there are
3350 security issues.
3352 Each address is handled as if it were the recipient address of a message
3353 (compare the &%-bv%& option). It is passed to the routers and the result is
3354 written to the standard output. However, any router that has
3355 &%no_address_test%& set is bypassed. This can make &%-bt%& easier to use for
3356 genuine routing tests if your first router passes everything to a scanner
3357 program.
3359 .cindex "return code" "for &%-bt%&"
3360 The return code is 2 if any address failed outright; it is 1 if no address
3361 failed outright but at least one could not be resolved for some reason. Return
3362 code 0 is given only when all addresses succeed.
3364 .cindex "duplicate addresses"
3365 &*Note*&: When actually delivering a message, Exim removes duplicate recipient
3366 addresses after routing is complete, so that only one delivery takes place.
3367 This does not happen when testing with &%-bt%&; the full results of routing are
3368 always shown.
3370 &*Warning*&: &%-bt%& can only do relatively simple testing. If any of the
3371 routers in the configuration makes any tests on the sender address of a
3372 message,
3373 .oindex "&%-f%&" "for address testing"
3374 you can use the &%-f%& option to set an appropriate sender when running
3375 &%-bt%& tests. Without it, the sender is assumed to be the calling user at the
3376 default qualifying domain. However, if you have set up (for example) routers
3377 whose behaviour depends on the contents of an incoming message, you cannot test
3378 those conditions using &%-bt%&. The &%-N%& option provides a possible way of
3379 doing such tests.
3381 .vitem &%-bV%&
3382 .oindex "&%-bV%&"
3383 .cindex "version number of Exim"
3384 This option causes Exim to write the current version number, compilation
3385 number, and compilation date of the &'exim'& binary to the standard output.
3386 It also lists the DBM library that is being used, the optional modules (such as
3387 specific lookup types), the drivers that are included in the binary, and the
3388 name of the run time configuration file that is in use.
3390 As part of its operation, &%-bV%& causes Exim to read and syntax check its
3391 configuration file. However, this is a static check only. It cannot check
3392 values that are to be expanded. For example, although a misspelt ACL verb is
3393 detected, an error in the verb's arguments is not. You cannot rely on &%-bV%&
3394 alone to discover (for example) all the typos in the configuration; some
3395 realistic testing is needed. The &%-bh%& and &%-N%& options provide more
3396 dynamic testing facilities.
3398 .vitem &%-bv%&
3399 .oindex "&%-bv%&"
3400 .cindex "verifying address" "using &%-bv%&"
3401 .cindex "address" "verification"
3402 This option runs Exim in address verification mode, in which each argument is
3403 taken as a recipient address to be verified by the routers. (This does
3404 not involve any verification callouts). During normal operation, verification
3405 happens mostly as a consequence processing a &%verify%& condition in an ACL
3406 (see chapter &<<CHAPACL>>&). If you want to test an entire ACL, possibly
3407 including callouts, see the &%-bh%& and &%-bhc%& options.
3409 If verification fails, and the caller is not an admin user, no details of the
3410 failure are output, because these might contain sensitive information such as
3411 usernames and passwords for database lookups.
3413 If no arguments are given, Exim runs in an interactive manner, prompting with a
3414 right angle bracket for addresses to be verified.
3416 Unlike the &%-be%& test option, you cannot arrange for Exim to use the
3417 &[readline()]& function, because it is running as &'exim'& and there are
3418 security issues.
3420 Verification differs from address testing (the &%-bt%& option) in that routers
3421 that have &%no_verify%& set are skipped, and if the address is accepted by a
3422 router that has &%fail_verify%& set, verification fails. The address is
3423 verified as a recipient if &%-bv%& is used; to test verification for a sender
3424 address, &%-bvs%& should be used.
3426 If the &%-v%& option is not set, the output consists of a single line for each
3427 address, stating whether it was verified or not, and giving a reason in the
3428 latter case. Without &%-v%&, generating more than one address by redirection
3429 causes verification to end successfully, without considering the generated
3430 addresses. However, if just one address is generated, processing continues,
3431 and the generated address must verify successfully for the overall verification
3432 to succeed.
3434 When &%-v%& is set, more details are given of how the address has been handled,
3435 and in the case of address redirection, all the generated addresses are also
3436 considered. Verification may succeed for some and fail for others.
3438 The
3439 .cindex "return code" "for &%-bv%&"
3440 return code is 2 if any address failed outright; it is 1 if no address
3441 failed outright but at least one could not be resolved for some reason. Return
3442 code 0 is given only when all addresses succeed.
3444 If any of the routers in the configuration makes any tests on the sender
3445 address of a message, you should use the &%-f%& option to set an appropriate
3446 sender when running &%-bv%& tests. Without it, the sender is assumed to be the
3447 calling user at the default qualifying domain.
3449 .vitem &%-bvs%&
3450 .oindex "&%-bvs%&"
3451 This option acts like &%-bv%&, but verifies the address as a sender rather
3452 than a recipient address. This affects any rewriting and qualification that
3453 might happen.
3455 .vitem &%-bw%&
3456 .oindex "&%-bw%&"
3457 .cindex "daemon"
3458 .cindex "inetd"
3459 .cindex "inetd" "wait mode"
3460 This option runs Exim as a daemon, awaiting incoming SMTP connections,
3461 similarly to the &%-bd%& option. All port specifications on the command-line
3462 and in the configuration file are ignored. Queue-running may not be specified.
3464 In this mode, Exim expects to be passed a socket as fd 0 (stdin) which is
3465 listening for connections. This permits the system to start up and have
3466 inetd (or equivalent) listen on the SMTP ports, starting an Exim daemon for
3467 each port only when the first connection is received.
3469 If the option is given as &%-bw%&<&'time'&> then the time is a timeout, after
3470 which the daemon will exit, which should cause inetd to listen once more.
3472 .vitem &%-C%&&~<&'filelist'&>
3473 .oindex "&%-C%&"
3474 .cindex "configuration file" "alternate"
3475 .cindex "CONFIGURE_FILE"
3476 .cindex "alternate configuration file"
3477 This option causes Exim to find the run time configuration file from the given
3478 list instead of from the list specified by the CONFIGURE_FILE
3479 compile-time setting. Usually, the list will consist of just a single file
3480 name, but it can be a colon-separated list of names. In this case, the first
3481 file that exists is used. Failure to open an existing file stops Exim from
3482 proceeding any further along the list, and an error is generated.
3484 When this option is used by a caller other than root, and the list is different
3485 from the compiled-in list, Exim gives up its root privilege immediately, and
3486 runs with the real and effective uid and gid set to those of the caller.
3487 However, if a TRUSTED_CONFIG_LIST file is defined in &_Local/Makefile_&, that
3488 file contains a list of full pathnames, one per line, for configuration files
3489 which are trusted. Root privilege is retained for any configuration file so
3490 listed, as long as the caller is the Exim user (or the user specified in the
3491 CONFIGURE_OWNER option, if any), and as long as the configuration file is
3492 not writeable by inappropriate users or groups.
3494 Leaving TRUSTED_CONFIG_LIST unset precludes the possibility of testing a
3495 configuration using &%-C%& right through message reception and delivery,
3496 even if the caller is root. The reception works, but by that time, Exim is
3497 running as the Exim user, so when it re-executes to regain privilege for the
3498 delivery, the use of &%-C%& causes privilege to be lost. However, root can
3499 test reception and delivery using two separate commands (one to put a message
3500 on the queue, using &%-odq%&, and another to do the delivery, using &%-M%&).
3502 If ALT_CONFIG_PREFIX is defined &_in Local/Makefile_&, it specifies a
3503 prefix string with which any file named in a &%-C%& command line option
3504 must start. In addition, the file name must not contain the sequence &`/../`&.
3505 However, if the value of the &%-C%& option is identical to the value of
3506 CONFIGURE_FILE in &_Local/Makefile_&, Exim ignores &%-C%& and proceeds as
3507 usual. There is no default setting for ALT_CONFIG_PREFIX; when it is
3508 unset, any file name can be used with &%-C%&.
3510 ALT_CONFIG_PREFIX can be used to confine alternative configuration files
3511 to a directory to which only root has access. This prevents someone who has
3512 broken into the Exim account from running a privileged Exim with an arbitrary
3513 configuration file.
3515 The &%-C%& facility is useful for ensuring that configuration files are
3516 syntactically correct, but cannot be used for test deliveries, unless the
3517 caller is privileged, or unless it is an exotic configuration that does not
3518 require privilege. No check is made on the owner or group of the files
3519 specified by this option.
3522 .vitem &%-D%&<&'macro'&>=<&'value'&>
3523 .oindex "&%-D%&"
3524 .cindex "macro" "setting on command line"
3525 This option can be used to override macro definitions in the configuration file
3526 (see section &<<SECTmacrodefs>>&). However, like &%-C%&, if it is used by an
3527 unprivileged caller, it causes Exim to give up its root privilege.
3528 If DISABLE_D_OPTION is defined in &_Local/Makefile_&, the use of &%-D%& is
3529 completely disabled, and its use causes an immediate error exit.
3531 If WHITELIST_D_MACROS is defined in &_Local/Makefile_& then it should be a
3532 colon-separated list of macros which are considered safe and, if &%-D%& only
3533 supplies macros from this list, and the values are acceptable, then Exim will
3534 not give up root privilege if the caller is root, the Exim run-time user, or
3535 the CONFIGURE_OWNER, if set. This is a transition mechanism and is expected
3536 to be removed in the future. Acceptable values for the macros satisfy the
3537 regexp: &`^[A-Za-z0-9_/.-]*$`&
3539 The entire option (including equals sign if present) must all be within one
3540 command line item. &%-D%& can be used to set the value of a macro to the empty
3541 string, in which case the equals sign is optional. These two commands are
3542 synonymous:
3543 .code
3544 exim -DABC ...
3545 exim -DABC= ...
3546 .endd
3547 To include spaces in a macro definition item, quotes must be used. If you use
3548 quotes, spaces are permitted around the macro name and the equals sign. For
3549 example:
3550 .code
3551 exim '-D ABC = something' ...
3552 .endd
3553 &%-D%& may be repeated up to 10 times on a command line.
3556 .vitem &%-d%&<&'debug&~options'&>
3557 .oindex "&%-d%&"
3558 .cindex "debugging" "list of selectors"
3559 .cindex "debugging" "&%-d%& option"
3560 This option causes debugging information to be written to the standard
3561 error stream. It is restricted to admin users because debugging output may show
3562 database queries that contain password information. Also, the details of users'
3563 filter files should be protected. If a non-admin user uses &%-d%&, Exim
3564 writes an error message to the standard error stream and exits with a non-zero
3565 return code.
3567 When &%-d%& is used, &%-v%& is assumed. If &%-d%& is given on its own, a lot of
3568 standard debugging data is output. This can be reduced, or increased to include
3569 some more rarely needed information, by directly following &%-d%& with a string
3570 made up of names preceded by plus or minus characters. These add or remove sets
3571 of debugging data, respectively. For example, &%-d+filter%& adds filter
3572 debugging, whereas &%-d-all+filter%& selects only filter debugging. Note that
3573 no spaces are allowed in the debug setting. The available debugging categories
3574 are:
3575 .display
3576 &`acl `& ACL interpretation
3577 &`auth `& authenticators
3578 &`deliver `& general delivery logic
3579 &`dns `& DNS lookups (see also resolver)
3580 &`dnsbl `& DNS black list (aka RBL) code
3581 &`exec `& arguments for &[execv()]& calls
3582 &`expand `& detailed debugging for string expansions
3583 &`filter `& filter handling
3584 &`hints_lookup `& hints data lookups
3585 &`host_lookup `& all types of name-to-IP address handling
3586 &`ident `& ident lookup
3587 &`interface `& lists of local interfaces
3588 &`lists `& matching things in lists
3589 &`load `& system load checks
3590 &`local_scan `& can be used by &[local_scan()]& (see chapter &&&
3591 &<<CHAPlocalscan>>&)
3592 &`lookup `& general lookup code and all lookups
3593 &`memory `& memory handling
3594 &`pid `& add pid to debug output lines
3595 &`process_info `& setting info for the process log
3596 &`queue_run `& queue runs
3597 &`receive `& general message reception logic
3598 &`resolver `& turn on the DNS resolver's debugging output
3599 &`retry `& retry handling
3600 &`rewrite `& address rewriting
3601 &`route `& address routing
3602 &`timestamp `& add timestamp to debug output lines
3603 &`tls `& TLS logic
3604 &`transport `& transports
3605 &`uid `& changes of uid/gid and looking up uid/gid
3606 &`verify `& address verification logic
3607 &`all `& almost all of the above (see below), and also &%-v%&
3608 .endd
3609 The &`all`& option excludes &`memory`& when used as &`+all`&, but includes it
3610 for &`-all`&. The reason for this is that &`+all`& is something that people
3611 tend to use when generating debug output for Exim maintainers. If &`+memory`&
3612 is included, an awful lot of output that is very rarely of interest is
3613 generated, so it now has to be explicitly requested. However, &`-all`& does
3614 turn everything off.
3616 .cindex "resolver, debugging output"
3617 .cindex "DNS resolver, debugging output"
3618 The &`resolver`& option produces output only if the DNS resolver was compiled
3619 with DEBUG enabled. This is not the case in some operating systems. Also,
3620 unfortunately, debugging output from the DNS resolver is written to stdout
3621 rather than stderr.
3623 The default (&%-d%& with no argument) omits &`expand`&, &`filter`&,
3624 &`interface`&, &`load`&, &`memory`&, &`pid`&, &`resolver`&, and &`timestamp`&.
3625 However, the &`pid`& selector is forced when debugging is turned on for a
3626 daemon, which then passes it on to any re-executed Exims. Exim also
3627 automatically adds the pid to debug lines when several remote deliveries are
3628 run in parallel.
3630 The &`timestamp`& selector causes the current time to be inserted at the start
3631 of all debug output lines. This can be useful when trying to track down delays
3632 in processing.
3634 If the &%debug_print%& option is set in any driver, it produces output whenever
3635 any debugging is selected, or if &%-v%& is used.
3637 .vitem &%-dd%&<&'debug&~options'&>
3638 .oindex "&%-dd%&"
3639 This option behaves exactly like &%-d%& except when used on a command that
3640 starts a daemon process. In that case, debugging is turned off for the
3641 subprocesses that the daemon creates. Thus, it is useful for monitoring the
3642 behaviour of the daemon without creating as much output as full debugging does.
3644 .vitem &%-dropcr%&
3645 .oindex "&%-dropcr%&"
3646 This is an obsolete option that is now a no-op. It used to affect the way Exim
3647 handled CR and LF characters in incoming messages. What happens now is
3648 described in section &<<SECTlineendings>>&.
3650 .vitem &%-E%&
3651 .oindex "&%-E%&"
3652 .cindex "bounce message" "generating"
3653 This option specifies that an incoming message is a locally-generated delivery
3654 failure report. It is used internally by Exim when handling delivery failures
3655 and is not intended for external use. Its only effect is to stop Exim
3656 generating certain messages to the postmaster, as otherwise message cascades
3657 could occur in some situations. As part of the same option, a message id may
3658 follow the characters &%-E%&. If it does, the log entry for the receipt of the
3659 new message contains the id, following &"R="&, as a cross-reference.
3661 .vitem &%-e%&&'x'&
3662 .oindex "&%-e%&&'x'&"
3663 There are a number of Sendmail options starting with &%-oe%& which seem to be
3664 called by various programs without the leading &%o%& in the option. For
3665 example, the &%vacation%& program uses &%-eq%&. Exim treats all options of the
3666 form &%-e%&&'x'& as synonymous with the corresponding &%-oe%&&'x'& options.
3668 .vitem &%-F%&&~<&'string'&>
3669 .oindex "&%-F%&"
3670 .cindex "sender" "name"
3671 .cindex "name" "of sender"
3672 This option sets the sender's full name for use when a locally-generated
3673 message is being accepted. In the absence of this option, the user's &'gecos'&
3674 entry from the password data is used. As users are generally permitted to alter
3675 their &'gecos'& entries, no security considerations are involved. White space
3676 between &%-F%& and the <&'string'&> is optional.
3678 .vitem &%-f%&&~<&'address'&>
3679 .oindex "&%-f%&"
3680 .cindex "sender" "address"
3681 .cindex "address" "sender"
3682 .cindex "trusted users"
3683 .cindex "envelope sender"
3684 .cindex "user" "trusted"
3685 This option sets the address of the envelope sender of a locally-generated
3686 message (also known as the return path). The option can normally be used only
3687 by a trusted user, but &%untrusted_set_sender%& can be set to allow untrusted
3688 users to use it.
3690 Processes running as root or the Exim user are always trusted. Other
3691 trusted users are defined by the &%trusted_users%& or &%trusted_groups%&
3692 options. In the absence of &%-f%&, or if the caller is not trusted, the sender
3693 of a local message is set to the caller's login name at the default qualify
3694 domain.
3696 There is one exception to the restriction on the use of &%-f%&: an empty sender
3697 can be specified by any user, trusted or not, to create a message that can
3698 never provoke a bounce. An empty sender can be specified either as an empty
3699 string, or as a pair of angle brackets with nothing between them, as in these
3700 examples of shell commands:
3701 .code
3702 exim -f '<>' user@domain
3703 exim -f "" user@domain
3704 .endd
3705 In addition, the use of &%-f%& is not restricted when testing a filter file
3706 with &%-bf%& or when testing or verifying addresses using the &%-bt%& or
3707 &%-bv%& options.
3709 Allowing untrusted users to change the sender address does not of itself make
3710 it possible to send anonymous mail. Exim still checks that the &'From:'& header
3711 refers to the local user, and if it does not, it adds a &'Sender:'& header,
3712 though this can be overridden by setting &%no_local_from_check%&.
3714 White
3715 .cindex "&""From""& line"
3716 space between &%-f%& and the <&'address'&> is optional (that is, they can be
3717 given as two arguments or one combined argument). The sender of a
3718 locally-generated message can also be set (when permitted) by an initial
3719 &"From&~"& line in the message &-- see the description of &%-bm%& above &-- but
3720 if &%-f%& is also present, it overrides &"From&~"&.
3722 .vitem &%-G%&
3723 .oindex "&%-G%&"
3724 .cindex "submission fixups, suppressing (command-line)"
3725 This option is equivalent to an ACL applying:
3726 .code
3727 control = suppress_local_fixups
3728 .endd
3729 for every message received. Note that Sendmail will complain about such
3730 bad formatting, where Exim silently just does not fix it up. This may change
3731 in future.
3733 As this affects audit information, the caller must be a trusted user to use
3734 this option.
3736 .vitem &%-h%&&~<&'number'&>
3737 .oindex "&%-h%&"
3738 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&%-h%& option ignored"
3739 This option is accepted for compatibility with Sendmail, but has no effect. (In
3740 Sendmail it overrides the &"hop count"& obtained by counting &'Received:'&
3741 headers.)
3743 .vitem &%-i%&
3744 .oindex "&%-i%&"
3745 .cindex "Solaris" "&'mail'& command"
3746 .cindex "dot" "in incoming non-SMTP message"
3747 This option, which has the same effect as &%-oi%&, specifies that a dot on a
3748 line by itself should not terminate an incoming, non-SMTP message. I can find
3749 no documentation for this option in Solaris 2.4 Sendmail, but the &'mailx'&
3750 command in Solaris 2.4 uses it. See also &%-ti%&.
3752 .vitem &%-L%&&~<&'tag'&>
3753 .oindex "&%-L%&"
3754 .cindex "syslog" "process name; set with flag"
3755 This option is equivalent to setting &%syslog_processname%& in the config
3756 file and setting &%log_file_path%& to &`syslog`&.
3757 Its use is restricted to administrators. The configuration file has to be
3758 read and parsed, to determine access rights, before this is set and takes
3759 effect, so early configuration file errors will not honour this flag.
3761 The tag should not be longer than 32 characters.
3763 .vitem &%-M%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3764 .oindex "&%-M%&"
3765 .cindex "forcing delivery"
3766 .cindex "delivery" "forcing attempt"
3767 .cindex "frozen messages" "forcing delivery"
3768 This option requests Exim to run a delivery attempt on each message in turn. If
3769 any of the messages are frozen, they are automatically thawed before the
3770 delivery attempt. The settings of &%queue_domains%&, &%queue_smtp_domains%&,
3771 and &%hold_domains%& are ignored.
3773 Retry
3774 .cindex "hints database" "overriding retry hints"
3775 hints for any of the addresses are overridden &-- Exim tries to deliver even if
3776 the normal retry time has not yet been reached. This option requires the caller
3777 to be an admin user. However, there is an option called &%prod_requires_admin%&
3778 which can be set false to relax this restriction (and also the same requirement
3779 for the &%-q%&, &%-R%&, and &%-S%& options).
3781 The deliveries happen synchronously, that is, the original Exim process does
3782 not terminate until all the delivery attempts have finished. No output is
3783 produced unless there is a serious error. If you want to see what is happening,
3784 use the &%-v%& option as well, or inspect Exim's main log.
3786 .vitem &%-Mar%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'address'&>&~<&'address'&>&~...
3787 .oindex "&%-Mar%&"
3788 .cindex "message" "adding recipients"
3789 .cindex "recipient" "adding"
3790 This option requests Exim to add the addresses to the list of recipients of the
3791 message (&"ar"& for &"add recipients"&). The first argument must be a message
3792 id, and the remaining ones must be email addresses. However, if the message is
3793 active (in the middle of a delivery attempt), it is not altered. This option
3794 can be used only by an admin user.
3796 .vitem "&%-MC%&&~<&'transport'&>&~<&'hostname'&>&~<&'sequence&~number'&>&&&
3797 &~<&'message&~id'&>"
3798 .oindex "&%-MC%&"
3799 .cindex "SMTP" "passed connection"
3800 .cindex "SMTP" "multiple deliveries"
3801 .cindex "multiple SMTP deliveries"
3802 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3803 by Exim to invoke another instance of itself to deliver a waiting message using
3804 an existing SMTP connection, which is passed as the standard input. Details are
3805 given in chapter &<<CHAPSMTP>>&. This must be the final option, and the caller
3806 must be root or the Exim user in order to use it.
3808 .vitem &%-MCA%&
3809 .oindex "&%-MCA%&"
3810 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3811 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option. It signifies that the
3812 connection to the remote host has been authenticated.
3814 .vitem &%-MCP%&
3815 .oindex "&%-MCP%&"
3816 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3817 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option. It signifies that the server to
3818 which Exim is connected supports pipelining.
3820 .vitem &%-MCQ%&&~<&'process&~id'&>&~<&'pipe&~fd'&>
3821 .oindex "&%-MCQ%&"
3822 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3823 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option when the original delivery was
3824 started by a queue runner. It passes on the process id of the queue runner,
3825 together with the file descriptor number of an open pipe. Closure of the pipe
3826 signals the final completion of the sequence of processes that are passing
3827 messages through the same SMTP connection.
3829 .vitem &%-MCS%&
3830 .oindex "&%-MCS%&"
3831 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3832 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option, and passes on the fact that the
3833 SMTP SIZE option should be used on messages delivered down the existing
3834 connection.
3836 .vitem &%-MCT%&
3837 .oindex "&%-MCT%&"
3838 This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
3839 by Exim in conjunction with the &%-MC%& option, and passes on the fact that the
3840 host to which Exim is connected supports TLS encryption.
3842 .vitem &%-Mc%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3843 .oindex "&%-Mc%&"
3844 .cindex "hints database" "not overridden by &%-Mc%&"
3845 .cindex "delivery" "manually started &-- not forced"
3846 This option requests Exim to run a delivery attempt on each message in turn,
3847 but unlike the &%-M%& option, it does check for retry hints, and respects any
3848 that are found. This option is not very useful to external callers. It is
3849 provided mainly for internal use by Exim when it needs to re-invoke itself in
3850 order to regain root privilege for a delivery (see chapter &<<CHAPsecurity>>&).
3851 However, &%-Mc%& can be useful when testing, in order to run a delivery that
3852 respects retry times and other options such as &%hold_domains%& that are
3853 overridden when &%-M%& is used. Such a delivery does not count as a queue run.
3854 If you want to run a specific delivery as if in a queue run, you should use
3855 &%-q%& with a message id argument. A distinction between queue run deliveries
3856 and other deliveries is made in one or two places.
3858 .vitem &%-Mes%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'address'&>
3859 .oindex "&%-Mes%&"
3860 .cindex "message" "changing sender"
3861 .cindex "sender" "changing"
3862 This option requests Exim to change the sender address in the message to the
3863 given address, which must be a fully qualified address or &"<>"& (&"es"& for
3864 &"edit sender"&). There must be exactly two arguments. The first argument must
3865 be a message id, and the second one an email address. However, if the message
3866 is active (in the middle of a delivery attempt), its status is not altered.
3867 This option can be used only by an admin user.
3869 .vitem &%-Mf%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3870 .oindex "&%-Mf%&"
3871 .cindex "freezing messages"
3872 .cindex "message" "manually freezing"
3873 This option requests Exim to mark each listed message as &"frozen"&. This
3874 prevents any delivery attempts taking place until the message is &"thawed"&,
3875 either manually or as a result of the &%auto_thaw%& configuration option.
3876 However, if any of the messages are active (in the middle of a delivery
3877 attempt), their status is not altered. This option can be used only by an admin
3878 user.
3880 .vitem &%-Mg%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3881 .oindex "&%-Mg%&"
3882 .cindex "giving up on messages"
3883 .cindex "message" "abandoning delivery attempts"
3884 .cindex "delivery" "abandoning further attempts"
3885 This option requests Exim to give up trying to deliver the listed messages,
3886 including any that are frozen. However, if any of the messages are active,
3887 their status is not altered. For non-bounce messages, a delivery error message
3888 is sent to the sender, containing the text &"cancelled by administrator"&.
3889 Bounce messages are just discarded. This option can be used only by an admin
3890 user.
3892 .vitem &%-Mmad%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3893 .oindex "&%-Mmad%&"
3894 .cindex "delivery" "cancelling all"
3895 This option requests Exim to mark all the recipient addresses in the messages
3896 as already delivered (&"mad"& for &"mark all delivered"&). However, if any
3897 message is active (in the middle of a delivery attempt), its status is not
3898 altered. This option can be used only by an admin user.
3900 .vitem &%-Mmd%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'address'&>&~<&'address'&>&~...
3901 .oindex "&%-Mmd%&"
3902 .cindex "delivery" "cancelling by address"
3903 .cindex "recipient" "removing"
3904 .cindex "removing recipients"
3905 This option requests Exim to mark the given addresses as already delivered
3906 (&"md"& for &"mark delivered"&). The first argument must be a message id, and
3907 the remaining ones must be email addresses. These are matched to recipient
3908 addresses in the message in a case-sensitive manner. If the message is active
3909 (in the middle of a delivery attempt), its status is not altered. This option
3910 can be used only by an admin user.
3912 .vitem &%-Mrm%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3913 .oindex "&%-Mrm%&"
3914 .cindex "removing messages"
3915 .cindex "abandoning mail"
3916 .cindex "message" "manually discarding"
3917 This option requests Exim to remove the given messages from the queue. No
3918 bounce messages are sent; each message is simply forgotten. However, if any of
3919 the messages are active, their status is not altered. This option can be used
3920 only by an admin user or by the user who originally caused the message to be
3921 placed on the queue.
3923 .vitem &%-Mset%&&~<&'message&~id'&>
3924 .oindex "&%-Mset%&
3925 .cindex "testing" "string expansion"
3926 .cindex "expansion" "testing"
3927 This option is useful only in conjunction with &%-be%& (that is, when testing
3928 string expansions). Exim loads the given message from its spool before doing
3929 the test expansions, thus setting message-specific variables such as
3930 &$message_size$& and the header variables. The &$recipients$& variable is made
3931 available. This feature is provided to make it easier to test expansions that
3932 make use of these variables. However, this option can be used only by an admin
3933 user. See also &%-bem%&.
3935 .vitem &%-Mt%&&~<&'message&~id'&>&~<&'message&~id'&>&~...
3936 .oindex "&%-Mt%&"
3937 .cindex "thawing messages"
3938 .cindex "unfreezing messages"
3939 .cindex "frozen messages" "thawing"
3940 .cindex "message" "thawing frozen"
3941 This option requests Exim to &"thaw"& any of the listed messages that are
3942 &"frozen"&, so that delivery attempts can resume. However, if any of the
3943 messages are active, their status is not altered. This option can be used only
3944 by an admin user.
3946 .vitem &%-Mvb%&&~<&'message&~id'&>
3947 .oindex "&%-Mvb%&"
3948 .cindex "listing" "message body"
3949 .cindex "message" "listing body of"
3950 This option causes the contents of the message body (-D) spool file to be
3951 written to the standard output. This option can be used only by an admin user.
3953 .vitem &%-Mvc%&&~<&'message&~id'&>
3954 .oindex "&%-Mvc%&"
3955 .cindex "message" "listing in RFC 2822 format"
3956 .cindex "listing" "message in RFC 2822 format"
3957 This option causes a copy of the complete message (header lines plus body) to
3958 be written to the standard output in RFC 2822 format. This option can be used
3959 only by an admin user.
3961 .vitem &%-Mvh%&&~<&'message&~id'&>
3962 .oindex "&%-Mvh%&"
3963 .cindex "listing" "message headers"
3964 .cindex "header lines" "listing"
3965 .cindex "message" "listing header lines"
3966 This option causes the contents of the message headers (-H) spool file to be
3967 written to the standard output. This option can be used only by an admin user.
3969 .vitem &%-Mvl%&&~<&'message&~id'&>
3970 .oindex "&%-Mvl%&"
3971 .cindex "listing" "message log"
3972 .cindex "message" "listing message log"
3973 This option causes the contents of the message log spool file to be written to
3974 the standard output. This option can be used only by an admin user.
3976 .vitem &%-m%&
3977 .oindex "&%-m%&"
3978 This is apparently a synonym for &%-om%& that is accepted by Sendmail, so Exim
3979 treats it that way too.
3981 .vitem &%-N%&
3982 .oindex "&%-N%&"
3983 .cindex "debugging" "&%-N%& option"
3984 .cindex "debugging" "suppressing delivery"
3985 This is a debugging option that inhibits delivery of a message at the transport
3986 level. It implies &%-v%&. Exim goes through many of the motions of delivery &--
3987 it just doesn't actually transport the message, but instead behaves as if it
3988 had successfully done so. However, it does not make any updates to the retry
3989 database, and the log entries for deliveries are flagged with &"*>"& rather
3990 than &"=>"&.
3992 Because &%-N%& discards any message to which it applies, only root or the Exim
3993 user are allowed to use it with &%-bd%&, &%-q%&, &%-R%& or &%-M%&. In other
3994 words, an ordinary user can use it only when supplying an incoming message to
3995 which it will apply. Although transportation never fails when &%-N%& is set, an
3996 address may be deferred because of a configuration problem on a transport, or a
3997 routing problem. Once &%-N%& has been used for a delivery attempt, it sticks to
3998 the message, and applies to any subsequent delivery attempts that may happen
3999 for that message.
4001 .vitem &%-n%&
4002 .oindex "&%-n%&"
4003 This option is interpreted by Sendmail to mean &"no aliasing"&.
4004 For normal modes of operation, it is ignored by Exim.
4005 When combined with &%-bP%& it suppresses the name of an option from being output.
4007 .vitem &%-O%&&~<&'data'&>
4008 .oindex "&%-O%&"
4009 This option is interpreted by Sendmail to mean &`set option`&. It is ignored by
4010 Exim.
4012 .vitem &%-oA%&&~<&'file&~name'&>
4013 .oindex "&%-oA%&"
4014 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&%-oA%& option"
4015 This option is used by Sendmail in conjunction with &%-bi%& to specify an
4016 alternative alias file name. Exim handles &%-bi%& differently; see the
4017 description above.
4019 .vitem &%-oB%&&~<&'n'&>
4020 .oindex "&%-oB%&"
4021 .cindex "SMTP" "passed connection"
4022 .cindex "SMTP" "multiple deliveries"
4023 .cindex "multiple SMTP deliveries"
4024 This is a debugging option which limits the maximum number of messages that can
4025 be delivered down one SMTP connection, overriding the value set in any &(smtp)&
4026 transport. If <&'n'&> is omitted, the limit is set to 1.
4028 .vitem &%-odb%&
4029 .oindex "&%-odb%&"
4030 .cindex "background delivery"
4031 .cindex "delivery" "in the background"
4032 This option applies to all modes in which Exim accepts incoming messages,
4033 including the listening daemon. It requests &"background"& delivery of such
4034 messages, which means that the accepting process automatically starts a
4035 delivery process for each message received, but does not wait for the delivery
4036 processes to finish.
4038 When all the messages have been received, the reception process exits,
4039 leaving the delivery processes to finish in their own time. The standard output
4040 and error streams are closed at the start of each delivery process.
4041 This is the default action if none of the &%-od%& options are present.
4043 If one of the queueing options in the configuration file
4044 (&%queue_only%& or &%queue_only_file%&, for example) is in effect, &%-odb%&
4045 overrides it if &%queue_only_override%& is set true, which is the default
4046 setting. If &%queue_only_override%& is set false, &%-odb%& has no effect.
4048 .vitem &%-odf%&
4049 .oindex "&%-odf%&"
4050 .cindex "foreground delivery"
4051 .cindex "delivery" "in the foreground"
4052 This option requests &"foreground"& (synchronous) delivery when Exim has
4053 accepted a locally-generated message. (For the daemon it is exactly the same as
4054 &%-odb%&.) A delivery process is automatically started to deliver the message,
4055 and Exim waits for it to complete before proceeding.
4057 The original Exim reception process does not finish until the delivery
4058 process for the final message has ended. The standard error stream is left open
4059 during deliveries.
4061 However, like &%-odb%&, this option has no effect if &%queue_only_override%& is
4062 false and one of the queueing options in the configuration file is in effect.
4064 If there is a temporary delivery error during foreground delivery, the
4065 message is left on the queue for later delivery, and the original reception
4066 process exits. See chapter &<<CHAPnonqueueing>>& for a way of setting up a
4067 restricted configuration that never queues messages.
4070 .vitem &%-odi%&
4071 .oindex "&%-odi%&"
4072 This option is synonymous with &%-odf%&. It is provided for compatibility with
4073 Sendmail.
4075 .vitem &%-odq%&
4076 .oindex "&%-odq%&"
4077 .cindex "non-immediate delivery"
4078 .cindex "delivery" "suppressing immediate"
4079 .cindex "queueing incoming messages"
4080 This option applies to all modes in which Exim accepts incoming messages,
4081 including the listening daemon. It specifies that the accepting process should
4082 not automatically start a delivery process for each message received. Messages
4083 are placed on the queue, and remain there until a subsequent queue runner
4084 process encounters them. There are several configuration options (such as
4085 &%queue_only%&) that can be used to queue incoming messages under certain
4086 conditions. This option overrides all of them and also &%-odqs%&. It always
4087 forces queueing.
4089 .vitem &%-odqs%&
4090 .oindex "&%-odqs%&"
4091 .cindex "SMTP" "delaying delivery"
4092 This option is a hybrid between &%-odb%&/&%-odi%& and &%-odq%&.
4093 However, like &%-odb%& and &%-odi%&, this option has no effect if
4094 &%queue_only_override%& is false and one of the queueing options in the
4095 configuration file is in effect.
4097 When &%-odqs%& does operate, a delivery process is started for each incoming
4098 message, in the background by default, but in the foreground if &%-odi%& is
4099 also present. The recipient addresses are routed, and local deliveries are done
4100 in the normal way. However, if any SMTP deliveries are required, they are not
4101 done at this time, so the message remains on the queue until a subsequent queue
4102 runner process encounters it. Because routing was done, Exim knows which
4103 messages are waiting for which hosts, and so a number of messages for the same
4104 host can be sent in a single SMTP connection. The &%queue_smtp_domains%&
4105 configuration option has the same effect for specific domains. See also the
4106 &%-qq%& option.
4108 .vitem &%-oee%&
4109 .oindex "&%-oee%&"
4110 .cindex "error" "reporting"
4111 If an error is detected while a non-SMTP message is being received (for
4112 example, a malformed address), the error is reported to the sender in a mail
4113 message.
4115 .cindex "return code" "for &%-oee%&"
4116 Provided
4117 this error message is successfully sent, the Exim receiving process
4118 exits with a return code of zero. If not, the return code is 2 if the problem
4119 is that the original message has no recipients, or 1 for any other error.
4120 This is the default &%-oe%&&'x'& option if Exim is called as &'rmail'&.
4122 .vitem &%-oem%&
4123 .oindex "&%-oem%&"
4124 .cindex "error" "reporting"
4125 .cindex "return code" "for &%-oem%&"
4126 This is the same as &%-oee%&, except that Exim always exits with a non-zero
4127 return code, whether or not the error message was successfully sent.
4128 This is the default &%-oe%&&'x'& option, unless Exim is called as &'rmail'&.
4130 .vitem &%-oep%&
4131 .oindex "&%-oep%&"
4132 .cindex "error" "reporting"
4133 If an error is detected while a non-SMTP message is being received, the
4134 error is reported by writing a message to the standard error file (stderr).
4135 .cindex "return code" "for &%-oep%&"
4136 The return code is 1 for all errors.
4138 .vitem &%-oeq%&
4139 .oindex "&%-oeq%&"
4140 .cindex "error" "reporting"
4141 This option is supported for compatibility with Sendmail, but has the same
4142 effect as &%-oep%&.
4144 .vitem &%-oew%&
4145 .oindex "&%-oew%&"
4146 .cindex "error" "reporting"
4147 This option is supported for compatibility with Sendmail, but has the same
4148 effect as &%-oem%&.
4150 .vitem &%-oi%&
4151 .oindex "&%-oi%&"
4152 .cindex "dot" "in incoming non-SMTP message"
4153 This option, which has the same effect as &%-i%&, specifies that a dot on a
4154 line by itself should not terminate an incoming, non-SMTP message. Otherwise, a
4155 single dot does terminate, though Exim does no special processing for other
4156 lines that start with a dot. This option is set by default if Exim is called as
4157 &'rmail'&. See also &%-ti%&.
4159 .vitem &%-oitrue%&
4160 .oindex "&%-oitrue%&"
4161 This option is treated as synonymous with &%-oi%&.
4163 .vitem &%-oMa%&&~<&'host&~address'&>
4164 .oindex "&%-oMa%&"
4165 .cindex "sender" "host address, specifying for local message"
4166 A number of options starting with &%-oM%& can be used to set values associated
4167 with remote hosts on locally-submitted messages (that is, messages not received
4168 over TCP/IP). These options can be used by any caller in conjunction with the
4169 &%-bh%&, &%-be%&, &%-bf%&, &%-bF%&, &%-bt%&, or &%-bv%& testing options. In
4170 other circumstances, they are ignored unless the caller is trusted.
4172 The &%-oMa%& option sets the sender host address. This may include a port
4173 number at the end, after a full stop (period). For example:
4174 .code
4175 exim -bs -oMa
4176 .endd
4177 An alternative syntax is to enclose the IP address in square brackets,
4178 followed by a colon and the port number:
4179 .code
4180 exim -bs -oMa []:1234
4181 .endd
4182 The IP address is placed in the &$sender_host_address$& variable, and the
4183 port, if present, in &$sender_host_port$&. If both &%-oMa%& and &%-bh%&
4184 are present on the command line, the sender host IP address is taken from
4185 whichever one is last.
4187 .vitem &%-oMaa%&&~<&'name'&>
4188 .oindex "&%-oMaa%&"
4189 .cindex "authentication" "name, specifying for local message"
4190 See &%-oMa%& above for general remarks about the &%-oM%& options. The &%-oMaa%&
4191 option sets the value of &$sender_host_authenticated$& (the authenticator
4192 name). See chapter &<<CHAPSMTPAUTH>>& for a discussion of SMTP authentication.
4193 This option can be used with &%-bh%& and &%-bs%& to set up an
4194 authenticated SMTP session without actually using the SMTP AUTH command.
4196 .vitem &%-oMai%&&~<&'string'&>
4197 .oindex "&%-oMai%&"
4198 .cindex "authentication" "id, specifying for local message"
4199 See &%-oMa%& above for general remarks about the &%-oM%& options. The &%-oMai%&
4200 option sets the value of &$authenticated_id$& (the id that was authenticated).
4201 This overrides the default value (the caller's login id, except with &%-bh%&,
4202 where there is no default) for messages from local sources. See chapter
4203 &<<CHAPSMTPAUTH>>& for a discussion of authenticated ids.
4205 .vitem &%-oMas%&&~<&'address'&>
4206 .oindex "&%-oMas%&"
4207 .cindex "authentication" "sender, specifying for local message"
4208 See &%-oMa%& above for general remarks about the &%-oM%& options. The &%-oMas%&
4209 option sets the authenticated sender value in &$authenticated_sender$&. It
4210 overrides the sender address that is created from the caller's login id for
4211 messages from local sources, except when &%-bh%& is used, when there is no
4212 default. For both &%-bh%& and &%-bs%&, an authenticated sender that is
4213 specified on a MAIL command overrides this value. See chapter
4214 &<<CHAPSMTPAUTH>>& for a discussion of authenticated senders.
4216 .vitem &%-oMi%&&~<&'interface&~address'&>
4217 .oindex "&%-oMi%&"
4218 .cindex "interface" "address, specifying for local message"
4219 See &%-oMa%& above for general remarks about the &%-oM%& options. The &%-oMi%&
4220 option sets the IP interface address value. A port number may be included,
4221 using the same syntax as for &%-oMa%&. The interface address is placed in
4222 &$received_ip_address$& and the port number, if present, in &$received_port$&.
4224 .vitem &%-oMm%&&~<&'message&~reference'&>
4225 .oindex "&%-oMm%&"
4226 .cindex "message reference" "message reference, specifying for local message"
4227 See &%-oMa%& above for general remarks about the &%-oM%& options. The &%-oMm%&
4228 option sets the message reference, e.g. message-id, and is logged during
4229 delivery. This is useful when some kind of audit trail is required to tie
4230 messages together. The format of the message reference is checked and will
4231 abort if the format is invalid. The option will only be accepted if exim is
4232 running in trusted mode, not as any regular user.
4234 The best example of a message reference is when Exim sends a bounce message.
4235 The message reference is the message-id of the original message for which Exim
4236 is sending the bounce.
4238 .vitem &%-oMr%&&~<&'protocol&~name'&>
4239 .oindex "&%-oMr%&"
4240 .cindex "protocol, specifying for local message"
4241 .vindex "&$received_protocol$&"
4242 See &%-oMa%& above for general remarks about the &%-oM%& options. The &%-oMr%&
4243 option sets the received protocol value that is stored in
4244 &$received_protocol$&. However, it does not apply (and is ignored) when &%-bh%&
4245 or &%-bs%& is used. For &%-bh%&, the protocol is forced to one of the standard
4246 SMTP protocol names (see the description of &$received_protocol$& in section
4247 &<<SECTexpvar>>&). For &%-bs%&, the protocol is always &"local-"& followed by
4248 one of those same names. For &%-bS%& (batched SMTP) however, the protocol can
4249 be set by &%-oMr%&.
4251 .vitem &%-oMs%&&~<&'host&~name'&>
4252 .oindex "&%-oMs%&"
4253 .cindex "sender" "host name, specifying for local message"
4254 See &%-oMa%& above for general remarks about the &%-oM%& options. The &%-oMs%&
4255 option sets the sender host name in &$sender_host_name$&. When this option is
4256 present, Exim does not attempt to look up a host name from an IP address; it
4257 uses the name it is given.
4259 .vitem &%-oMt%&&~<&'ident&~string'&>
4260 .oindex "&%-oMt%&"
4261 .cindex "sender" "ident string, specifying for local message"
4262 See &%-oMa%& above for general remarks about the &%-oM%& options. The &%-oMt%&
4263 option sets the sender ident value in &$sender_ident$&. The default setting for
4264 local callers is the login id of the calling process, except when &%-bh%& is
4265 used, when there is no default.
4267 .vitem &%-om%&
4268 .oindex "&%-om%&"
4269 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&%-om%& option ignored"
4270 In Sendmail, this option means &"me too"&, indicating that the sender of a
4271 message should receive a copy of the message if the sender appears in an alias
4272 expansion. Exim always does this, so the option does nothing.
4274 .vitem &%-oo%&
4275 .oindex "&%-oo%&"
4276 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&%-oo%& option ignored"
4277 This option is ignored. In Sendmail it specifies &"old style headers"&,
4278 whatever that means.
4280 .vitem &%-oP%&&~<&'path'&>
4281 .oindex "&%-oP%&"
4282 .cindex "pid (process id)" "of daemon"
4283 .cindex "daemon" "process id (pid)"
4284 This option is useful only in conjunction with &%-bd%& or &%-q%& with a time
4285 value. The option specifies the file to which the process id of the daemon is
4286 written. When &%-oX%& is used with &%-bd%&, or when &%-q%& with a time is used
4287 without &%-bd%&, this is the only way of causing Exim to write a pid file,
4288 because in those cases, the normal pid file is not used.
4290 .vitem &%-or%&&~<&'time'&>
4291 .oindex "&%-or%&"
4292 .cindex "timeout" "for non-SMTP input"
4293 This option sets a timeout value for incoming non-SMTP messages. If it is not
4294 set, Exim will wait forever for the standard input. The value can also be set
4295 by the &%receive_timeout%& option. The format used for specifying times is
4296 described in section &<<SECTtimeformat>>&.
4298 .vitem &%-os%&&~<&'time'&>
4299 .oindex "&%-os%&"
4300 .cindex "timeout" "for SMTP input"
4301 .cindex "SMTP" "input timeout"
4302 This option sets a timeout value for incoming SMTP messages. The timeout
4303 applies to each SMTP command and block of data. The value can also be set by
4304 the &%smtp_receive_timeout%& option; it defaults to 5 minutes. The format used
4305 for specifying times is described in section &<<SECTtimeformat>>&.
4307 .vitem &%-ov%&
4308 .oindex "&%-ov%&"
4309 This option has exactly the same effect as &%-v%&.
4311 .vitem &%-oX%&&~<&'number&~or&~string'&>
4312 .oindex "&%-oX%&"
4313 .cindex "TCP/IP" "setting listening ports"
4314 .cindex "TCP/IP" "setting listening interfaces"
4315 .cindex "port" "receiving TCP/IP"
4316 This option is relevant only when the &%-bd%& (start listening daemon) option
4317 is also given. It controls which ports and interfaces the daemon uses. Details
4318 of the syntax, and how it interacts with configuration file options, are given
4319 in chapter &<<CHAPinterfaces>>&. When &%-oX%& is used to start a daemon, no pid
4320 file is written unless &%-oP%& is also present to specify a pid file name.
4322 .vitem &%-pd%&
4323 .oindex "&%-pd%&"
4324 .cindex "Perl" "starting the interpreter"
4325 This option applies when an embedded Perl interpreter is linked with Exim (see
4326 chapter &<<CHAPperl>>&). It overrides the setting of the &%perl_at_start%&
4327 option, forcing the starting of the interpreter to be delayed until it is
4328 needed.
4330 .vitem &%-ps%&
4331 .oindex "&%-ps%&"
4332 .cindex "Perl" "starting the interpreter"
4333 This option applies when an embedded Perl interpreter is linked with Exim (see
4334 chapter &<<CHAPperl>>&). It overrides the setting of the &%perl_at_start%&
4335 option, forcing the starting of the interpreter to occur as soon as Exim is
4336 started.
4338 .vitem &%-p%&<&'rval'&>:<&'sval'&>
4339 .oindex "&%-p%&"
4340 For compatibility with Sendmail, this option is equivalent to
4341 .display
4342 &`-oMr`& <&'rval'&> &`-oMs`& <&'sval'&>
4343 .endd
4344 It sets the incoming protocol and host name (for trusted callers). The
4345 host name and its colon can be omitted when only the protocol is to be set.
4346 Note the Exim already has two private options, &%-pd%& and &%-ps%&, that refer
4347 to embedded Perl. It is therefore impossible to set a protocol value of &`d`&
4348 or &`s`& using this option (but that does not seem a real limitation).
4350 .vitem &%-q%&
4351 .oindex "&%-q%&"
4352 .cindex "queue runner" "starting manually"
4353 This option is normally restricted to admin users. However, there is a
4354 configuration option called &%prod_requires_admin%& which can be set false to
4355 relax this restriction (and also the same requirement for the &%-M%&, &%-R%&,
4356 and &%-S%& options).
4358 .cindex "queue runner" "description of operation"
4359 The &%-q%& option starts one queue runner process. This scans the queue of
4360 waiting messages, and runs a delivery process for each one in turn. It waits
4361 for each delivery process to finish before starting the next one. A delivery
4362 process may not actually do any deliveries if the retry times for the addresses
4363 have not been reached. Use &%-qf%& (see below) if you want to override this.
4365 If
4366 .cindex "SMTP" "passed connection"
4367 .cindex "SMTP" "multiple deliveries"
4368 .cindex "multiple SMTP deliveries"
4369 the delivery process spawns other processes to deliver other messages down
4370 passed SMTP connections, the queue runner waits for these to finish before
4371 proceeding.
4373 When all the queued messages have been considered, the original queue runner
4374 process terminates. In other words, a single pass is made over the waiting
4375 mail, one message at a time. Use &%-q%& with a time (see below) if you want
4376 this to be repeated periodically.
4378 Exim processes the waiting messages in an unpredictable order. It isn't very
4379 random, but it is likely to be different each time, which is all that matters.
4380 If one particular message screws up a remote MTA, other messages to the same
4381 MTA have a chance of getting through if they get tried first.
4383 It is possible to cause the messages to be processed in lexical message id
4384 order, which is essentially the order in which they arrived, by setting the
4385 &%queue_run_in_order%& option, but this is not recommended for normal use.
4387 .vitem &%-q%&<&'qflags'&>
4388 The &%-q%& option may be followed by one or more flag letters that change its
4389 behaviour. They are all optional, but if more than one is present, they must
4390 appear in the correct order. Each flag is described in a separate item below.
4392 .vitem &%-qq...%&
4393 .oindex "&%-qq%&"
4394 .cindex "queue" "double scanning"
4395 .cindex "queue" "routing"
4396 .cindex "routing" "whole queue before delivery"
4397 An option starting with &%-qq%& requests a two-stage queue run. In the first
4398 stage, the queue is scanned as if the &%queue_smtp_domains%& option matched
4399 every domain. Addresses are routed, local deliveries happen, but no remote
4400 transports are run.
4402 .cindex "hints database" "remembering routing"
4403 The hints database that remembers which messages are waiting for specific hosts
4404 is updated, as if delivery to those hosts had been deferred. After this is
4405 complete, a second, normal queue scan happens, with routing and delivery taking
4406 place as normal. Messages that are routed to the same host should mostly be
4407 delivered down a single SMTP
4408 .cindex "SMTP" "passed connection"
4409 .cindex "SMTP" "multiple deliveries"
4410 .cindex "multiple SMTP deliveries"
4411 connection because of the hints that were set up during the first queue scan.
4412 This option may be useful for hosts that are connected to the Internet
4413 intermittently.
4415 .vitem &%-q[q]i...%&
4416 .oindex "&%-qi%&"
4417 .cindex "queue" "initial delivery"
4418 If the &'i'& flag is present, the queue runner runs delivery processes only for
4419 those messages that haven't previously been tried. (&'i'& stands for &"initial
4420 delivery"&.) This can be helpful if you are putting messages on the queue using
4421 &%-odq%& and want a queue runner just to process the new messages.
4423 .vitem &%-q[q][i]f...%&
4424 .oindex "&%-qf%&"
4425 .cindex "queue" "forcing delivery"
4426 .cindex "delivery" "forcing in queue run"
4427 If one &'f'& flag is present, a delivery attempt is forced for each non-frozen
4428 message, whereas without &'f'& only those non-frozen addresses that have passed
4429 their retry times are tried.
4431 .vitem &%-q[q][i]ff...%&
4432 .oindex "&%-qff%&"
4433 .cindex "frozen messages" "forcing delivery"
4434 If &'ff'& is present, a delivery attempt is forced for every message, whether
4435 frozen or not.
4437 .vitem &%-q[q][i][f[f]]l%&
4438 .oindex "&%-ql%&"
4439 .cindex "queue" "local deliveries only"
4440 The &'l'& (the letter &"ell"&) flag specifies that only local deliveries are to
4441 be done. If a message requires any remote deliveries, it remains on the queue
4442 for later delivery.
4444 .vitem &%-q%&<&'qflags'&>&~<&'start&~id'&>&~<&'end&~id'&>
4445 .cindex "queue" "delivering specific messages"
4446 When scanning the queue, Exim can be made to skip over messages whose ids are
4447 lexically less than a given value by following the &%-q%& option with a
4448 starting message id. For example:
4449 .code
4450 exim -q 0t5C6f-0000c8-00
4451 .endd
4452 Messages that arrived earlier than &`0t5C6f-0000c8-00`& are not inspected. If a
4453 second message id is given, messages whose ids are lexically greater than it
4454 are also skipped. If the same id is given twice, for example,
4455 .code
4456 exim -q 0t5C6f-0000c8-00 0t5C6f-0000c8-00
4457 .endd
4458 just one delivery process is started, for that message. This differs from
4459 &%-M%& in that retry data is respected, and it also differs from &%-Mc%& in
4460 that it counts as a delivery from a queue run. Note that the selection
4461 mechanism does not affect the order in which the messages are scanned. There
4462 are also other ways of selecting specific sets of messages for delivery in a
4463 queue run &-- see &%-R%& and &%-S%&.
4465 .vitem &%-q%&<&'qflags'&><&'time'&>
4466 .cindex "queue runner" "starting periodically"
4467 .cindex "periodic queue running"
4468 When a time value is present, the &%-q%& option causes Exim to run as a daemon,
4469 starting a queue runner process at intervals specified by the given time value
4470 (whose format is described in section &<<SECTtimeformat>>&). This form of the
4471 &%-q%& option is commonly combined with the &%-bd%& option, in which case a
4472 single daemon process handles both functions. A common way of starting up a
4473 combined daemon at system boot time is to use a command such as
4474 .code
4475 /usr/exim/bin/exim -bd -q30m
4476 .endd
4477 Such a daemon listens for incoming SMTP calls, and also starts a queue runner
4478 process every 30 minutes.
4480 When a daemon is started by &%-q%& with a time value, but without &%-bd%&, no
4481 pid file is written unless one is explicitly requested by the &%-oP%& option.
4483 .vitem &%-qR%&<&'rsflags'&>&~<&'string'&>
4484 .oindex "&%-qR%&"
4485 This option is synonymous with &%-R%&. It is provided for Sendmail
4486 compatibility.
4488 .vitem &%-qS%&<&'rsflags'&>&~<&'string'&>
4489 .oindex "&%-qS%&"
4490 This option is synonymous with &%-S%&.
4492 .vitem &%-R%&<&'rsflags'&>&~<&'string'&>
4493 .oindex "&%-R%&"
4494 .cindex "queue runner" "for specific recipients"
4495 .cindex "delivery" "to given domain"
4496 .cindex "domain" "delivery to"
4497 The <&'rsflags'&> may be empty, in which case the white space before the string
4498 is optional, unless the string is &'f'&, &'ff'&, &'r'&, &'rf'&, or &'rff'&,
4499 which are the possible values for <&'rsflags'&>. White space is required if
4500 <&'rsflags'&> is not empty.
4502 This option is similar to &%-q%& with no time value, that is, it causes Exim to
4503 perform a single queue run, except that, when scanning the messages on the
4504 queue, Exim processes only those that have at least one undelivered recipient
4505 address containing the given string, which is checked in a case-independent
4506 way. If the <&'rsflags'&> start with &'r'&, <&'string'&> is interpreted as a
4507 regular expression; otherwise it is a literal string.
4509 If you want to do periodic queue runs for messages with specific recipients,
4510 you can combine &%-R%& with &%-q%& and a time value. For example:
4511 .code
4512 exim -q25m -R @special.domain.example
4513 .endd
4514 This example does a queue run for messages with recipients in the given domain
4515 every 25 minutes. Any additional flags that are specified with &%-q%& are
4516 applied to each queue run.
4518 Once a message is selected for delivery by this mechanism, all its addresses
4519 are processed. For the first selected message, Exim overrides any retry
4520 information and forces a delivery attempt for each undelivered address. This
4521 means that if delivery of any address in the first message is successful, any
4522 existing retry information is deleted, and so delivery attempts for that
4523 address in subsequently selected messages (which are processed without forcing)
4524 will run. However, if delivery of any address does not succeed, the retry
4525 information is updated, and in subsequently selected messages, the failing
4526 address will be skipped.
4528 .cindex "frozen messages" "forcing delivery"
4529 If the <&'rsflags'&> contain &'f'& or &'ff'&, the delivery forcing applies to
4530 all selected messages, not just the first; frozen messages are included when
4531 &'ff'& is present.
4533 The &%-R%& option makes it straightforward to initiate delivery of all messages
4534 to a given domain after a host has been down for some time. When the SMTP
4535 command ETRN is accepted by its ACL (see chapter &<<CHAPACL>>&), its default
4536 effect is to run Exim with the &%-R%& option, but it can be configured to run
4537 an arbitrary command instead.
4539 .vitem &%-r%&
4540 .oindex "&%-r%&"
4541 This is a documented (for Sendmail) obsolete alternative name for &%-f%&.
4543 .vitem &%-S%&<&'rsflags'&>&~<&'string'&>
4544 .oindex "&%-S%&"
4545 .cindex "delivery" "from given sender"
4546 .cindex "queue runner" "for specific senders"
4547 This option acts like &%-R%& except that it checks the string against each
4548 message's sender instead of against the recipients. If &%-R%& is also set, both
4549 conditions must be met for a message to be selected. If either of the options
4550 has &'f'& or &'ff'& in its flags, the associated action is taken.
4552 .vitem &%-Tqt%&&~<&'times'&>
4553 .oindex "&%-Tqt%&"
4554 This is an option that is exclusively for use by the Exim testing suite. It is not
4555 recognized when Exim is run normally. It allows for the setting up of explicit
4556 &"queue times"& so that various warning/retry features can be tested.
4558 .vitem &%-t%&
4559 .oindex "&%-t%&"
4560 .cindex "recipient" "extracting from header lines"
4561 .cindex "&'Bcc:'& header line"
4562 .cindex "&'Cc:'& header line"
4563 .cindex "&'To:'& header line"
4564 When Exim is receiving a locally-generated, non-SMTP message on its standard
4565 input, the &%-t%& option causes the recipients of the message to be obtained
4566 from the &'To:'&, &'Cc:'&, and &'Bcc:'& header lines in the message instead of
4567 from the command arguments. The addresses are extracted before any rewriting
4568 takes place and the &'Bcc:'& header line, if present, is then removed.
4570 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&%-t%& option"
4571 If the command has any arguments, they specify addresses to which the message
4572 is &'not'& to be delivered. That is, the argument addresses are removed from
4573 the recipients list obtained from the headers. This is compatible with Smail 3
4574 and in accordance with the documented behaviour of several versions of
4575 Sendmail, as described in man pages on a number of operating systems (e.g.
4576 Solaris 8, IRIX 6.5, HP-UX 11). However, some versions of Sendmail &'add'&
4577 argument addresses to those obtained from the headers, and the O'Reilly
4578 Sendmail book documents it that way. Exim can be made to add argument addresses
4579 instead of subtracting them by setting the option
4580 &%extract_addresses_remove_arguments%& false.
4582 .cindex "&%Resent-%& header lines" "with &%-t%&"
4583 If there are any &%Resent-%& header lines in the message, Exim extracts
4584 recipients from all &'Resent-To:'&, &'Resent-Cc:'&, and &'Resent-Bcc:'& header
4585 lines instead of from &'To:'&, &'Cc:'&, and &'Bcc:'&. This is for compatibility
4586 with Sendmail and other MTAs. (Prior to release 4.20, Exim gave an error if
4587 &%-t%& was used in conjunction with &%Resent-%& header lines.)
4589 RFC 2822 talks about different sets of &%Resent-%& header lines (for when a
4590 message is resent several times). The RFC also specifies that they should be
4591 added at the front of the message, and separated by &'Received:'& lines. It is
4592 not at all clear how &%-t%& should operate in the present of multiple sets,
4593 nor indeed exactly what constitutes a &"set"&.
4594 In practice, it seems that MUAs do not follow the RFC. The &%Resent-%& lines
4595 are often added at the end of the header, and if a message is resent more than
4596 once, it is common for the original set of &%Resent-%& headers to be renamed as
4597 &%X-Resent-%& when a new set is added. This removes any possible ambiguity.
4599 .vitem &%-ti%&
4600 .oindex "&%-ti%&"
4601 This option is exactly equivalent to &%-t%& &%-i%&. It is provided for
4602 compatibility with Sendmail.
4604 .vitem &%-tls-on-connect%&
4605 .oindex "&%-tls-on-connect%&"
4606 .cindex "TLS" "use without STARTTLS"
4607 .cindex "TLS" "automatic start"
4608 This option is available when Exim is compiled with TLS support. It forces all
4609 incoming SMTP connections to behave as if the incoming port is listed in the
4610 &%tls_on_connect_ports%& option. See section &<<SECTsupobssmt>>& and chapter
4611 &<<CHAPTLS>>& for further details.
4614 .vitem &%-U%&
4615 .oindex "&%-U%&"
4616 .cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&%-U%& option ignored"
4617 Sendmail uses this option for &"initial message submission"&, and its
4618 documentation states that in future releases, it may complain about
4619 syntactically invalid messages rather than fixing them when this flag is not
4620 set. Exim ignores this option.
4622 .vitem &%-v%&
4623 .oindex "&%-v%&"
4624 This option causes Exim to write information to the standard error stream,
4625 describing what it is doing. In particular, it shows the log lines for
4626 receiving and delivering a message, and if an SMTP connection is made, the SMTP
4627 dialogue is shown. Some of the log lines shown may not actually be written to
4628 the log if the setting of &%log_selector%& discards them. Any relevant
4629 selectors are shown with each log line. If none are shown, the logging is
4630 unconditional.
4632 .vitem &%-x%&
4633 .oindex "&%-x%&"
4634 AIX uses &%-x%& for a private purpose (&"mail from a local mail program has
4635 National Language Support extended characters in the body of the mail item"&).
4636 It sets &%-x%& when calling the MTA from its &%mail%& command. Exim ignores
4637 this option.
4639 .vitem &%-X%&&~<&'logfile'&>
4640 .oindex "&%-X%&"
4641 This option is interpreted by Sendmail to cause debug information to be sent
4642 to the named file. It is ignored by Exim.
4643 .endlist
4645 .ecindex IIDclo1
4646 .ecindex IIDclo2
4649 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
4650 . Insert a stylized DocBook comment here, to identify the end of the command
4651 . line options. This is for the benefit of the Perl script that automatically
4652 . creates a man page for the options.
4653 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
4655 .literal xml
4656 <!-- === End of command line options === -->
4657 .literal off
4663 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
4664 . ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
4667 .chapter "The Exim run time configuration file" "CHAPconf" &&&
4668 "The runtime configuration file"
4670 .cindex "run time configuration"
4671 .cindex "configuration file" "general description"
4672 .cindex "CONFIGURE_FILE"
4673 .cindex "configuration file" "errors in"
4674 .cindex "error" "in configuration file"
4675 .cindex "return code" "for bad configuration"
4676 Exim uses a single run time configuration file that is read whenever an Exim
4677 binary is executed. Note that in normal operation, this happens frequently,
4678 because Exim is designed to operate in a distributed manner, without central
4679 control.
4681 If a syntax error is detected while reading the configuration file, Exim
4682 writes a message on the standard error, and exits with a non-zero return code.
4683 The message is also written to the panic log. &*Note*&: Only simple syntax
4684 errors can be detected at this time. The values of any expanded options are
4685 not checked until the expansion happens, even when the expansion does not
4686 actually alter the string.
4688 The name of the configuration file is compiled into the binary for security
4689 reasons, and is specified by the CONFIGURE_FILE compilation option. In
4690 most configurations, this specifies a single file. However, it is permitted to
4691 give a colon-separated list of file names, in which case Exim uses the first
4692 existing file in the list.
4694 .cindex "EXIM_USER"
4695 .cindex "EXIM_GROUP"
4696 .cindex "CONFIGURE_OWNER"
4697 .cindex "CONFIGURE_GROUP"
4698 .cindex "configuration file" "ownership"
4699 .cindex "ownership" "configuration file"
4700 The run time configuration file must be owned by root or by the user that is
4701 specified at compile time by the CONFIGURE_OWNER option (if set). The
4702 configuration file must not be world-writeable, or group-writeable unless its
4703 group is the root group or the one specified at compile time by the
4704 CONFIGURE_GROUP option.
4706 &*Warning*&: In a conventional configuration, where the Exim binary is setuid
4707 to root, anybody who is able to edit the run time configuration file has an
4708 easy way to run commands as root. If you specify a user or group in the
4709 CONFIGURE_OWNER or CONFIGURE_GROUP options, then that user and/or any users
4710 who are members of that group will trivially be able to obtain root privileges.
4712 Up to Exim version 4.72, the run time configuration file was also permitted to
4713 be writeable by the Exim user and/or group. That has been changed in Exim 4.73
4714 since it offered a simple privilege escalation for any attacker who managed to
4715 compromise the Exim user account.
4717 A default configuration file, which will work correctly in simple situations,
4718 is provided in the file &_src/configure.default_&. If CONFIGURE_FILE
4719 defines just one file name, the installation process copies the default
4720 configuration to a new file of that name if it did not previously exist. If
4721 CONFIGURE_FILE is a list, no default is automatically installed. Chapter
4722 &<<CHAPdefconfil>>& is a &"walk-through"& discussion of the default
4723 configuration.
4727 .section "Using a different configuration file" "SECID40"
4728 .cindex "configuration file" "alternate"
4729 A one-off alternate configuration can be specified by the &%-C%& command line
4730 option, which may specify a single file or a list of files. However, when
4731 &%-C%& is used, Exim gives up its root privilege, unless called by root (or
4732 unless the argument for &%-C%& is identical to the built-in value from
4733 CONFIGURE_FILE), or is listed in the TRUSTED_CONFIG_LIST file and the caller
4734 is the Exim user or the user specified in the CONFIGURE_OWNER setting. &%-C%&
4735 is useful mainly for checking the syntax of configuration files before
4736 installing them. No owner or group checks are done on a configuration file
4737 specified by &%-C%&, if root privilege has been dropped.
4739 Even the Exim user is not trusted to specify an arbitrary configuration file
4740 with the &%-C%& option to be used with root privileges, unless that file is
4741 listed in the TRUSTED_CONFIG_LIST file. This locks out the possibility of
4742 testing a configuration using &%-C%& right through message reception and
4743 delivery, even if the caller is root. The reception works, but by that time,
4744 Exim is running as the Exim user, so when it re-execs to regain privilege for
4745 the delivery, the use of &%-C%& causes privilege to be lost. However, root
4746 can test reception and delivery using two separate commands (one to put a
4747 message on the queue, using &%-odq%&, and another to do the delivery, using
4748 &%-M%&).
4750 If ALT_CONFIG_PREFIX is defined &_in Local/Makefile_&, it specifies a
4751 prefix string with which any file named in a &%-C%& command line option must
4752 start. In addition, the file name must not contain the sequence &"&`/../`&"&.
4753 There is no default setting for ALT_CONFIG_PREFIX; when it is unset, any file
4754 name can be used with &%-C%&.
4756 One-off changes to a configuration can be specified by the &%-D%& command line
4757 option, which defines and overrides values for macros used inside the
4758 configuration file. However, like &%-C%&, the use of this option by a
4759 non-privileged user causes Exim to discard its root privilege.
4760 If DISABLE_D_OPTION is defined in &_Local/Makefile_&, the use of &%-D%& is
4761 completely disabled, and its use causes an immediate error exit.
4763 The WHITELIST_D_MACROS option in &_Local/Makefile_& permits the binary builder
4764 to declare certain macro names trusted, such that root privilege will not
4765 necessarily be discarded.
4766 WHITELIST_D_MACROS defines a colon-separated list of macros which are
4767 considered safe and, if &%-D%& only supplies macros from this list, and the
4768 values are acceptable, then Exim will not give up root privilege if the caller
4769 is root, the Exim run-time user, or the CONFIGURE_OWNER, if set. This is a
4770 transition mechanism and is expected to be removed in the future. Acceptable
4771 values for the macros satisfy the regexp: &`^[A-Za-z0-9_/.-]*$`&
4773 Some sites may wish to use the same Exim binary on different machines that
4774 share a file system, but to use different configuration files on each machine.
4775 If CONFIGURE_FILE_USE_NODE is defined in &_Local/Makefile_&, Exim first
4776 looks for a file whose name is the configuration file name followed by a dot
4777 and the machine's node name, as obtained from the &[uname()]& function. If this
4778 file does not exist, the standard name is tried. This processing occurs for
4779 each file name in the list given by CONFIGURE_FILE or &%-C%&.
4781 In some esoteric situations different versions of Exim may be run under
4782 different effective uids and the CONFIGURE_FILE_USE_EUID is defined to
4783 help with this. See the comments in &_src/EDITME_& for details.
4787 .section "Configuration file format" "SECTconffilfor"
4788 .cindex "configuration file" "format of"
4789 .cindex "format" "configuration file"
4790 Exim's configuration file is divided into a number of different parts. General
4791 option settings must always appear at the start of the file. The other parts
4792 are all optional, and may appear in any order. Each part other than the first
4793 is introduced by the word &"begin"& followed by the name of the part. The
4794 optional parts are:
4796 .ilist
4797 &'ACL'&: Access control lists for controlling incoming SMTP mail (see chapter
4798 &<<CHAPACL>>&).
4799 .next
4800 .cindex "AUTH" "configuration"
4801 &'authenticators'&: Configuration settings for the authenticator drivers. These
4802 are concerned with the SMTP AUTH command (see chapter &<<CHAPSMTPAUTH>>&).
4803 .next
4804 &'routers'&: Configuration settings for the router drivers. Routers process