OpenSSL: fix bulid on older library versions
[exim.git] / src / README
CommitLineData
0f4f2a88
PH
1THE EXIM MAIL TRANSFER AGENT VERSION 4
2--------------------------------------
3
e76a7b79 4Copyright (c) 1995 - 2018 University of Cambridge.
0f4f2a88
PH
5See the file NOTICE for conditions of use and distribution.
6
7There is a book about Exim by Philip Hazel called "The Exim SMTP Mail Server",
8published by UIT Cambridge in May 2003. This is the official guide for Exim 4.
9The current edition covers release 4.10 and a few later extensions.
10
11The O'Reilly book about Exim ("Exim The Mail Transfer Agent" by Philip Hazel)
12covers Exim 3, which is now deprecated. Exim 4 has a large number of changes
13from Exim 3, though the basic structure and philosophy remains the same. The
14older book may be helpful for the background, but a lot of the detail has
15changed, so it is likely to be confusing to newcomers.
16
e76a7b79 17There is a website at https://www.exim.org; this contains details of the
0f4f2a88
PH
18mailing list exim-users@exim.org.
19
20A copy of the Exim FAQ should be available from the same source that you used
21to obtain the Exim distribution. Additional formats for the documentation
22(PostScript, PDF, Texinfo, and HTML) should also be available there.
23
24
25EXIM DISTRIBUTION
26-----------------
27
28Unpacking the tar file should produce a single directory called exim-<version>,
29containing the following files and directories:
30
31ACKNOWLEDGMENTS some acknowledgments
32CHANGES a conventional file name; it indirects to some files in doc/
33LICENCE the GNU General Public Licence
34Local/ an empty directory for local configuration files
35Makefile top level Makefile
36NOTICE notice about conditions of use
37OS/ directory containing OS-specific files
38README this file
39README.UPDATING special notes about updating from previous versions
40doc/ directory of documentation files
41exim_monitor/ directory of source files for the Exim monitor
42scripts/ directory of scripts used in the build process
43src/ directory of source files
44util/ directory of independent utilities
45
46Please see the documentation files for full instructions on how to build,
47install, and run Exim. For straightforward installations on operating systems
48to which Exim has already been ported, the building process is as follows:
49
38fa0c48 50. Ensure that the top-level Exim directory (e.g. exim-4.80) is the current
0f4f2a88
PH
51 directory (containing the files and directories listed above).
52
53. Edit the file called src/EDITME and put the result in a new file called
54 Local/Makefile. There are comments in src/EDITME telling you what the various
55 parameters are. You must at least provide values for BIN_DIRECTORY,
56 CONFIGURE_FILE, EXIM_USER and EXIM_GROUP (if EXIM_USER is numeric), and it is
57 recommended that SPOOL_DIRECTORY also be defined here if it is a fixed path.
58
59. There are a number of additional parameters whose defaults can also be
60 overridden by additions to Local/Makefile. The basic defaults are in
61 OS/Makefile-Default, but these settings are overridden for some operating
62 systems by values on OS/Makefile-<osname>. The most commonly-required change
63 is probably the setting of CC, which defines the command to run the C
64 compiler, and which defaults to gcc. To change it to cc, add the following
65 line to Local/Makefile:
66
67 CC=cc
68
69 If you are running the Berkeley DB package as your dbm library, then it is
70 worth putting USE_DB=yes in Local/Makefile, to get Exim to use the native
71 interface. This is the default for some operating systems. See
72 doc/dbm.discuss.txt for discussion on dbm libraries.
73
74. If you want to compile the Exim monitor, edit the file called
75 exim_monitor/EDITME and put the result in a file called Local/eximon.conf.
76 If you are not going to compile the Exim monitor, you should have commented
77 out the line starting EXIM_MONITOR= when creating Local/Makefile. There are
78 comments in exim_monitor/EDITME about the values set therein, but in this
79 case everything can be defaulted if you wish.
80
4050a044
PP
81. If your system is not POSIX compliant by default, then you might experience
82 fewer problems if you help point the build tools to the POSIX variants. For
83 instance, on Solaris:
84
85 PATH=/usr/xpg4/bin:$PATH make SHELL=/usr/xpg4/bin/sh
86
0f4f2a88
PH
87. Type "make". This will determine what your machine's architecture and
88 operating system are, and create a build directory from those names (e.g.
89 "build-SunOS5-sparc"). Symbolic links are created from the build directory
90 to the source directory. A configured make file called <build-dir>/makefile
91 is then created, and "make" then goes on to use this to build various
92 binaries and scripts inside the build directory.
93
94. Type "make install", while running as root, to install the binaries,
95 scripts, and a default configuration file. To see what this command is
96 going to do before risking it, run "../scripts/exim_install -n" (not as
97 root) from within the build directory.
98
99. When you are ready to try running Exim, see the section entitled "Testing"
100 in the chapter called "Building and Installing Exim" in doc/spec.txt, or in
101 one of the other forms of the documentation.
102
103. Running the install script does NOT replace /usr/sbin/sendmail or
104 /usr/lib/sendmail with a link to Exim. That step you must perform by hand
105 when you are satisfied that Exim is running correctly.
106
107. Note that the default configuration refers to an alias file called
108 /etc/aliases. It used to be the case that every Unix had that file, because
109 it was the Sendmail default. These days, there are systems that don't have
110 /etc/aliases, so you might need to set it up. Your aliases should at least
111 include an alias for "postmaster".
112
113. Consider notifying users of the change of MTA. Exim has different
114 capabilities, and there are various operational differences, such as stricter
115 adherence to the RFCs than some MTAs, and differences in the text of
116 messages produced by various command-line options.
117
118. The default configuration file will use your host's fully qualified name (as
119 obtained from the uname() function) as the only local mail domain and as the
120 domain which is used to qualify unqualified local mail addresses. See the
121 comments in the default configuration file if you want to change these.
122
123The operating systems currently supported are: AIX, BSD/OS (aka BSDI), Darwin
124(Mac OS X), DGUX, FreeBSD, GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, HI-OSF (Hitachi), HP-UX, IRIX,
125MIPS RISCOS, NetBSD, OpenBSD, QNX, SCO, SCO SVR4.2 (aka UNIX-SV), Solaris (aka
126SunOS5), SunOS4, Tru64-Unix (formerly Digital Unix, formerly DEC-OSF1), Ultrix,
127and Unixware. However, code is not available for determining system load
128averages on Ultrix. There are also configuration files for compiling Exim in
129the Cygwin environment that can be installed on systems running Windows.
130However, the documentation supplied with the distribution does not contain any
131information about running Exim in the Cygwin environment.
132
133
134******* Modifying the building process ******
135
136Instructions for overriding the build-time options for Exim are given in the
137manual. You should never have to modify any of the supplied files; it should be
138possible to override everything that is necessary by creating suitable files in
139the Local directory. This means that you won't need to redo your modifications
140for the next release of Exim. If you find you can't avoid changing some other
141file, let me know and I'll see if I can find a way of making that unnecessary.
142
143Briefly, the building process concatenates a number of files in order to
144construct its working makefile. If <ostype> and <archtype> are the operating
145system and architecture types respectively, the files used are:
146
147 OS/Makefile-Default
148 OS/Makefile-<ostype>
149 Local/Makefile
150 Local/Makefile-<ostype>
151 Local/Makefile-<archtype>
152 Local/Makefile-<ostype>-<archtype>
84590578 153 Local/Makefile-<buildname>
0f4f2a88
PH
154 OS/Makefile-Base
155
156Of the Local/* files, only Local/Makefile is required to exist; the rest are
157optional. Because of the way "make" works, values set in later files override
158values set in earlier ones. Thus you can set up general options that are
159overridden for specify operating systems and/or architectures if you wish.
160
161
162******* IMPORTANT FOR GNU/LINUX USERS *******
163
164Exim 4 won't work with some versions of Linux if you put its spool directory on
165an NFS partition. You get an error about "directory sync failed". This is
166because of a bug in Linux NFS. A fix has been promised in due course. It is in
167any case much better to put Exim's spool directory on local disc.
168
169If you get an error complaining about the lack of functions such as dbm_open()
170when building Exim, the problem is that it hasn't been able to find a DBM
171library. See the file doc/dbm.discuss.txt for a discussion about the various
172DBM libraries.
173
174Different versions of Linux come with different DBM libraries, stored in
175different places. As well as setting USE_DB=yes in Local/Makefile if Berkeley
176DB is in use, it may also be necessary to set a value in DBMLIB to specify the
177inclusion of the DBM library, for example: DBMLIB=-ldb or DBMLIB=-lgdbm.
178
179If you are using RedHat 7.0, which has DB3 as its DBM library, you need to
180install the db-devel package before building Exim. This will have a name like
181db3-devel-3.1.14-16.i386.rpm (but check which release of DB3 you have).
182
183The building scripts now distinguish between versions of Linux with the older
184libc5 and the more recent ones that use libc6. In the latter case, USE_DB and
185-ldb are the default settings, because DB is standard with libc6.
186
187It appears that with glibc-2.1.x (a minor libc upgrade), they have standardised
188on Berkeley DB2 (instead of DB1 in glibc-2.0.x). If you want to get DB1 back,
189you need to set
190
191 INCLUDE=-I/usr/include/db1
192 DBMLIB=-ldb1
193
194in your Local/Makefile. If you omit DBMLIB=-ldb1 Exim will link successfully
195using the DB1 compatibility interface to DB2, but it will expect the file
196format to be that of DB2, and so will not be able to read existing DB1 files.
197
198
199******* IMPORTANT FOR FREEBSD USERS *******
200
201On FreeBSD there is a file called /etc/mail/mailer.conf which selects what to
202run for various MTA calls. Instead of changing /usr/sbin/sendmail, you should
203edit this file instead, to read something like this:
204
205sendmail /usr/exim/bin/exim
206send-mail /usr/exim/bin/exim
207mailq /usr/exim/bin/exim -bp
208newaliases /usr/bin/true
209
210You will most probably need to add the line:
211
212daily_status_include_submit_mailq="NO" # No separate 'submit' queue
213
214to /etc/periodic.conf. This stops FreeBSD running the command "mailq -Ac"
215(which Exim doesn't understand) to list a separate submit queue (which Exim
216doesn't have).
217
218If you are using FreeBSD prior to 3.0-RELEASE, and you are not using the ports
219mechanism to install Exim, then you should install the perl5 package
220(/usr/local/bin/perl) and use that instead of perl in the base system, which is
221perl4 up until 3.0-RELEASE. If you are using the ports mechanism, this is
222handled for you.
223
224If you are upgrading from version 2.11 of Exim or earlier, and you are using
225DBM files, and you did not previously have USE_DB=yes in your Local/Makefile,
226then you will either have to put USE_DB=no in your Local/Makefile or (better)
227rebuild your DBM data files. The default for FreeBSD has been changed to
228USE_DB=yes, since FreeBSD comes with Berkeley DB. However, using the native DB
229interface means that the data files no longer have the ".db" extension.
230
231
232
233******* IMPORTANT FOR Tru64 (aka Digital Unix aka DEC-OSF1) USERS *******
234
235The default compiler may not recognize ANSI C by default. You may have to set
236
237CC=cc
238CFLAGS=-std1
239
240in Local/Makefile in order to compile Exim. A user reported another small
241problem with this operating system: In the file /usr/include/net/if.h a
242semicolon was missing at the end of line 143.
243
244
245
246******* IMPORTANT FOR SCO USERS *******
247
248The building scripts assume the existence of the "ar" command, which is part of
249the Development System. However, it is also possible to use the "gar" command
250that is part of the GNU utilities that are distributed with the 5.0.7 release.
251If you have "gar" and not "ar" you should include
252
253AR=gar
254
255in your Local/Makefile.
256
257
258
259******* IMPORTANT FOR Unixware 2.x USERS *******
260
261Unixware does not include db/dbm/ndbm with its standard compiler (it is
262available with /usr/ucb/cc, but that has bugs of its own). You should install
263gcc and Berkeley DB (or another dbm library if you really insist). If you use a
264different dbm library you will need to override the default setting of DBMLIB.
265
266DB 1.85 and 2.x can be found at http://www.sleepycat.com/. They have different
267characteristics. See the discussion of dbm libraries in doc/dbm.discuss.txt. DB
268needs to be compiled with gcc and you need a 'cc' in your path before the
269Unixware CC to compile it.
270
271Don't bother even starting to install exim on Unixware unless you have
272installed gcc and use it for everything.
273
274
275******* IMPORTANT FOR SOLARIS 2.3 (SUNOS 5.3) USERS *******
276
277The file /usr/include/sysexits.h does not exist on Solaris 2.3 (and presumably
278earlier versions), though it is present in 2.4 and later versions. To compile
279Exim on Solaris 2.3 it is necessary to include the line
280
281CFLAGS=-O -DNO_SYSEXITS -DEX_TEMPFAIL=75
282
283in your Local/Makefile.
284
285
286******* IMPORTANT FOR IRIX USERS *******
287
288There are problems with some versions of gcc on IRIX, as a result of which all
289DNS lookups yield either 0.0.0.0 or 255.255.255.255. Releases of gcc after
2902.7.2.3 (which works ok) are affected. Specifically, 2.8.* is affected, as are
291the 2.95 series. From release 3.21 of Exim, a workaround for this problem
292should automatically be enabled when Exim is compiled on IRIX using gcc.
293
294As from version 2.03 there is IRIX-specific code in Exim to obtain a list of
295all the IP addresses on local interfaces, including alias addresses, because
296the standard code gives only non-alias addresses in IRIX. The code came from
297SGI, with the comment:
298
299"On 6.2 you need the libc patch to get the sysctl() stub and the networking
300kernel patch to get the support."
301
302It seems that this code doesn't work on at least some earlier versions of IRIX
303(e.g. IRIX 5.3). If you can't compile under IRIX and the problem appears to
304relate to sysctl(), try commenting or #ifdef-ing out all the code in the
305file OS/os.c-IRIX.
306
307
308******* IMPORTANT FOR HP-UX USERS *******
309
310There are two different sets of configuration files for HP-UX. Those ending in
311HP-UX-9 are used for HP-UX version 9, and have been tested on HP-UX version
3129.05. Those ending in HP-UX are for later releases, and have been tested on
313HP-UX version 11.00. If you are using a version of HP-UX between 9.05 and
31411.00, you may need to edit the file OS/os.h-HP-UX if you encounter problems
315building Exim.
316
317If you want to use the Sieve facility in Exim, the alias iso-8859-1 should be
318added to the alias definition for iso81 in /usr/lib/nls/iconv/config.iconv. You
319also need to add a new alias definition: "alias utf8 utf-8".
320
321
322******* IMPORTANT FOR QNX USERS *******
323
3241. Exim makes some assumptions about the shell in the makefiles. The "normal"
325 QNX shell (ksh) will not work. You need to install "bash", which can be
326 obtained from the QNX freeware on QUICS. Install it to /usr/local/bin/bash
327 Then you need to change the SHELL definition at the top of the main Makefile
328 to SHELL=/usr/local/bin/bash. The file OS/Makefile-QNX sets the variable
329 MAKE_SHELL to /usr/local/bin/bash. If you install bash in a different place,
330 you will need to set MAKE_SHELL in your Local/Makefile in order to override
331 this.
332
3332. For some strange reason make will fail at building "exim_dbmbuild" when
334 called the first time. However simply calling make a second time will solve
c7c4ae90 335 the problem. Alternatively, run "make makefile" and then "make".
0f4f2a88
PH
336
337
338******* IMPORTANT FOR ULTRIX USERS *******
339
340You need to set SHELL explicitly in the make call when building on ULTRIX,
341that is, type "make SHELL=sh5".
342
343
344******* IMPORTANT FOR GNU/HURD USERS *******
345
346GNU/Hurd doesn't (at the time of writing, June 1999) have the ioctls for
347finding out the IP addresses of the local interfaces. You therefore have to set
348local_interfaces yourself. Otherwise it will treat only 127.0.0.1 as local.
349
48a53b7f 350Philip Hazel