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1THE EXIM MAIL TRANSFER AGENT VERSION 4
2--------------------------------------
3
38fa0c48 4Copyright (c) 1995 - 2012 University of Cambridge.
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5See the file NOTICE for conditions of use and distribution.
6
7There is a book about Exim by Philip Hazel called "The Exim SMTP Mail Server",
8published by UIT Cambridge in May 2003. This is the official guide for Exim 4.
9The current edition covers release 4.10 and a few later extensions.
10
11The O'Reilly book about Exim ("Exim The Mail Transfer Agent" by Philip Hazel)
12covers Exim 3, which is now deprecated. Exim 4 has a large number of changes
13from Exim 3, though the basic structure and philosophy remains the same. The
14older book may be helpful for the background, but a lot of the detail has
15changed, so it is likely to be confusing to newcomers.
16
17There is a web site at http://www.exim.org; this contains details of the
18mailing list exim-users@exim.org.
19
20A copy of the Exim FAQ should be available from the same source that you used
21to obtain the Exim distribution. Additional formats for the documentation
22(PostScript, PDF, Texinfo, and HTML) should also be available there.
23
24
25EXIM DISTRIBUTION
26-----------------
27
28Unpacking the tar file should produce a single directory called exim-<version>,
29containing the following files and directories:
30
31ACKNOWLEDGMENTS some acknowledgments
32CHANGES a conventional file name; it indirects to some files in doc/
33LICENCE the GNU General Public Licence
34Local/ an empty directory for local configuration files
35Makefile top level Makefile
36NOTICE notice about conditions of use
37OS/ directory containing OS-specific files
38README this file
39README.UPDATING special notes about updating from previous versions
40doc/ directory of documentation files
41exim_monitor/ directory of source files for the Exim monitor
42scripts/ directory of scripts used in the build process
43src/ directory of source files
44util/ directory of independent utilities
45
46Please see the documentation files for full instructions on how to build,
47install, and run Exim. For straightforward installations on operating systems
48to which Exim has already been ported, the building process is as follows:
49
38fa0c48 50. Ensure that the top-level Exim directory (e.g. exim-4.80) is the current
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51 directory (containing the files and directories listed above).
52
53. Edit the file called src/EDITME and put the result in a new file called
54 Local/Makefile. There are comments in src/EDITME telling you what the various
55 parameters are. You must at least provide values for BIN_DIRECTORY,
56 CONFIGURE_FILE, EXIM_USER and EXIM_GROUP (if EXIM_USER is numeric), and it is
57 recommended that SPOOL_DIRECTORY also be defined here if it is a fixed path.
58
59. There are a number of additional parameters whose defaults can also be
60 overridden by additions to Local/Makefile. The basic defaults are in
61 OS/Makefile-Default, but these settings are overridden for some operating
62 systems by values on OS/Makefile-<osname>. The most commonly-required change
63 is probably the setting of CC, which defines the command to run the C
64 compiler, and which defaults to gcc. To change it to cc, add the following
65 line to Local/Makefile:
66
67 CC=cc
68
69 If you are running the Berkeley DB package as your dbm library, then it is
70 worth putting USE_DB=yes in Local/Makefile, to get Exim to use the native
71 interface. This is the default for some operating systems. See
72 doc/dbm.discuss.txt for discussion on dbm libraries.
73
74. If you want to compile the Exim monitor, edit the file called
75 exim_monitor/EDITME and put the result in a file called Local/eximon.conf.
76 If you are not going to compile the Exim monitor, you should have commented
77 out the line starting EXIM_MONITOR= when creating Local/Makefile. There are
78 comments in exim_monitor/EDITME about the values set therein, but in this
79 case everything can be defaulted if you wish.
80
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81. If your system is not POSIX compliant by default, then you might experience
82 fewer problems if you help point the build tools to the POSIX variants. For
83 instance, on Solaris:
84
85 PATH=/usr/xpg4/bin:$PATH make SHELL=/usr/xpg4/bin/sh
86
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87. Type "make". This will determine what your machine's architecture and
88 operating system are, and create a build directory from those names (e.g.
89 "build-SunOS5-sparc"). Symbolic links are created from the build directory
90 to the source directory. A configured make file called <build-dir>/makefile
91 is then created, and "make" then goes on to use this to build various
92 binaries and scripts inside the build directory.
93
94. Type "make install", while running as root, to install the binaries,
95 scripts, and a default configuration file. To see what this command is
96 going to do before risking it, run "../scripts/exim_install -n" (not as
97 root) from within the build directory.
98
99. When you are ready to try running Exim, see the section entitled "Testing"
100 in the chapter called "Building and Installing Exim" in doc/spec.txt, or in
101 one of the other forms of the documentation.
102
103. Running the install script does NOT replace /usr/sbin/sendmail or
104 /usr/lib/sendmail with a link to Exim. That step you must perform by hand
105 when you are satisfied that Exim is running correctly.
106
107. Note that the default configuration refers to an alias file called
108 /etc/aliases. It used to be the case that every Unix had that file, because
109 it was the Sendmail default. These days, there are systems that don't have
110 /etc/aliases, so you might need to set it up. Your aliases should at least
111 include an alias for "postmaster".
112
113. Consider notifying users of the change of MTA. Exim has different
114 capabilities, and there are various operational differences, such as stricter
115 adherence to the RFCs than some MTAs, and differences in the text of
116 messages produced by various command-line options.
117
118. The default configuration file will use your host's fully qualified name (as
119 obtained from the uname() function) as the only local mail domain and as the
120 domain which is used to qualify unqualified local mail addresses. See the
121 comments in the default configuration file if you want to change these.
122
123The operating systems currently supported are: AIX, BSD/OS (aka BSDI), Darwin
124(Mac OS X), DGUX, FreeBSD, GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, HI-OSF (Hitachi), HP-UX, IRIX,
125MIPS RISCOS, NetBSD, OpenBSD, QNX, SCO, SCO SVR4.2 (aka UNIX-SV), Solaris (aka
126SunOS5), SunOS4, Tru64-Unix (formerly Digital Unix, formerly DEC-OSF1), Ultrix,
127and Unixware. However, code is not available for determining system load
128averages on Ultrix. There are also configuration files for compiling Exim in
129the Cygwin environment that can be installed on systems running Windows.
130However, the documentation supplied with the distribution does not contain any
131information about running Exim in the Cygwin environment.
132
133
134******* Modifying the building process ******
135
136Instructions for overriding the build-time options for Exim are given in the
137manual. You should never have to modify any of the supplied files; it should be
138possible to override everything that is necessary by creating suitable files in
139the Local directory. This means that you won't need to redo your modifications
140for the next release of Exim. If you find you can't avoid changing some other
141file, let me know and I'll see if I can find a way of making that unnecessary.
142
143Briefly, the building process concatenates a number of files in order to
144construct its working makefile. If <ostype> and <archtype> are the operating
145system and architecture types respectively, the files used are:
146
147 OS/Makefile-Default
148 OS/Makefile-<ostype>
149 Local/Makefile
150 Local/Makefile-<ostype>
151 Local/Makefile-<archtype>
152 Local/Makefile-<ostype>-<archtype>
153 OS/Makefile-Base
154
155Of the Local/* files, only Local/Makefile is required to exist; the rest are
156optional. Because of the way "make" works, values set in later files override
157values set in earlier ones. Thus you can set up general options that are
158overridden for specify operating systems and/or architectures if you wish.
159
160
161******* IMPORTANT FOR GNU/LINUX USERS *******
162
163Exim 4 won't work with some versions of Linux if you put its spool directory on
164an NFS partition. You get an error about "directory sync failed". This is
165because of a bug in Linux NFS. A fix has been promised in due course. It is in
166any case much better to put Exim's spool directory on local disc.
167
168If you get an error complaining about the lack of functions such as dbm_open()
169when building Exim, the problem is that it hasn't been able to find a DBM
170library. See the file doc/dbm.discuss.txt for a discussion about the various
171DBM libraries.
172
173Different versions of Linux come with different DBM libraries, stored in
174different places. As well as setting USE_DB=yes in Local/Makefile if Berkeley
175DB is in use, it may also be necessary to set a value in DBMLIB to specify the
176inclusion of the DBM library, for example: DBMLIB=-ldb or DBMLIB=-lgdbm.
177
178If you are using RedHat 7.0, which has DB3 as its DBM library, you need to
179install the db-devel package before building Exim. This will have a name like
180db3-devel-3.1.14-16.i386.rpm (but check which release of DB3 you have).
181
182The building scripts now distinguish between versions of Linux with the older
183libc5 and the more recent ones that use libc6. In the latter case, USE_DB and
184-ldb are the default settings, because DB is standard with libc6.
185
186It appears that with glibc-2.1.x (a minor libc upgrade), they have standardised
187on Berkeley DB2 (instead of DB1 in glibc-2.0.x). If you want to get DB1 back,
188you need to set
189
190 INCLUDE=-I/usr/include/db1
191 DBMLIB=-ldb1
192
193in your Local/Makefile. If you omit DBMLIB=-ldb1 Exim will link successfully
194using the DB1 compatibility interface to DB2, but it will expect the file
195format to be that of DB2, and so will not be able to read existing DB1 files.
196
197
198******* IMPORTANT FOR FREEBSD USERS *******
199
200On FreeBSD there is a file called /etc/mail/mailer.conf which selects what to
201run for various MTA calls. Instead of changing /usr/sbin/sendmail, you should
202edit this file instead, to read something like this:
203
204sendmail /usr/exim/bin/exim
205send-mail /usr/exim/bin/exim
206mailq /usr/exim/bin/exim -bp
207newaliases /usr/bin/true
208
209You will most probably need to add the line:
210
211daily_status_include_submit_mailq="NO" # No separate 'submit' queue
212
213to /etc/periodic.conf. This stops FreeBSD running the command "mailq -Ac"
214(which Exim doesn't understand) to list a separate submit queue (which Exim
215doesn't have).
216
217If you are using FreeBSD prior to 3.0-RELEASE, and you are not using the ports
218mechanism to install Exim, then you should install the perl5 package
219(/usr/local/bin/perl) and use that instead of perl in the base system, which is
220perl4 up until 3.0-RELEASE. If you are using the ports mechanism, this is
221handled for you.
222
223If you are upgrading from version 2.11 of Exim or earlier, and you are using
224DBM files, and you did not previously have USE_DB=yes in your Local/Makefile,
225then you will either have to put USE_DB=no in your Local/Makefile or (better)
226rebuild your DBM data files. The default for FreeBSD has been changed to
227USE_DB=yes, since FreeBSD comes with Berkeley DB. However, using the native DB
228interface means that the data files no longer have the ".db" extension.
229
230
231
232******* IMPORTANT FOR Tru64 (aka Digital Unix aka DEC-OSF1) USERS *******
233
234The default compiler may not recognize ANSI C by default. You may have to set
235
236CC=cc
237CFLAGS=-std1
238
239in Local/Makefile in order to compile Exim. A user reported another small
240problem with this operating system: In the file /usr/include/net/if.h a
241semicolon was missing at the end of line 143.
242
243
244
245******* IMPORTANT FOR SCO USERS *******
246
247The building scripts assume the existence of the "ar" command, which is part of
248the Development System. However, it is also possible to use the "gar" command
249that is part of the GNU utilities that are distributed with the 5.0.7 release.
250If you have "gar" and not "ar" you should include
251
252AR=gar
253
254in your Local/Makefile.
255
256
257
258******* IMPORTANT FOR Unixware 2.x USERS *******
259
260Unixware does not include db/dbm/ndbm with its standard compiler (it is
261available with /usr/ucb/cc, but that has bugs of its own). You should install
262gcc and Berkeley DB (or another dbm library if you really insist). If you use a
263different dbm library you will need to override the default setting of DBMLIB.
264
265DB 1.85 and 2.x can be found at http://www.sleepycat.com/. They have different
266characteristics. See the discussion of dbm libraries in doc/dbm.discuss.txt. DB
267needs to be compiled with gcc and you need a 'cc' in your path before the
268Unixware CC to compile it.
269
270Don't bother even starting to install exim on Unixware unless you have
271installed gcc and use it for everything.
272
273
274******* IMPORTANT FOR SOLARIS 2.3 (SUNOS 5.3) USERS *******
275
276The file /usr/include/sysexits.h does not exist on Solaris 2.3 (and presumably
277earlier versions), though it is present in 2.4 and later versions. To compile
278Exim on Solaris 2.3 it is necessary to include the line
279
280CFLAGS=-O -DNO_SYSEXITS -DEX_TEMPFAIL=75
281
282in your Local/Makefile.
283
284
285******* IMPORTANT FOR IRIX USERS *******
286
287There are problems with some versions of gcc on IRIX, as a result of which all
288DNS lookups yield either 0.0.0.0 or 255.255.255.255. Releases of gcc after
2892.7.2.3 (which works ok) are affected. Specifically, 2.8.* is affected, as are
290the 2.95 series. From release 3.21 of Exim, a workaround for this problem
291should automatically be enabled when Exim is compiled on IRIX using gcc.
292
293As from version 2.03 there is IRIX-specific code in Exim to obtain a list of
294all the IP addresses on local interfaces, including alias addresses, because
295the standard code gives only non-alias addresses in IRIX. The code came from
296SGI, with the comment:
297
298"On 6.2 you need the libc patch to get the sysctl() stub and the networking
299kernel patch to get the support."
300
301It seems that this code doesn't work on at least some earlier versions of IRIX
302(e.g. IRIX 5.3). If you can't compile under IRIX and the problem appears to
303relate to sysctl(), try commenting or #ifdef-ing out all the code in the
304file OS/os.c-IRIX.
305
306
307******* IMPORTANT FOR HP-UX USERS *******
308
309There are two different sets of configuration files for HP-UX. Those ending in
310HP-UX-9 are used for HP-UX version 9, and have been tested on HP-UX version
3119.05. Those ending in HP-UX are for later releases, and have been tested on
312HP-UX version 11.00. If you are using a version of HP-UX between 9.05 and
31311.00, you may need to edit the file OS/os.h-HP-UX if you encounter problems
314building Exim.
315
316If you want to use the Sieve facility in Exim, the alias iso-8859-1 should be
317added to the alias definition for iso81 in /usr/lib/nls/iconv/config.iconv. You
318also need to add a new alias definition: "alias utf8 utf-8".
319
320
321******* IMPORTANT FOR QNX USERS *******
322
3231. Exim makes some assumptions about the shell in the makefiles. The "normal"
324 QNX shell (ksh) will not work. You need to install "bash", which can be
325 obtained from the QNX freeware on QUICS. Install it to /usr/local/bin/bash
326 Then you need to change the SHELL definition at the top of the main Makefile
327 to SHELL=/usr/local/bin/bash. The file OS/Makefile-QNX sets the variable
328 MAKE_SHELL to /usr/local/bin/bash. If you install bash in a different place,
329 you will need to set MAKE_SHELL in your Local/Makefile in order to override
330 this.
331
3322. For some strange reason make will fail at building "exim_dbmbuild" when
333 called the first time. However simply calling make a second time will solve
c7c4ae90 334 the problem. Alternatively, run "make makefile" and then "make".
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335
336
337******* IMPORTANT FOR ULTRIX USERS *******
338
339You need to set SHELL explicitly in the make call when building on ULTRIX,
340that is, type "make SHELL=sh5".
341
342
343******* IMPORTANT FOR GNU/HURD USERS *******
344
345GNU/Hurd doesn't (at the time of writing, June 1999) have the ioctls for
346finding out the IP addresses of the local interfaces. You therefore have to set
347local_interfaces yourself. Otherwise it will treat only 127.0.0.1 as local.
348
48a53b7f 349Philip Hazel