Docs: spelling
[exim.git] / doc / doc-docbook / spec.xfpt
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1. /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2. This is the primary source of the Exim Manual. It is an xfpt document that is
3. converted into DocBook XML for subsequent conversion into printing and online
4. formats. The markup used herein is "standard" xfpt markup, with some extras.
5. The markup is summarized in a file called Markup.txt.
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6.
7. WARNING: When you use the .new macro, make sure it appears *before* any
8. adjacent index items; otherwise you get an empty "paragraph" which causes
9. unwanted vertical space.
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10. /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
11
12.include stdflags
13.include stdmacs
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14
15. /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
33393583 16. This outputs the standard DocBook boilerplate.
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17. /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
18
33393583 19.docbook
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20
21. /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
22. These lines are processing instructions for the Simple DocBook Processor that
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23. Philip Hazel has developed as a less cumbersome way of making PostScript and
24. PDFs than using xmlto and fop. They will be ignored by all other XML
25. processors.
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26. /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
27
28.literal xml
29<?sdop
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30 foot_right_recto="&chaptertitle; (&chapternumber;)"
31 foot_right_verso="&chaptertitle; (&chapternumber;)"
3cb1b51e 32 toc_chapter_blanks="yes,yes"
595028e4 33 table_warn_overflow="overprint"
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34?>
35.literal off
9b371988 36
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37. /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
38. This generate the outermost <book> element that wraps then entire document.
39. /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
40
41.book
42
43. /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2aee48d6 44. These definitions set some parameters and save some typing.
7d837ca7 45. Update the Copyright year (only) when changing content.
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46. /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
47
d99f54e4 48.set previousversion "4.91"
2aee48d6 49.include ./local_params
f89d2485 50
33393583 51.set ACL "access control lists (ACLs)"
f89d2485 52.set I "&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;"
33393583 53
7d837ca7 54.macro copyyear
c45e9ca1 552018
7d837ca7 56.endmacro
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57
58. /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
59. Additional xfpt markup used by this document, over and above the default
60. provided in the xfpt library.
61. /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
62
63. --- Override the &$ flag to automatically insert a $ with the variable name
64
65.flag &$ $& "<varname>$" "</varname>"
66
67. --- Short flags for daggers in option headings. They will always be inside
68. --- an italic string, but we want the daggers to be roman.
69
70.flag &!! "</emphasis>&dagger;<emphasis>"
71.flag &!? "</emphasis>&Dagger;<emphasis>"
72
73. --- A macro for an Exim option definition heading, generating a one-line
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74. --- table with four columns. For cases when the option name is given with
75. --- a space, so that it can be split, a fifth argument is used for the
76. --- index entry.
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77
78.macro option
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79.arg 5
80.oindex "&%$5%&"
81.endarg
82.arg -5
3cb1b51e 83.oindex "&%$1%&"
0a4e3112 84.endarg
f89d2485 85.itable all 0 0 4 8* left 6* center 6* center 6* right
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86.row "&%$1%&" "Use: &'$2'&" "Type: &'$3'&" "Default: &'$4'&"
87.endtable
88.endmacro
89
90. --- A macro for the common 2-column tables. The width of the first column
91. --- is suitable for the many tables at the start of the main options chapter;
92. --- the small number of other 2-column tables override it.
93
db9452a9 94.macro table2 196pt 254pt
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95.itable none 0 0 2 $1 left $2 left
96.endmacro
97
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98. --- A macro that generates .row, but puts &I; at the start of the first
99. --- argument, thus indenting it. Assume a minimum of two arguments, and
100. --- allow up to four arguments, which is as many as we'll ever need.
101
102.macro irow
103.arg 4
104.row "&I;$1" "$2" "$3" "$4"
105.endarg
106.arg -4
107.arg 3
108.row "&I;$1" "$2" "$3"
109.endarg
110.arg -3
111.row "&I;$1" "$2"
112.endarg
113.endarg
114.endmacro
115
116. --- Macros for option, variable, and concept index entries. For a "range"
117. --- style of entry, use .scindex for the start and .ecindex for the end. The
118. --- first argument of .scindex and the only argument of .ecindex must be the
119. --- ID that ties them together.
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120
121.macro cindex
122&<indexterm role="concept">&
123&<primary>&$1&</primary>&
124.arg 2
125&<secondary>&$2&</secondary>&
126.endarg
127&</indexterm>&
128.endmacro
129
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130.macro scindex
131&<indexterm role="concept" id="$1" class="startofrange">&
132&<primary>&$2&</primary>&
133.arg 3
134&<secondary>&$3&</secondary>&
135.endarg
136&</indexterm>&
137.endmacro
138
139.macro ecindex
140&<indexterm role="concept" startref="$1" class="endofrange"/>&
141.endmacro
142
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143.macro oindex
144&<indexterm role="option">&
145&<primary>&$1&</primary>&
146.arg 2
147&<secondary>&$2&</secondary>&
148.endarg
149&</indexterm>&
150.endmacro
151
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152.macro vindex
153&<indexterm role="variable">&
154&<primary>&$1&</primary>&
155.arg 2
156&<secondary>&$2&</secondary>&
157.endarg
158&</indexterm>&
159.endmacro
160
9b371988 161.macro index
f89d2485 162.echo "** Don't use .index; use .cindex or .oindex or .vindex"
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163.endmacro
164. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
165
166
167. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
168. The <bookinfo> element is removed from the XML before processing for Ascii
169. output formats.
170. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
171
172.literal xml
173<bookinfo>
174<title>Specification of the Exim Mail Transfer Agent</title>
175<titleabbrev>The Exim MTA</titleabbrev>
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176<date>
177.fulldate
178</date>
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179<author><firstname>Exim</firstname><surname>Maintainers</surname></author>
180<authorinitials>EM</authorinitials>
9b371988 181<revhistory><revision>
99474a17 182.versiondatexml
7b4c60eb 183 <authorinitials>EM</authorinitials>
9b371988 184</revision></revhistory>
2aee48d6 185<copyright><year>
29343b08 186.copyyear
2aee48d6 187 </year><holder>University of Cambridge</holder></copyright>
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188</bookinfo>
189.literal off
190
191
192. /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
193. This chunk of literal XML implements index entries of the form "x, see y" and
194. "x, see also y". However, the DocBook DTD doesn't allow <indexterm> entries
195. at the top level, so we have to put the .chapter directive first.
196. /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
197
f89d2485 198.chapter "Introduction" "CHID1"
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199.literal xml
200
f89d2485 201<indexterm role="variable">
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202 <primary>$1, $2, etc.</primary>
203 <see><emphasis>numerical variables</emphasis></see>
204</indexterm>
205<indexterm role="concept">
206 <primary>address</primary>
207 <secondary>rewriting</secondary>
208 <see><emphasis>rewriting</emphasis></see>
209</indexterm>
210<indexterm role="concept">
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211 <primary>Bounce Address Tag Validation</primary>
212 <see><emphasis>BATV</emphasis></see>
213</indexterm>
214<indexterm role="concept">
215 <primary>Client SMTP Authorization</primary>
216 <see><emphasis>CSA</emphasis></see>
217</indexterm>
218<indexterm role="concept">
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219 <primary>CR character</primary>
220 <see><emphasis>carriage return</emphasis></see>
221</indexterm>
222<indexterm role="concept">
223 <primary>CRL</primary>
224 <see><emphasis>certificate revocation list</emphasis></see>
225</indexterm>
226<indexterm role="concept">
227 <primary>delivery</primary>
228 <secondary>failure report</secondary>
229 <see><emphasis>bounce message</emphasis></see>
230</indexterm>
231<indexterm role="concept">
232 <primary>dialup</primary>
233 <see><emphasis>intermittently connected hosts</emphasis></see>
234</indexterm>
235<indexterm role="concept">
236 <primary>exiscan</primary>
237 <see><emphasis>content scanning</emphasis></see>
238</indexterm>
239<indexterm role="concept">
240 <primary>failover</primary>
241 <see><emphasis>fallback</emphasis></see>
242</indexterm>
243<indexterm role="concept">
244 <primary>fallover</primary>
245 <see><emphasis>fallback</emphasis></see>
246</indexterm>
247<indexterm role="concept">
248 <primary>filter</primary>
249 <secondary>Sieve</secondary>
250 <see><emphasis>Sieve filter</emphasis></see>
251</indexterm>
252<indexterm role="concept">
253 <primary>ident</primary>
254 <see><emphasis>RFC 1413</emphasis></see>
255</indexterm>
256<indexterm role="concept">
257 <primary>LF character</primary>
258 <see><emphasis>linefeed</emphasis></see>
259</indexterm>
260<indexterm role="concept">
261 <primary>maximum</primary>
595028e4 262 <seealso><emphasis>limit</emphasis></seealso>
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263</indexterm>
264<indexterm role="concept">
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265 <primary>monitor</primary>
266 <see><emphasis>Exim monitor</emphasis></see>
267</indexterm>
268<indexterm role="concept">
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269 <primary>no_<emphasis>xxx</emphasis></primary>
270 <see>entry for xxx</see>
271</indexterm>
272<indexterm role="concept">
273 <primary>NUL</primary>
274 <see><emphasis>binary zero</emphasis></see>
275</indexterm>
276<indexterm role="concept">
277 <primary>passwd file</primary>
278 <see><emphasis>/etc/passwd</emphasis></see>
279</indexterm>
280<indexterm role="concept">
281 <primary>process id</primary>
282 <see><emphasis>pid</emphasis></see>
283</indexterm>
284<indexterm role="concept">
285 <primary>RBL</primary>
286 <see><emphasis>DNS list</emphasis></see>
287</indexterm>
288<indexterm role="concept">
289 <primary>redirection</primary>
290 <see><emphasis>address redirection</emphasis></see>
291</indexterm>
292<indexterm role="concept">
293 <primary>return path</primary>
294 <seealso><emphasis>envelope sender</emphasis></seealso>
295</indexterm>
296<indexterm role="concept">
297 <primary>scanning</primary>
298 <see><emphasis>content scanning</emphasis></see>
299</indexterm>
300<indexterm role="concept">
301 <primary>SSL</primary>
302 <see><emphasis>TLS</emphasis></see>
303</indexterm>
304<indexterm role="concept">
305 <primary>string</primary>
306 <secondary>expansion</secondary>
307 <see><emphasis>expansion</emphasis></see>
308</indexterm>
309<indexterm role="concept">
310 <primary>top bit</primary>
311 <see><emphasis>8-bit characters</emphasis></see>
312</indexterm>
313<indexterm role="concept">
314 <primary>variables</primary>
315 <see><emphasis>expansion, variables</emphasis></see>
316</indexterm>
317<indexterm role="concept">
318 <primary>zero, binary</primary>
319 <see><emphasis>binary zero</emphasis></see>
320</indexterm>
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321
322.literal off
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323
324
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325. /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
326. This is the real start of the first chapter. See the comment above as to why
327. we can't have the .chapter line here.
328. chapter "Introduction"
329. /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
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330
331Exim is a mail transfer agent (MTA) for hosts that are running Unix or
332Unix-like operating systems. It was designed on the assumption that it would be
333run on hosts that are permanently connected to the Internet. However, it can be
334used on intermittently connected hosts with suitable configuration adjustments.
335
336Configuration files currently exist for the following operating systems: AIX,
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337BSD/OS (aka BSDI), Darwin (Mac OS X), DGUX, Dragonfly, FreeBSD, GNU/Hurd,
338GNU/Linux, HI-OSF (Hitachi), HI-UX, HP-UX, IRIX, MIPS RISCOS, NetBSD, OpenBSD,
339OpenUNIX, QNX, SCO, SCO SVR4.2 (aka UNIX-SV), Solaris (aka SunOS5), SunOS4,
340Tru64-Unix (formerly Digital UNIX, formerly DEC-OSF1), Ultrix, and Unixware.
341Some of these operating systems are no longer current and cannot easily be
342tested, so the configuration files may no longer work in practice.
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343
344There are also configuration files for compiling Exim in the Cygwin environment
345that can be installed on systems running Windows. However, this document does
346not contain any information about running Exim in the Cygwin environment.
347
348The terms and conditions for the use and distribution of Exim are contained in
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349the file &_NOTICE_&. Exim is distributed under the terms of the GNU General
350Public Licence, a copy of which may be found in the file &_LICENCE_&.
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351
352The use, supply or promotion of Exim for the purpose of sending bulk,
353unsolicited electronic mail is incompatible with the basic aims of the program,
354which revolve around the free provision of a service that enhances the quality
355of personal communications. The author of Exim regards indiscriminate
356mass-mailing as an antisocial, irresponsible abuse of the Internet.
357
358Exim owes a great deal to Smail 3 and its author, Ron Karr. Without the
359experience of running and working on the Smail 3 code, I could never have
360contemplated starting to write a new MTA. Many of the ideas and user interfaces
361were originally taken from Smail 3, though the actual code of Exim is entirely
362new, and has developed far beyond the initial concept.
363
364Many people, both in Cambridge and around the world, have contributed to the
365development and the testing of Exim, and to porting it to various operating
366systems. I am grateful to them all. The distribution now contains a file called
9b371988 367&_ACKNOWLEDGMENTS_&, in which I have started recording the names of
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368contributors.
369
370
f89d2485 371.section "Exim documentation" "SECID1"
800d5176 372. Keep this example change bar when updating the documentation!
b52ed2b3 373
54fda09b 374.new
9b371988 375.cindex "documentation"
2aee48d6 376This edition of the Exim specification applies to version &version() of Exim.
9b371988 377Substantive changes from the &previousversion; edition are marked in some
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378renditions of the document; this paragraph is so marked if the rendition is
379capable of showing a change indicator.
54fda09b 380.wen
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381
382This document is very much a reference manual; it is not a tutorial. The reader
383is expected to have some familiarity with the SMTP mail transfer protocol and
384with general Unix system administration. Although there are some discussions
385and examples in places, the information is mostly organized in a way that makes
386it easy to look up, rather than in a natural order for sequential reading.
387Furthermore, the manual aims to cover every aspect of Exim in detail, including
388a number of rarely-used, special-purpose features that are unlikely to be of
389very wide interest.
390
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391.cindex "books about Exim"
392An &"easier"& discussion of Exim which provides more in-depth explanatory,
393introductory, and tutorial material can be found in a book entitled &'The Exim
595028e4 394SMTP Mail Server'& (second edition, 2007), published by UIT Cambridge
9b371988 395(&url(http://www.uit.co.uk/exim-book/)).
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396
397This book also contains a chapter that gives a general introduction to SMTP and
398Internet mail. Inevitably, however, the book is unlikely to be fully up-to-date
399with the latest release of Exim. (Note that the earlier book about Exim,
400published by O'Reilly, covers Exim 3, and many things have changed in Exim 4.)
401
9b371988 402.cindex "Debian" "information sources"
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403If you are using a Debian distribution of Exim, you will find information about
404Debian-specific features in the file
f89d2485 405&_/usr/share/doc/exim4-base/README.Debian_&.
9b371988 406The command &(man update-exim.conf)& is another source of Debian-specific
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407information.
408
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409.cindex "&_doc/NewStuff_&"
410.cindex "&_doc/ChangeLog_&"
411.cindex "change log"
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412As the program develops, there may be features in newer versions that have not
413yet made it into this document, which is updated only when the most significant
414digit of the fractional part of the version number changes. Specifications of
415new features that are not yet in this manual are placed in the file
9b371988 416&_doc/NewStuff_& in the Exim distribution.
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9b371988 418Some features may be classified as &"experimental"&. These may change
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419incompatibly while they are developing, or even be withdrawn. For this reason,
420they are not documented in this manual. Information about experimental features
9b371988 421can be found in the file &_doc/experimental.txt_&.
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422
423All changes to the program (whether new features, bug fixes, or other kinds of
9b371988 424change) are noted briefly in the file called &_doc/ChangeLog_&.
168e428f 425
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426.cindex "&_doc/spec.txt_&"
427This specification itself is available as an ASCII file in &_doc/spec.txt_& so
428that it can easily be searched with a text editor. Other files in the &_doc_&
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429directory are:
430
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431.table2 100pt
432.row &_OptionLists.txt_& "list of all options in alphabetical order"
433.row &_dbm.discuss.txt_& "discussion about DBM libraries"
434.row &_exim.8_& "a man page of Exim's command line options"
435.row &_experimental.txt_& "documentation of experimental features"
436.row &_filter.txt_& "specification of the filter language"
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437.row &_Exim3.upgrade_& "upgrade notes from release 2 to release 3"
438.row &_Exim4.upgrade_& "upgrade notes from release 3 to release 4"
2eec84ca 439.row &_openssl.txt_& "installing a current OpenSSL release"
9b371988 440.endtable
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441
442The main specification and the specification of the filtering language are also
443available in other formats (HTML, PostScript, PDF, and Texinfo). Section
9b371988 444&<<SECTavail>>& below tells you how to get hold of these.
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445
446
447
f89d2485 448.section "FTP and web sites" "SECID2"
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449.cindex "web site"
450.cindex "FTP site"
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451The primary site for Exim source distributions is the &%exim.org%& FTP site,
452available over HTTPS, HTTP and FTP. These services, and the &%exim.org%&
453website, are hosted at the University of Cambridge.
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454
455.cindex "wiki"
456.cindex "FAQ"
168e428f 457As well as Exim distribution tar files, the Exim web site contains a number of
f89d2485 458differently formatted versions of the documentation. A recent addition to the
7d0ab55c 459online information is the Exim wiki (&url(http://wiki.exim.org)),
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460which contains what used to be a separate FAQ, as well as various other
461examples, tips, and know-how that have been contributed by Exim users.
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462The wiki site should always redirect to the correct place, which is currently
463provided by GitHub, and is open to editing by anyone with a GitHub account.
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464
465.cindex Bugzilla
77c27011 466An Exim Bugzilla exists at &url(https://bugs.exim.org). You can use
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467this to report bugs, and also to add items to the wish list. Please search
468first to check that you are not duplicating a previous entry.
b6effdcc 469Please do not ask for configuration help in the bug-tracker.
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470
471
f89d2485 472.section "Mailing lists" "SECID3"
9b371988 473.cindex "mailing lists" "for Exim users"
f89d2485 474The following Exim mailing lists exist:
168e428f 475
9b371988 476.table2 140pt
d854d3a9 477.row &'exim-announce@exim.org'& "Moderated, low volume announcements list"
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478.row &'exim-users@exim.org'& "General discussion list"
479.row &'exim-dev@exim.org'& "Discussion of bugs, enhancements, etc."
d854d3a9 480.row &'exim-cvs@exim.org'& "Automated commit messages from the VCS"
9b371988 481.endtable
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482
483You can subscribe to these lists, change your existing subscriptions, and view
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484or search the archives via the mailing lists link on the Exim home page.
485.cindex "Debian" "mailing list for"
4f578862 486If you are using a Debian distribution of Exim, you may wish to subscribe to
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487the Debian-specific mailing list &'pkg-exim4-users@lists.alioth.debian.org'&
488via this web page:
489.display
490&url(http://lists.alioth.debian.org/mailman/listinfo/pkg-exim4-users)
491.endd
492Please ask Debian-specific questions on this list and not on the general Exim
493lists.
9b371988 494
f89d2485 495.section "Bug reports" "SECID5"
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496.cindex "bug reports"
497.cindex "reporting bugs"
7d0ab55c 498Reports of obvious bugs can be emailed to &'bugs@exim.org'& or reported
77c27011 499via the Bugzilla (&url(https://bugs.exim.org)). However, if you are unsure
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500whether some behaviour is a bug or not, the best thing to do is to post a
501message to the &'exim-dev'& mailing list and have it discussed.
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502
503
504
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505.section "Where to find the Exim distribution" "SECTavail"
506.cindex "FTP site"
b6effdcc 507.cindex "HTTPS download site"
9b371988 508.cindex "distribution" "ftp site"
b6effdcc 509.cindex "distribution" "https site"
b6effdcc 510The master distribution site for the Exim distribution is
9b371988 511.display
b6effdcc 512&*https://downloads.exim.org/*&
9b371988 513.endd
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514The service is available over HTTPS, HTTP and FTP.
515We encourage people to migrate to HTTPS.
516
517The content served at &'https://downloads.exim.org/'& is identical to the
518content served at &'https://ftp.exim.org/pub/exim'& and
519&'ftp://ftp.exim.org/pub/exim'&.
520
521If accessing via a hostname containing &'ftp'&, then the file references that
522follow are relative to the &_exim_& directories at these sites.
523If accessing via the hostname &'downloads'& then the subdirectories described
524here are top-level directories.
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525
526There are now quite a number of independent mirror sites around
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527the world. Those that I know about are listed in the file called &_Mirrors_&.
528
b6effdcc 529Within the top exim directory there are subdirectories called &_exim3_& (for
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530previous Exim 3 distributions), &_exim4_& (for the latest Exim 4
531distributions), and &_Testing_& for testing versions. In the &_exim4_&
168e428f 532subdirectory, the current release can always be found in files called
9b371988 533.display
b6effdcc 534&_exim-n.nn.tar.xz_&
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535&_exim-n.nn.tar.gz_&
536&_exim-n.nn.tar.bz2_&
537.endd
b6effdcc 538where &'n.nn'& is the highest such version number in the directory. The three
168e428f 539files contain identical data; the only difference is the type of compression.
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540The &_.xz_& file is usually the smallest, while the &_.gz_& file is the
541most portable to old systems.
168e428f 542
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543.cindex "distribution" "signing details"
544.cindex "distribution" "public key"
545.cindex "public key for signed distribution"
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546The distributions will be PGP signed by an individual key of the Release
547Coordinator. This key will have a uid containing an email address in the
548&'exim.org'& domain and will have signatures from other people, including
549other Exim maintainers. We expect that the key will be in the "strong set" of
550PGP keys. There should be a trust path to that key from Nigel Metheringham's
551PGP key, a version of which can be found in the release directory in the file
552&_nigel-pubkey.asc_&. All keys used will be available in public keyserver pools,
553such as &'pool.sks-keyservers.net'&.
554
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555At time of last update, releases were being made by Jeremy Harris and signed
556with key &'0xBCE58C8CE41F32DF'&. Other recent keys used for signing are those
557of Heiko Schlittermann, &'0x26101B62F69376CE'&,
558and of Phil Pennock, &'0x4D1E900E14C1CC04'&.
40167b05
PP
559
560The signatures for the tar bundles are in:
9b371988 561.display
b6effdcc 562&_exim-n.nn.tar.xz.asc_&
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563&_exim-n.nn.tar.gz.asc_&
564&_exim-n.nn.tar.bz2.asc_&
9b371988 565.endd
168e428f 566For each released version, the log of changes is made separately available in a
9b371988 567separate file in the directory &_ChangeLogs_& so that it is possible to
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568find out what has changed without having to download the entire distribution.
569
9b371988 570.cindex "documentation" "available formats"
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571The main distribution contains ASCII versions of this specification and other
572documentation; other formats of the documents are available in separate files
9b371988
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573inside the &_exim4_& directory of the FTP site:
574.display
575&_exim-html-n.nn.tar.gz_&
576&_exim-pdf-n.nn.tar.gz_&
577&_exim-postscript-n.nn.tar.gz_&
578&_exim-texinfo-n.nn.tar.gz_&
579.endd
580These tar files contain only the &_doc_& directory, not the complete
b6effdcc 581distribution, and are also available in &_.bz2_& and &_.xz_& forms.
168e428f 582
168e428f 583
f89d2485 584.section "Limitations" "SECID6"
9b371988
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585.ilist
586.cindex "limitations of Exim"
587.cindex "bang paths" "not handled by Exim"
588Exim is designed for use as an Internet MTA, and therefore handles addresses in
589RFC 2822 domain format only. It cannot handle UUCP &"bang paths"&, though
590simple two-component bang paths can be converted by a straightforward rewriting
591configuration. This restriction does not prevent Exim from being interfaced to
592UUCP as a transport mechanism, provided that domain addresses are used.
593.next
594.cindex "domainless addresses"
595.cindex "address" "without domain"
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596Exim insists that every address it handles has a domain attached. For incoming
597local messages, domainless addresses are automatically qualified with a
598configured domain value. Configuration options specify from which remote
599systems unqualified addresses are acceptable. These are then qualified on
600arrival.
9b371988
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601.next
602.cindex "transport" "external"
603.cindex "external transports"
604The only external transport mechanisms that are currently implemented are SMTP
605and LMTP over a TCP/IP network (including support for IPv6). However, a pipe
168e428f 606transport is available, and there are facilities for writing messages to files
9b371988
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607and pipes, optionally in &'batched SMTP'& format; these facilities can be used
608to send messages to other transport mechanisms such as UUCP, provided they can
609handle domain-style addresses. Batched SMTP input is also catered for.
610.next
611Exim is not designed for storing mail for dial-in hosts. When the volumes of
612such mail are large, it is better to get the messages &"delivered"& into files
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613(that is, off Exim's queue) and subsequently passed on to the dial-in hosts by
614other means.
9b371988
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615.next
616Although Exim does have basic facilities for scanning incoming messages, these
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617are not comprehensive enough to do full virus or spam scanning. Such operations
618are best carried out using additional specialized software packages. If you
619compile Exim with the content-scanning extension, straightforward interfaces to
620a number of common scanners are provided.
9b371988 621.endlist
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622
623
f89d2485 624.section "Run time configuration" "SECID7"
168e428f
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625Exim's run time configuration is held in a single text file that is divided
626into a number of sections. The entries in this file consist of keywords and
627values, in the style of Smail 3 configuration files. A default configuration
628file which is suitable for simple online installations is provided in the
9b371988 629distribution, and is described in chapter &<<CHAPdefconfil>>& below.
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630
631
f89d2485 632.section "Calling interface" "SECID8"
9b371988 633.cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "command line interface"
168e428f 634Like many MTAs, Exim has adopted the Sendmail command line interface so that it
9b371988
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635can be a straight replacement for &_/usr/lib/sendmail_& or
636&_/usr/sbin/sendmail_& when sending mail, but you do not need to know anything
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637about Sendmail in order to run Exim. For actions other than sending messages,
638Sendmail-compatible options also exist, but those that produce output (for
9b371988 639example, &%-bp%&, which lists the messages on the queue) do so in Exim's own
168e428f 640format. There are also some additional options that are compatible with Smail
9b371988 6413, and some further options that are new to Exim. Chapter &<<CHAPcommandline>>&
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642documents all Exim's command line options. This information is automatically
643made into the man page that forms part of the Exim distribution.
644
645Control of messages on the queue can be done via certain privileged command
9b371988
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646line options. There is also an optional monitor program called &'eximon'&,
647which displays current information in an X window, and which contains a menu
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648interface to Exim's command line administration options.
649
650
651
f89d2485 652.section "Terminology" "SECID9"
9b371988
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653.cindex "terminology definitions"
654.cindex "body of message" "definition of"
655The &'body'& of a message is the actual data that the sender wants to transmit.
656It is the last part of a message, and is separated from the &'header'& (see
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657below) by a blank line.
658
9b371988 659.cindex "bounce message" "definition of"
168e428f 660When a message cannot be delivered, it is normally returned to the sender in a
9b371988
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661delivery failure message or a &"non-delivery report"& (NDR). The term
662&'bounce'& is commonly used for this action, and the error reports are often
663called &'bounce messages'&. This is a convenient shorthand for &"delivery
664failure error report"&. Such messages have an empty sender address in the
665message's &'envelope'& (see below) to ensure that they cannot themselves give
666rise to further bounce messages.
667
668The term &'default'& appears frequently in this manual. It is used to qualify a
168e428f
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669value which is used in the absence of any setting in the configuration. It may
670also qualify an action which is taken unless a configuration setting specifies
671otherwise.
672
9b371988 673The term &'defer'& is used when the delivery of a message to a specific
168e428f 674destination cannot immediately take place for some reason (a remote host may be
9b371988 675down, or a user's local mailbox may be full). Such deliveries are &'deferred'&
168e428f
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676until a later time.
677
9b371988
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678The word &'domain'& is sometimes used to mean all but the first component of a
679host's name. It is &'not'& used in that sense here, where it normally refers to
680the part of an email address following the @ sign.
168e428f 681
f89d2485 682.cindex "envelope, definition of"
9b371988
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683.cindex "sender" "definition of"
684A message in transit has an associated &'envelope'&, as well as a header and a
168e428f
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685body. The envelope contains a sender address (to which bounce messages should
686be delivered), and any number of recipient addresses. References to the
687sender or the recipients of a message usually mean the addresses in the
688envelope. An MTA uses these addresses for delivery, and for returning bounce
689messages, not the addresses that appear in the header lines.
690
f89d2485 691.cindex "message" "header, definition of"
9b371988
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692.cindex "header section" "definition of"
693The &'header'& of a message is the first part of a message's text, consisting
694of a number of lines, each of which has a name such as &'From:'&, &'To:'&,
695&'Subject:'&, etc. Long header lines can be split over several text lines by
168e428f
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696indenting the continuations. The header is separated from the body by a blank
697line.
698
9b371988
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699.cindex "local part" "definition of"
700.cindex "domain" "definition of"
701The term &'local part'&, which is taken from RFC 2822, is used to refer to that
168e428f 702part of an email address that precedes the @ sign. The part that follows the
9b371988 703@ sign is called the &'domain'& or &'mail domain'&.
168e428f 704
9b371988 705.cindex "local delivery" "definition of"
f89d2485 706.cindex "remote delivery, definition of"
9b371988 707The terms &'local delivery'& and &'remote delivery'& are used to distinguish
168e428f 708delivery to a file or a pipe on the local host from delivery by SMTP over
068aaea8 709TCP/IP to another host. As far as Exim is concerned, all hosts other than the
9b371988 710host it is running on are &'remote'&.
168e428f 711
9b371988
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712.cindex "return path" "definition of"
713&'Return path'& is another name that is used for the sender address in a
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714message's envelope.
715
9b371988
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716.cindex "queue" "definition of"
717The term &'queue'& is used to refer to the set of messages awaiting delivery,
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718because this term is in widespread use in the context of MTAs. However, in
719Exim's case the reality is more like a pool than a queue, because there is
720normally no ordering of waiting messages.
721
9b371988
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722.cindex "queue runner" "definition of"
723The term &'queue runner'& is used to describe a process that scans the queue
168e428f 724and attempts to deliver those messages whose retry times have come. This term
9b371988 725is used by other MTAs, and also relates to the command &%runq%&, but in Exim
168e428f
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726the waiting messages are normally processed in an unpredictable order.
727
9b371988
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728.cindex "spool directory" "definition of"
729The term &'spool directory'& is used for a directory in which Exim keeps the
730messages on its queue &-- that is, those that it is in the process of
168e428f 731delivering. This should not be confused with the directory in which local
9b371988
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732mailboxes are stored, which is called a &"spool directory"& by some people. In
733the Exim documentation, &"spool"& is always used in the first sense.
168e428f
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734
735
736
737
738
739
9b371988
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740. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
741. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
168e428f 742
f89d2485 743.chapter "Incorporated code" "CHID2"
9b371988
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744.cindex "incorporated code"
745.cindex "regular expressions" "library"
746.cindex "PCRE"
1899bab2 747.cindex "OpenDMARC"
168e428f
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748A number of pieces of external code are included in the Exim distribution.
749
9b371988 750.ilist
210f147e
NM
751Regular expressions are supported in the main Exim program and in the
752Exim monitor using the freely-distributable PCRE library, copyright
40df1be3
TF
753&copy; University of Cambridge. The source to PCRE is no longer shipped with
754Exim, so you will need to use the version of PCRE shipped with your system,
755or obtain and install the full version of the library from
f89d2485 756&url(ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre).
9b371988 757.next
f89d2485 758.cindex "cdb" "acknowledgment"
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759Support for the cdb (Constant DataBase) lookup method is provided by code
760contributed by Nigel Metheringham of (at the time he contributed it) Planet
9b371988
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761Online Ltd. The implementation is completely contained within the code of Exim.
762It does not link against an external cdb library. The code contains the
763following statements:
764
765.blockquote
766Copyright &copy; 1998 Nigel Metheringham, Planet Online Ltd
767
168e428f
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768This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
769the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
770Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later
771version.
168e428f
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772This code implements Dan Bernstein's Constant DataBase (cdb) spec. Information,
773the spec and sample code for cdb can be obtained from
f89d2485
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774&url(http://www.pobox.com/~djb/cdb.html). This implementation borrows
775some code from Dan Bernstein's implementation (which has no license
776restrictions applied to it).
9b371988
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777.endblockquote
778.next
779.cindex "SPA authentication"
780.cindex "Samba project"
781.cindex "Microsoft Secure Password Authentication"
782Client support for Microsoft's &'Secure Password Authentication'& is provided
168e428f
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783by code contributed by Marc Prud'hommeaux. Server support was contributed by
784Tom Kistner. This includes code taken from the Samba project, which is released
785under the Gnu GPL.
9b371988
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786.next
787.cindex "Cyrus"
788.cindex "&'pwcheck'& daemon"
789.cindex "&'pwauthd'& daemon"
790Support for calling the Cyrus &'pwcheck'& and &'saslauthd'& daemons is provided
168e428f
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791by code taken from the Cyrus-SASL library and adapted by Alexander S.
792Sabourenkov. The permission notice appears below, in accordance with the
793conditions expressed therein.
9b371988
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794
795.blockquote
796Copyright &copy; 2001 Carnegie Mellon University. All rights reserved.
797
168e428f
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798Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
799modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
800are met:
168e428f 801
9b371988
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802.olist
803Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
804notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
805.next
806Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
168e428f
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807notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
808the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
809distribution.
9b371988
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810.next
811The name &"Carnegie Mellon University"& must not be used to
168e428f
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812endorse or promote products derived from this software without
813prior written permission. For permission or any other legal
814details, please contact
9b371988 815.display
068aaea8
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816 Office of Technology Transfer
817 Carnegie Mellon University
818 5000 Forbes Avenue
819 Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890
820 (412) 268-4387, fax: (412) 268-7395
821 tech-transfer@andrew.cmu.edu
9b371988
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822.endd
823.next
824Redistributions of any form whatsoever must retain the following
168e428f 825acknowledgment:
9b371988
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826
827&"This product includes software developed by Computing Services
828at Carnegie Mellon University (&url(http://www.cmu.edu/computing/)."&
829
168e428f
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830CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO
831THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
832AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY BE LIABLE
833FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES
834WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN
835AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING
836OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
9b371988
PH
837.endlist
838.endblockquote
168e428f 839
9b371988 840.next
f89d2485 841.cindex "Exim monitor" "acknowledgment"
9b371988
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842.cindex "X-windows"
843.cindex "Athena"
168e428f
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844The Exim Monitor program, which is an X-Window application, includes
845modified versions of the Athena StripChart and TextPop widgets.
846This code is copyright by DEC and MIT, and their permission notice appears
847below, in accordance with the conditions expressed therein.
9b371988
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848
849.blockquote
168e428f
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850Copyright 1987, 1988 by Digital Equipment Corporation, Maynard, Massachusetts,
851and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
9b371988 852
168e428f 853All Rights Reserved
9b371988 854
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855Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its
856documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted,
857provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that
858both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in
859supporting documentation, and that the names of Digital or MIT not be
860used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the
861software without specific, written prior permission.
9b371988 862
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863DIGITAL DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING
864ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL
865DIGITAL BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR
866ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS,
867WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION,
868ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS
869SOFTWARE.
9b371988 870.endblockquote
168e428f 871
9b371988 872.next
1899bab2
TL
873.cindex "opendmarc" "acknowledgment"
874The DMARC implementation uses the OpenDMARC library which is Copyrighted by
875The Trusted Domain Project. Portions of Exim source which use OpenDMARC
876derived code are indicated in the respective source files. The full OpenDMARC
877license is provided in the LICENSE.opendmarc file contained in the distributed
878source code.
879
880.next
9b371988 881Many people have contributed code fragments, some large, some small, that were
168e428f 882not covered by any specific licence requirements. It is assumed that the
f89d2485 883contributors are happy to see their code incorporated into Exim under the GPL.
9b371988 884.endlist
168e428f
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885
886
887
888
889
9b371988
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890. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
891. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
168e428f 892
f89d2485 893.chapter "How Exim receives and delivers mail" "CHID11" &&&
9b371988 894 "Receiving and delivering mail"
168e428f
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895
896
f89d2485 897.section "Overall philosophy" "SECID10"
9b371988 898.cindex "design philosophy"
168e428f
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899Exim is designed to work efficiently on systems that are permanently connected
900to the Internet and are handling a general mix of mail. In such circumstances,
901most messages can be delivered immediately. Consequently, Exim does not
902maintain independent queues of messages for specific domains or hosts, though
903it does try to send several messages in a single SMTP connection after a host
904has been down, and it also maintains per-host retry information.
905
906
f89d2485 907.section "Policy control" "SECID11"
9b371988 908.cindex "policy control" "overview"
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909Policy controls are now an important feature of MTAs that are connected to the
910Internet. Perhaps their most important job is to stop MTAs being abused as
9b371988
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911&"open relays"& by misguided individuals who send out vast amounts of
912unsolicited junk, and want to disguise its source. Exim provides flexible
913facilities for specifying policy controls on incoming mail:
168e428f 914
9b371988
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915.ilist
916.cindex "&ACL;" "introduction"
168e428f 917Exim 4 (unlike previous versions of Exim) implements policy controls on
9b371988 918incoming mail by means of &'Access Control Lists'& (ACLs). Each list is a
168e428f
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919series of statements that may either grant or deny access. ACLs can be used at
920several places in the SMTP dialogue while receiving a message from a remote
9b371988
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921host. However, the most common places are after each RCPT command, and at the
922very end of the message. The sysadmin can specify conditions for accepting or
923rejecting individual recipients or the entire message, respectively, at these
924two points (see chapter &<<CHAPACL>>&). Denial of access results in an SMTP
168e428f 925error code.
9b371988
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926.next
927An ACL is also available for locally generated, non-SMTP messages. In this
168e428f 928case, the only available actions are to accept or deny the entire message.
9b371988
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929.next
930When Exim is compiled with the content-scanning extension, facilities are
168e428f
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931provided in the ACL mechanism for passing the message to external virus and/or
932spam scanning software. The result of such a scan is passed back to the ACL,
933which can then use it to decide what to do with the message.
9b371988
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934.next
935When a message has been received, either from a remote host or from the local
f89d2485 936host, but before the final acknowledgment has been sent, a locally supplied C
9b371988
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937function called &[local_scan()]& can be run to inspect the message and decide
938whether to accept it or not (see chapter &<<CHAPlocalscan>>&). If the message
939is accepted, the list of recipients can be modified by the function.
940.next
941Using the &[local_scan()]& mechanism is another way of calling external scanner
942software. The &%SA-Exim%& add-on package works this way. It does not require
943Exim to be compiled with the content-scanning extension.
944.next
945After a message has been accepted, a further checking mechanism is available in
946the form of the &'system filter'& (see chapter &<<CHAPsystemfilter>>&). This
947runs at the start of every delivery process.
948.endlist
949
950
951
f89d2485 952.section "User filters" "SECID12"
9b371988
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953.cindex "filter" "introduction"
954.cindex "Sieve filter"
168e428f 955In a conventional Exim configuration, users are able to run private filters by
9b371988
PH
956setting up appropriate &_.forward_& files in their home directories. See
957chapter &<<CHAPredirect>>& (about the &(redirect)& router) for the
958configuration needed to support this, and the separate document entitled
959&'Exim's interfaces to mail filtering'& for user details. Two different kinds
960of filtering are available:
961
962.ilist
963Sieve filters are written in the standard filtering language that is defined
168e428f 964by RFC 3028.
9b371988
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965.next
966Exim filters are written in a syntax that is unique to Exim, but which is more
168e428f 967powerful than Sieve, which it pre-dates.
9b371988 968.endlist
168e428f
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969
970User filters are run as part of the routing process, described below.
971
972
973
9b371988
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974.section "Message identification" "SECTmessiden"
975.cindex "message ids" "details of format"
976.cindex "format" "of message id"
977.cindex "id of message"
978.cindex "base62"
979.cindex "base36"
980.cindex "Darwin"
981.cindex "Cygwin"
982Every message handled by Exim is given a &'message id'& which is sixteen
168e428f 983characters long. It is divided into three parts, separated by hyphens, for
9b371988 984example &`16VDhn-0001bo-D3`&. Each part is a sequence of letters and digits,
168e428f
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985normally encoding numbers in base 62. However, in the Darwin operating
986system (Mac OS X) and when Exim is compiled to run under Cygwin, base 36
987(avoiding the use of lower case letters) is used instead, because the message
988id is used to construct file names, and the names of files in those systems are
068aaea8 989not always case-sensitive.
168e428f 990
9b371988 991.cindex "pid (process id)" "re-use of"
168e428f
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992The detail of the contents of the message id have changed as Exim has evolved.
993Earlier versions relied on the operating system not re-using a process id (pid)
994within one second. On modern operating systems, this assumption can no longer
995be made, so the algorithm had to be changed. To retain backward compatibility,
996the format of the message id was retained, which is why the following rules are
997somewhat eccentric:
998
9b371988
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999.ilist
1000The first six characters of the message id are the time at which the message
168e428f
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1001started to be received, to a granularity of one second. That is, this field
1002contains the number of seconds since the start of the epoch (the normal Unix
1003way of representing the date and time of day).
9b371988
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1004.next
1005After the first hyphen, the next six characters are the id of the process that
168e428f 1006received the message.
9b371988
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1007.next
1008There are two different possibilities for the final two characters:
1009.olist
0a4e3112 1010.oindex "&%localhost_number%&"
9b371988 1011If &%localhost_number%& is not set, this value is the fractional part of the
168e428f
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1012time of reception, normally in units of 1/2000 of a second, but for systems
1013that must use base 36 instead of base 62 (because of case-insensitive file
1014systems), the units are 1/1000 of a second.
9b371988
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1015.next
1016If &%localhost_number%& is set, it is multiplied by 200 (100) and added to
168e428f
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1017the fractional part of the time, which in this case is in units of 1/200
1018(1/100) of a second.
9b371988
PH
1019.endlist
1020.endlist
168e428f
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1021
1022After a message has been received, Exim waits for the clock to tick at the
1023appropriate resolution before proceeding, so that if another message is
1024received by the same process, or by another process with the same (re-used)
1025pid, it is guaranteed that the time will be different. In most cases, the clock
1026will already have ticked while the message was being received.
1027
1028
f89d2485 1029.section "Receiving mail" "SECID13"
9b371988
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1030.cindex "receiving mail"
1031.cindex "message" "reception"
068aaea8
PH
1032The only way Exim can receive mail from another host is using SMTP over
1033TCP/IP, in which case the sender and recipient addresses are transferred using
168e428f
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1034SMTP commands. However, from a locally running process (such as a user's MUA),
1035there are several possibilities:
1036
9b371988
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1037.ilist
1038If the process runs Exim with the &%-bm%& option, the message is read
168e428f 1039non-interactively (usually via a pipe), with the recipients taken from the
9b371988
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1040command line, or from the body of the message if &%-t%& is also used.
1041.next
1042If the process runs Exim with the &%-bS%& option, the message is also read
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1043non-interactively, but in this case the recipients are listed at the start of
1044the message in a series of SMTP RCPT commands, terminated by a DATA
9b371988 1045command. This is so-called &"batch SMTP"& format,
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1046but it isn't really SMTP. The SMTP commands are just another way of passing
1047envelope addresses in a non-interactive submission.
9b371988
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1048.next
1049If the process runs Exim with the &%-bs%& option, the message is read
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1050interactively, using the SMTP protocol. A two-way pipe is normally used for
1051passing data between the local process and the Exim process.
9b371988 1052This is &"real"& SMTP and is handled in the same way as SMTP over TCP/IP. For
168e428f 1053example, the ACLs for SMTP commands are used for this form of submission.
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1054.next
1055A local process may also make a TCP/IP call to the host's loopback address
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1056(127.0.0.1) or any other of its IP addresses. When receiving messages, Exim
1057does not treat the loopback address specially. It treats all such connections
1058in the same way as connections from other hosts.
9b371988 1059.endlist
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1060
1061
f89d2485 1062.cindex "message sender, constructed by Exim"
9b371988 1063.cindex "sender" "constructed by Exim"
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1064In the three cases that do not involve TCP/IP, the sender address is
1065constructed from the login name of the user that called Exim and a default
9b371988 1066qualification domain (which can be set by the &%qualify_domain%& configuration
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1067option). For local or batch SMTP, a sender address that is passed using the
1068SMTP MAIL command is ignored. However, the system administrator may allow
9b371988 1069certain users (&"trusted users"&) to specify a different sender address
168e428f 1070unconditionally, or all users to specify certain forms of different sender
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1071address. The &%-f%& option or the SMTP MAIL command is used to specify these
1072different addresses. See section &<<SECTtrustedadmin>>& for details of trusted
1073users, and the &%untrusted_set_sender%& option for a way of allowing untrusted
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1074users to change sender addresses.
1075
1076Messages received by either of the non-interactive mechanisms are subject to
1077checking by the non-SMTP ACL, if one is defined. Messages received using SMTP
1078(either over TCP/IP, or interacting with a local process) can be checked by a
1079number of ACLs that operate at different times during the SMTP session. Either
1080individual recipients, or the entire message, can be rejected if local policy
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1081requirements are not met. The &[local_scan()]& function (see chapter
1082&<<CHAPlocalscan>>&) is run for all incoming messages.
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1083
1084Exim can be configured not to start a delivery process when a message is
1085received; this can be unconditional, or depend on the number of incoming SMTP
1086connections or the system load. In these situations, new messages wait on the
1087queue until a queue runner process picks them up. However, in standard
1088configurations under normal conditions, delivery is started as soon as a
1089message is received.
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
f89d2485 1095.section "Handling an incoming message" "SECID14"
9b371988
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1096.cindex "spool directory" "files that hold a message"
1097.cindex "file" "how a message is held"
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1098When Exim accepts a message, it writes two files in its spool directory. The
1099first contains the envelope information, the current status of the message, and
1100the header lines, and the second contains the body of the message. The names of
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1101the two spool files consist of the message id, followed by &`-H`& for the
1102file containing the envelope and header, and &`-D`& for the data file.
168e428f 1103
9b371988 1104.cindex "spool directory" "&_input_& sub-directory"
168e428f 1105By default all these message files are held in a single directory called
9b371988 1106&_input_& inside the general Exim spool directory. Some operating systems do
c0712871 1107not perform very well if the number of files in a directory gets large; to
9b371988 1108improve performance in such cases, the &%split_spool_directory%& option can be
168e428f 1109used. This causes Exim to split up the input files into 62 sub-directories
db9452a9 1110whose names are single letters or digits. When this is done, the queue is
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1111processed one sub-directory at a time instead of all at once, which can improve
1112overall performance even when there are not enough files in each directory to
db9452a9 1113affect file system performance.
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1114
1115The envelope information consists of the address of the message's sender and
1116the addresses of the recipients. This information is entirely separate from
1117any addresses contained in the header lines. The status of the message includes
1118a list of recipients who have already received the message. The format of the
9b371988 1119first spool file is described in chapter &<<CHAPspool>>&.
168e428f 1120
9b371988 1121.cindex "rewriting" "addresses"
168e428f 1122Address rewriting that is specified in the rewrite section of the configuration
9b371988 1123(see chapter &<<CHAPrewrite>>&) is done once and for all on incoming addresses,
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1124both in the header lines and the envelope, at the time the message is accepted.
1125If during the course of delivery additional addresses are generated (for
1126example, via aliasing), these new addresses are rewritten as soon as they are
1127generated. At the time a message is actually delivered (transported) further
1128rewriting can take place; because this is a transport option, it can be
1129different for different forms of delivery. It is also possible to specify the
1130addition or removal of certain header lines at the time the message is
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1131delivered (see chapters &<<CHAProutergeneric>>& and
1132&<<CHAPtransportgeneric>>&).
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1133
1134
1135
f89d2485 1136.section "Life of a message" "SECID15"
9b371988
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1137.cindex "message" "life of"
1138.cindex "message" "frozen"
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1139A message remains in the spool directory until it is completely delivered to
1140its recipients or to an error address, or until it is deleted by an
1141administrator or by the user who originally created it. In cases when delivery
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1142cannot proceed &-- for example, when a message can neither be delivered to its
1143recipients nor returned to its sender, the message is marked &"frozen"& on the
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1144spool, and no more deliveries are attempted.
1145
9b371988
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1146.cindex "frozen messages" "thawing"
1147.cindex "message" "thawing frozen"
1148An administrator can &"thaw"& such messages when the problem has been
1149corrected, and can also freeze individual messages by hand if necessary. In
1150addition, an administrator can force a delivery error, causing a bounce message
1151to be sent.
1152
0a4e3112
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1153.oindex "&%timeout_frozen_after%&"
1154.oindex "&%ignore_bounce_errors_after%&"
9b371988
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1155There are options called &%ignore_bounce_errors_after%& and
1156&%timeout_frozen_after%&, which discard frozen messages after a certain time.
068aaea8 1157The first applies only to frozen bounces, the second to any frozen messages.
168e428f 1158
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1159.cindex "message" "log file for"
1160.cindex "log" "file for each message"
168e428f 1161While Exim is working on a message, it writes information about each delivery
068aaea8 1162attempt to its main log file. This includes successful, unsuccessful, and
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1163delayed deliveries for each recipient (see chapter &<<CHAPlog>>&). The log
1164lines are also written to a separate &'message log'& file for each message.
1165These logs are solely for the benefit of the administrator, and are normally
1166deleted along with the spool files when processing of a message is complete.
168e428f 1167The use of individual message logs can be disabled by setting
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1168&%no_message_logs%&; this might give an improvement in performance on very busy
1169systems.
168e428f 1170
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1171.cindex "journal file"
1172.cindex "file" "journal"
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1173All the information Exim itself needs to set up a delivery is kept in the first
1174spool file, along with the header lines. When a successful delivery occurs, the
1175address is immediately written at the end of a journal file, whose name is the
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1176message id followed by &`-J`&. At the end of a delivery run, if there are some
1177addresses left to be tried again later, the first spool file (the &`-H`& file)
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1178is updated to indicate which these are, and the journal file is then deleted.
1179Updating the spool file is done by writing a new file and renaming it, to
1180minimize the possibility of data loss.
1181
1182Should the system or the program crash after a successful delivery but before
1183the spool file has been updated, the journal is left lying around. The next
1184time Exim attempts to deliver the message, it reads the journal file and
1185updates the spool file before proceeding. This minimizes the chances of double
1186deliveries caused by crashes.
1187
1188
1189
9b371988
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1190.section "Processing an address for delivery" "SECTprocaddress"
1191.cindex "drivers" "definition of"
1192.cindex "router" "definition of"
1193.cindex "transport" "definition of"
1194The main delivery processing elements of Exim are called &'routers'& and
1195&'transports'&, and collectively these are known as &'drivers'&. Code for a
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1196number of them is provided in the source distribution, and compile-time options
1197specify which ones are included in the binary. Run time options specify which
1198ones are actually used for delivering messages.
1199
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1200.cindex "drivers" "instance definition"
1201Each driver that is specified in the run time configuration is an &'instance'&
168e428f 1202of that particular driver type. Multiple instances are allowed; for example,
9b371988 1203you can set up several different &(smtp)& transports, each with different
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1204option values that might specify different ports or different timeouts. Each
1205instance has its own identifying name. In what follows we will normally use the
1206instance name when discussing one particular instance (that is, one specific
1207configuration of the driver), and the generic driver name when discussing
1208the driver's features in general.
1209
9b371988 1210A &'router'& is a driver that operates on an address, either determining how
068aaea8 1211its delivery should happen, by assigning it to a specific transport, or
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1212converting the address into one or more new addresses (for example, via an
1213alias file). A router may also explicitly choose to fail an address, causing it
1214to be bounced.
1215
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1216A &'transport'& is a driver that transmits a copy of the message from Exim's
1217spool to some destination. There are two kinds of transport: for a &'local'&
168e428f 1218transport, the destination is a file or a pipe on the local host, whereas for a
9b371988 1219&'remote'& transport the destination is some other host. A message is passed
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1220to a specific transport as a result of successful routing. If a message has
1221several recipients, it may be passed to a number of different transports.
1222
9b371988 1223.cindex "preconditions" "definition of"
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1224An address is processed by passing it to each configured router instance in
1225turn, subject to certain preconditions, until a router accepts the address or
1226specifies that it should be bounced. We will describe this process in more
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1227detail shortly. First, as a simple example, we consider how each recipient
1228address in a message is processed in a small configuration of three routers.
168e428f 1229
068aaea8 1230To make this a more concrete example, it is described in terms of some actual
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1231routers, but remember, this is only an example. You can configure Exim's
1232routers in many different ways, and there may be any number of routers in a
1233configuration.
1234
1235The first router that is specified in a configuration is often one that handles
1236addresses in domains that are not recognized specially by the local host. These
1237are typically addresses for arbitrary domains on the Internet. A precondition
1238is set up which looks for the special domains known to the host (for example,
9b371988 1239its own domain name), and the router is run for addresses that do &'not'&
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1240match. Typically, this is a router that looks up domains in the DNS in order to
1241find the hosts to which this address routes. If it succeeds, the address is
068aaea8 1242assigned to a suitable SMTP transport; if it does not succeed, the router is
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1243configured to fail the address.
1244
068aaea8 1245The second router is reached only when the domain is recognized as one that
9b371988 1246&"belongs"& to the local host. This router does redirection &-- also known as
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1247aliasing and forwarding. When it generates one or more new addresses from the
1248original, each of them is routed independently from the start. Otherwise, the
1249router may cause an address to fail, or it may simply decline to handle the
1250address, in which case the address is passed to the next router.
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1251
1252The final router in many configurations is one that checks to see if the
1253address belongs to a local mailbox. The precondition may involve a check to
1254see if the local part is the name of a login account, or it may look up the
1255local part in a file or a database. If its preconditions are not met, or if
1256the router declines, we have reached the end of the routers. When this happens,
1257the address is bounced.
1258
1259
1260
f89d2485 1261.section "Processing an address for verification" "SECID16"
9b371988
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1262.cindex "router" "for verification"
1263.cindex "verifying address" "overview"
168e428f 1264As well as being used to decide how to deliver to an address, Exim's routers
9b371988 1265are also used for &'address verification'&. Verification can be requested as
168e428f 1266one of the checks to be performed in an ACL for incoming messages, on both
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1267sender and recipient addresses, and it can be tested using the &%-bv%& and
1268&%-bvs%& command line options.
168e428f 1269
9b371988 1270When an address is being verified, the routers are run in &"verify mode"&. This
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1271does not affect the way the routers work, but it is a state that can be
1272detected. By this means, a router can be skipped or made to behave differently
1273when verifying. A common example is a configuration in which the first router
1274sends all messages to a message-scanning program, unless they have been
1275previously scanned. Thus, the first router accepts all addresses without any
9b371988 1276checking, making it useless for verifying. Normally, the &%no_verify%& option
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1277would be set for such a router, causing it to be skipped in verify mode.
1278
1279
1280
1281
9b371988
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1282.section "Running an individual router" "SECTrunindrou"
1283.cindex "router" "running details"
1284.cindex "preconditions" "checking"
1285.cindex "router" "result of running"
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1286As explained in the example above, a number of preconditions are checked before
1287running a router. If any are not met, the router is skipped, and the address is
9b371988 1288passed to the next router. When all the preconditions on a router &'are'& met,
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1289the router is run. What happens next depends on the outcome, which is one of
1290the following:
1291
9b371988
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1292.ilist
1293&'accept'&: The router accepts the address, and either assigns it to a
1294transport, or generates one or more &"child"& addresses. Processing the
1295original address ceases,
0a4e3112 1296.oindex "&%unseen%&"
9b371988 1297unless the &%unseen%& option is set on the router. This option
168e428f 1298can be used to set up multiple deliveries with different routing (for example,
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1299for keeping archive copies of messages). When &%unseen%& is set, the address is
1300passed to the next router. Normally, however, an &'accept'& return marks the
168e428f 1301end of routing.
9b371988 1302
068aaea8
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1303Any child addresses generated by the router are processed independently,
1304starting with the first router by default. It is possible to change this by
9b371988
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1305setting the &%redirect_router%& option to specify which router to start at for
1306child addresses. Unlike &%pass_router%& (see below) the router specified by
1307&%redirect_router%& may be anywhere in the router configuration.
1308.next
1309&'pass'&: The router recognizes the address, but cannot handle it itself. It
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1310requests that the address be passed to another router. By default the address
1311is passed to the next router, but this can be changed by setting the
9b371988 1312&%pass_router%& option. However, (unlike &%redirect_router%&) the named router
168e428f 1313must be below the current router (to avoid loops).
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1314.next
1315&'decline'&: The router declines to accept the address because it does not
168e428f 1316recognize it at all. By default, the address is passed to the next router, but
9b371988
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1317this can be prevented by setting the &%no_more%& option. When &%no_more%& is
1318set, all the remaining routers are skipped. In effect, &%no_more%& converts
1319&'decline'& into &'fail'&.
1320.next
1321&'fail'&: The router determines that the address should fail, and queues it for
168e428f 1322the generation of a bounce message. There is no further processing of the
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1323original address unless &%unseen%& is set on the router.
1324.next
1325&'defer'&: The router cannot handle the address at the present time. (A
068aaea8
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1326database may be offline, or a DNS lookup may have timed out.) No further
1327processing of the address happens in this delivery attempt. It is tried again
1328next time the message is considered for delivery.
9b371988
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1329.next
1330&'error'&: There is some error in the router (for example, a syntax error in
168e428f 1331its configuration). The action is as for defer.
9b371988 1332.endlist
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1333
1334If an address reaches the end of the routers without having been accepted by
068aaea8 1335any of them, it is bounced as unrouteable. The default error message in this
9b371988
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1336situation is &"unrouteable address"&, but you can set your own message by
1337making use of the &%cannot_route_message%& option. This can be set for any
1338router; the value from the last router that &"saw"& the address is used.
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1339
1340Sometimes while routing you want to fail a delivery when some conditions are
1341met but others are not, instead of passing the address on for further routing.
1342You can do this by having a second router that explicitly fails the delivery
9b371988 1343when the relevant conditions are met. The &(redirect)& router has a &"fail"&
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1344facility for this purpose.
1345
1346
f89d2485 1347.section "Duplicate addresses" "SECID17"
9b371988 1348.cindex "case of local parts"
f89d2485 1349.cindex "address duplicate, discarding"
db9452a9 1350.cindex "duplicate addresses"
068aaea8
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1351Once routing is complete, Exim scans the addresses that are assigned to local
1352and remote transports, and discards any duplicates that it finds. During this
3cb1b51e 1353check, local parts are treated as case-sensitive. This happens only when
db9452a9 1354actually delivering a message; when testing routers with &%-bt%&, all the
3cb1b51e 1355routed addresses are shown.
db9452a9 1356
068aaea8 1357
168e428f 1358
9b371988 1359.section "Router preconditions" "SECTrouprecon"
f89d2485 1360.cindex "router" "preconditions, order of processing"
9b371988 1361.cindex "preconditions" "order of processing"
168e428f
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1362The preconditions that are tested for each router are listed below, in the
1363order in which they are tested. The individual configuration options are
9b371988 1364described in more detail in chapter &<<CHAProutergeneric>>&.
168e428f 1365
9b371988
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1366.ilist
1367The &%local_part_prefix%& and &%local_part_suffix%& options can specify that
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1368the local parts handled by the router may or must have certain prefixes and/or
1369suffixes. If a mandatory affix (prefix or suffix) is not present, the router is
1370skipped. These conditions are tested first. When an affix is present, it is
1371removed from the local part before further processing, including the evaluation
1372of any other conditions.
9b371988
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1373.next
1374Routers can be designated for use only when not verifying an address, that is,
168e428f 1375only when routing it for delivery (or testing its delivery routing). If the
9b371988 1376&%verify%& option is set false, the router is skipped when Exim is verifying an
168e428f 1377address.
9b371988
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1378Setting the &%verify%& option actually sets two options, &%verify_sender%& and
1379&%verify_recipient%&, which independently control the use of the router for
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1380sender and recipient verification. You can set these options directly if
1381you want a router to be used for only one type of verification.
6ece2e77 1382Note that cutthrough delivery is classed as a recipient verification for this purpose.
9b371988
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1383.next
1384If the &%address_test%& option is set false, the router is skipped when Exim is
1385run with the &%-bt%& option to test an address routing. This can be helpful
1386when the first router sends all new messages to a scanner of some sort; it
1387makes it possible to use &%-bt%& to test subsequent delivery routing without
1388having to simulate the effect of the scanner.
1389.next
1390Routers can be designated for use only when verifying an address, as
1391opposed to routing it for delivery. The &%verify_only%& option controls this.
6ece2e77 1392Again, cutthrough delivery counts as a verification.
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1393.next
1394Individual routers can be explicitly skipped when running the routers to
1395check an address given in the SMTP EXPN command (see the &%expn%& option).
1396.next
1397If the &%domains%& option is set, the domain of the address must be in the set
068aaea8 1398of domains that it defines.
9b371988 1399.next
f89d2485
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1400.vindex "&$local_part_prefix$&"
1401.vindex "&$local_part$&"
1402.vindex "&$local_part_suffix$&"
9b371988
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1403If the &%local_parts%& option is set, the local part of the address must be in
1404the set of local parts that it defines. If &%local_part_prefix%& or
1405&%local_part_suffix%& is in use, the prefix or suffix is removed from the local
168e428f 1406part before this check. If you want to do precondition tests on local parts
9b371988
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1407that include affixes, you can do so by using a &%condition%& option (see below)
1408that uses the variables &$local_part$&, &$local_part_prefix$&, and
1409&$local_part_suffix$& as necessary.
1410.next
f89d2485
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1411.vindex "&$local_user_uid$&"
1412.vindex "&$local_user_gid$&"
1413.vindex "&$home$&"
9b371988 1414If the &%check_local_user%& option is set, the local part must be the name of
068aaea8 1415an account on the local host. If this check succeeds, the uid and gid of the
9b371988
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1416local user are placed in &$local_user_uid$& and &$local_user_gid$& and the
1417user's home directory is placed in &$home$&; these values can be used in the
1418remaining preconditions.
1419.next
1420If the &%router_home_directory%& option is set, it is expanded at this point,
1421because it overrides the value of &$home$&. If this expansion were left till
1422later, the value of &$home$& as set by &%check_local_user%& would be used in
1423subsequent tests. Having two different values of &$home$& in the same router
168e428f 1424could lead to confusion.
9b371988
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1425.next
1426If the &%senders%& option is set, the envelope sender address must be in the
1427set of addresses that it defines.
1428.next
1429If the &%require_files%& option is set, the existence or non-existence of
168e428f 1430specified files is tested.
9b371988
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1431.next
1432.cindex "customizing" "precondition"
1433If the &%condition%& option is set, it is evaluated and tested. This option
1434uses an expanded string to allow you to set up your own custom preconditions.
1435Expanded strings are described in chapter &<<CHAPexpand>>&.
1436.endlist
168e428f 1437
168e428f 1438
9b371988
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1439Note that &%require_files%& comes near the end of the list, so you cannot use
1440it to check for the existence of a file in which to lookup up a domain, local
168e428f 1441part, or sender. However, as these options are all expanded, you can use the
9b371988
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1442&%exists%& expansion condition to make such tests within each condition. The
1443&%require_files%& option is intended for checking files that the router may be
168e428f 1444going to use internally, or which are needed by a specific transport (for
9b371988 1445example, &_.procmailrc_&).
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1446
1447
1448
f89d2485 1449.section "Delivery in detail" "SECID18"
9b371988 1450.cindex "delivery" "in detail"
168e428f
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1451When a message is to be delivered, the sequence of events is as follows:
1452
9b371988
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1453.ilist
1454If a system-wide filter file is specified, the message is passed to it. The
168e428f
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1455filter may add recipients to the message, replace the recipients, discard the
1456message, cause a new message to be generated, or cause the message delivery to
1457fail. The format of the system filter file is the same as for Exim user filter
9b371988
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1458files, described in the separate document entitled &'Exim's interfaces to mail
1459filtering'&.
1460.cindex "Sieve filter" "not available for system filter"
1461(&*Note*&: Sieve cannot be used for system filter files.)
1462
1463Some additional features are available in system filters &-- see chapter
1464&<<CHAPsystemfilter>>& for details. Note that a message is passed to the system
168e428f
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1465filter only once per delivery attempt, however many recipients it has. However,
1466if there are several delivery attempts because one or more addresses could not
1467be immediately delivered, the system filter is run each time. The filter
9b371988 1468condition &%first_delivery%& can be used to detect the first run of the system
168e428f 1469filter.
9b371988
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1470.next
1471Each recipient address is offered to each configured router in turn, subject to
1472its preconditions, until one is able to handle it. If no router can handle the
1473address, that is, if they all decline, the address is failed. Because routers
1474can be targeted at particular domains, several locally handled domains can be
1475processed entirely independently of each other.
1476.next
1477.cindex "routing" "loops in"
1478.cindex "loop" "while routing"
1479A router that accepts an address may assign it to a local or a remote
1480transport. However, the transport is not run at this time. Instead, the address
1481is placed on a list for the particular transport, which will be run later.
068aaea8
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1482Alternatively, the router may generate one or more new addresses (typically
1483from alias, forward, or filter files). New addresses are fed back into this
1484process from the top, but in order to avoid loops, a router ignores any address
1485which has an identically-named ancestor that was processed by itself.
9b371988
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1486.next
1487When all the routing has been done, addresses that have been successfully
168e428f
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1488handled are passed to their assigned transports. When local transports are
1489doing real local deliveries, they handle only one address at a time, but if a
1490local transport is being used as a pseudo-remote transport (for example, to
1491collect batched SMTP messages for transmission by some other means) multiple
1492addresses can be handled. Remote transports can always handle more than one
1493address at a time, but can be configured not to do so, or to restrict multiple
1494addresses to the same domain.
9b371988
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1495.next
1496Each local delivery to a file or a pipe runs in a separate process under a
168e428f
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1497non-privileged uid, and these deliveries are run one at a time. Remote
1498deliveries also run in separate processes, normally under a uid that is private
9b371988 1499to Exim (&"the Exim user"&), but in this case, several remote deliveries can be
168e428f 1500run in parallel. The maximum number of simultaneous remote deliveries for any
9b371988 1501one message is set by the &%remote_max_parallel%& option.
168e428f
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1502The order in which deliveries are done is not defined, except that all local
1503deliveries happen before any remote deliveries.
9b371988
PH
1504.next
1505.cindex "queue runner"
168e428f
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1506When it encounters a local delivery during a queue run, Exim checks its retry
1507database to see if there has been a previous temporary delivery failure for the
1508address before running the local transport. If there was a previous failure,
1509Exim does not attempt a new delivery until the retry time for the address is
1510reached. However, this happens only for delivery attempts that are part of a
1511queue run. Local deliveries are always attempted when delivery immediately
1512follows message reception, even if retry times are set for them. This makes for
1513better behaviour if one particular message is causing problems (for example,
1514causing quota overflow, or provoking an error in a filter file).
9b371988
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1515.next
1516.cindex "delivery" "retry in remote transports"
168e428f
PH
1517Remote transports do their own retry handling, since an address may be
1518deliverable to one of a number of hosts, each of which may have a different
1519retry time. If there have been previous temporary failures and no host has
1520reached its retry time, no delivery is attempted, whether in a queue run or
9b371988
PH
1521not. See chapter &<<CHAPretry>>& for details of retry strategies.
1522.next
1523If there were any permanent errors, a bounce message is returned to an
168e428f
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1524appropriate address (the sender in the common case), with details of the error
1525for each failing address. Exim can be configured to send copies of bounce
1526messages to other addresses.
9b371988
PH
1527.next
1528.cindex "delivery" "deferral"
168e428f
PH
1529If one or more addresses suffered a temporary failure, the message is left on
1530the queue, to be tried again later. Delivery of these addresses is said to be
9b371988
PH
1531&'deferred'&.
1532.next
1533When all the recipient addresses have either been delivered or bounced,
168e428f
PH
1534handling of the message is complete. The spool files and message log are
1535deleted, though the message log can optionally be preserved if required.
9b371988 1536.endlist
168e428f
PH
1537
1538
1539
1540
f89d2485 1541.section "Retry mechanism" "SECID19"
9b371988
PH
1542.cindex "delivery" "retry mechanism"
1543.cindex "retry" "description of mechanism"
1544.cindex "queue runner"
168e428f
PH
1545Exim's mechanism for retrying messages that fail to get delivered at the first
1546attempt is the queue runner process. You must either run an Exim daemon that
9b371988
PH
1547uses the &%-q%& option with a time interval to start queue runners at regular
1548intervals, or use some other means (such as &'cron'&) to start them. If you do
168e428f
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1549not arrange for queue runners to be run, messages that fail temporarily at the
1550first attempt will remain on your queue for ever. A queue runner process works
068aaea8 1551its way through the queue, one message at a time, trying each delivery that has
168e428f
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1552passed its retry time.
1553You can run several queue runners at once.
1554
1555Exim uses a set of configured rules to determine when next to retry the failing
9b371988
PH
1556address (see chapter &<<CHAPretry>>&). These rules also specify when Exim
1557should give up trying to deliver to the address, at which point it generates a
1558bounce message. If no retry rules are set for a particular host, address, and
1559error combination, no retries are attempted, and temporary errors are treated
1560as permanent.
168e428f
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1561
1562
1563
f89d2485 1564.section "Temporary delivery failure" "SECID20"
9b371988 1565.cindex "delivery" "temporary failure"
168e428f
PH
1566There are many reasons why a message may not be immediately deliverable to a
1567particular address. Failure to connect to a remote machine (because it, or the
1568connection to it, is down) is one of the most common. Temporary failures may be
1569detected during routing as well as during the transport stage of delivery.
1570Local deliveries may be delayed if NFS files are unavailable, or if a mailbox
1571is on a file system where the user is over quota. Exim can be configured to
1572impose its own quotas on local mailboxes; where system quotas are set they will
1573also apply.
1574
1575If a host is unreachable for a period of time, a number of messages may be
1576waiting for it by the time it recovers, and sending them in a single SMTP
1577connection is clearly beneficial. Whenever a delivery to a remote host is
1578deferred,
fa41615d 1579.cindex "hints database" "deferred deliveries"
168e428f
PH
1580Exim makes a note in its hints database, and whenever a successful
1581SMTP delivery has happened, it looks to see if any other messages are waiting
1582for the same host. If any are found, they are sent over the same SMTP
1583connection, subject to a configuration limit as to the maximum number in any
1584one connection.
168e428f
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1585
1586
1587
f89d2485 1588.section "Permanent delivery failure" "SECID21"
9b371988
PH
1589.cindex "delivery" "permanent failure"
1590.cindex "bounce message" "when generated"
168e428f
PH
1591When a message cannot be delivered to some or all of its intended recipients, a
1592bounce message is generated. Temporary delivery failures turn into permanent
1593errors when their timeout expires. All the addresses that fail in a given
1594delivery attempt are listed in a single message. If the original message has
1595many recipients, it is possible for some addresses to fail in one delivery
1596attempt and others to fail subsequently, giving rise to more than one bounce
1597message. The wording of bounce messages can be customized by the administrator.
9b371988 1598See chapter &<<CHAPemsgcust>>& for details.
168e428f 1599
9b371988
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1600.cindex "&'X-Failed-Recipients:'& header line"
1601Bounce messages contain an &'X-Failed-Recipients:'& header line that lists the
168e428f
PH
1602failed addresses, for the benefit of programs that try to analyse such messages
1603automatically.
1604
9b371988 1605.cindex "bounce message" "recipient of"
168e428f
PH
1606A bounce message is normally sent to the sender of the original message, as
1607obtained from the message's envelope. For incoming SMTP messages, this is the
9b371988
PH
1608address given in the MAIL command. However, when an address is expanded via a
1609forward or alias file, an alternative address can be specified for delivery
1610failures of the generated addresses. For a mailing list expansion (see section
1611&<<SECTmailinglists>>&) it is common to direct bounce messages to the manager
1612of the list.
168e428f
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1613
1614
1615
f89d2485 1616.section "Failures to deliver bounce messages" "SECID22"
9b371988 1617.cindex "bounce message" "failure to deliver"
168e428f
PH
1618If a bounce message (either locally generated or received from a remote host)
1619itself suffers a permanent delivery failure, the message is left on the queue,
1620but it is frozen, awaiting the attention of an administrator. There are options
068aaea8 1621that can be used to make Exim discard such failed messages, or to keep them
9b371988
PH
1622for only a short time (see &%timeout_frozen_after%& and
1623&%ignore_bounce_errors_after%&).
168e428f
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1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
9b371988
PH
1629. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
1630. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
168e428f 1631
f89d2485 1632.chapter "Building and installing Exim" "CHID3"
4f578862 1633.scindex IIDbuex "building Exim"
168e428f 1634
f89d2485
PH
1635.section "Unpacking" "SECID23"
1636Exim is distributed as a gzipped or bzipped tar file which, when unpacked,
168e428f 1637creates a directory with the name of the current release (for example,
2aee48d6 1638&_exim-&version()_&) into which the following files are placed:
9b371988
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1639
1640.table2 140pt
f89d2485
PH
1641.irow &_ACKNOWLEDGMENTS_& "contains some acknowledgments"
1642.irow &_CHANGES_& "contains a reference to where changes are &&&
1643 documented"
1644.irow &_LICENCE_& "the GNU General Public Licence"
1645.irow &_Makefile_& "top-level make file"
1646.irow &_NOTICE_& "conditions for the use of Exim"
1647.irow &_README_& "list of files, directories and simple build &&&
1648 instructions"
9b371988
PH
1649.endtable
1650
1651Other files whose names begin with &_README_& may also be present. The
168e428f
PH
1652following subdirectories are created:
1653
9b371988 1654.table2 140pt
f89d2485
PH
1655.irow &_Local_& "an empty directory for local configuration files"
1656.irow &_OS_& "OS-specific files"
1657.irow &_doc_& "documentation files"
1658.irow &_exim_monitor_& "source files for the Exim monitor"
1659.irow &_scripts_& "scripts used in the build process"
1660.irow &_src_& "remaining source files"
1661.irow &_util_& "independent utilities"
9b371988
PH
1662.endtable
1663
1664The main utility programs are contained in the &_src_& directory, and are built
1665with the Exim binary. The &_util_& directory contains a few optional scripts
168e428f
PH
1666that may be useful to some sites.
1667
1668
f89d2485 1669.section "Multiple machine architectures and operating systems" "SECID24"
9b371988 1670.cindex "building Exim" "multiple OS/architectures"
168e428f
PH
1671The building process for Exim is arranged to make it easy to build binaries for
1672a number of different architectures and operating systems from the same set of
9b371988
PH
1673source files. Compilation does not take place in the &_src_& directory.
1674Instead, a &'build directory'& is created for each architecture and operating
1675system.
1676.cindex "symbolic link" "to build directory"
168e428f 1677Symbolic links to the sources are installed in this directory, which is where
9b371988
PH
1678the actual building takes place. In most cases, Exim can discover the machine
1679architecture and operating system for itself, but the defaults can be
1680overridden if necessary.
f2ed27cf
JH
1681.cindex compiler requirements
1682.cindex compiler version
1683A C99-capable compiler will be required for the build.
168e428f 1684
168e428f 1685
8473d4ee 1686.section "PCRE library" "SECTpcre"
210f147e
NM
1687.cindex "PCRE library"
1688Exim no longer has an embedded PCRE library as the vast majority of
1689modern systems include PCRE as a system library, although you may need
1690to install the PCRE or PCRE development package for your operating
1691system. If your system has a normal PCRE installation the Exim build
1692process will need no further configuration. If the library or the
6a6084f8
PP
1693headers are in an unusual location you will need to either set the PCRE_LIBS
1694and INCLUDE directives appropriately,
1695or set PCRE_CONFIG=yes to use the installed &(pcre-config)& command.
1696If your operating system has no
210f147e
NM
1697PCRE support then you will need to obtain and build the current PCRE
1698from &url(ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/).
6a6084f8 1699More information on PCRE is available at &url(http://www.pcre.org/).
210f147e 1700
9b371988
PH
1701.section "DBM libraries" "SECTdb"
1702.cindex "DBM libraries" "discussion of"
1703.cindex "hints database" "DBM files used for"
168e428f
PH
1704Even if you do not use any DBM files in your configuration, Exim still needs a
1705DBM library in order to operate, because it uses indexed files for its hints
1706databases. Unfortunately, there are a number of DBM libraries in existence, and
1707different operating systems often have different ones installed.
1708
9b371988 1709.cindex "Solaris" "DBM library for"
f89d2485
PH
1710.cindex "IRIX, DBM library for"
1711.cindex "BSD, DBM library for"
1712.cindex "Linux, DBM library for"
168e428f
PH
1713If you are using Solaris, IRIX, one of the modern BSD systems, or a modern
1714Linux distribution, the DBM configuration should happen automatically, and you
1715may be able to ignore this section. Otherwise, you may have to learn more than
1716you would like about DBM libraries from what follows.
1717
9b371988 1718.cindex "&'ndbm'& DBM library"
168e428f 1719Licensed versions of Unix normally contain a library of DBM functions operating
9b371988 1720via the &'ndbm'& interface, and this is what Exim expects by default. Free
168e428f
PH
1721versions of Unix seem to vary in what they contain as standard. In particular,
1722some early versions of Linux have no default DBM library, and different
1723distributors have chosen to bundle different libraries with their packaged
f89d2485 1724versions. However, the more recent releases seem to have standardized on the
168e428f
PH
1725Berkeley DB library.
1726
1727Different DBM libraries have different conventions for naming the files they
9b371988 1728use. When a program opens a file called &_dbmfile_&, there are several
168e428f
PH
1729possibilities:
1730
9b371988
PH
1731.olist
1732A traditional &'ndbm'& implementation, such as that supplied as part of
1733Solaris, operates on two files called &_dbmfile.dir_& and &_dbmfile.pag_&.
1734.next
1735.cindex "&'gdbm'& DBM library"
1736The GNU library, &'gdbm'&, operates on a single file. If used via its &'ndbm'&
168e428f 1737compatibility interface it makes two different hard links to it with names
9b371988 1738&_dbmfile.dir_& and &_dbmfile.pag_&, but if used via its native interface, the
168e428f 1739file name is used unmodified.
9b371988
PH
1740.next
1741.cindex "Berkeley DB library"
1742The Berkeley DB package, if called via its &'ndbm'& compatibility interface,
1743operates on a single file called &_dbmfile.db_&, but otherwise looks to the
1744programmer exactly the same as the traditional &'ndbm'& implementation.
1745.next
1746If the Berkeley package is used in its native mode, it operates on a single
1747file called &_dbmfile_&; the programmer's interface is somewhat different to
1748the traditional &'ndbm'& interface.
1749.next
1750To complicate things further, there are several very different versions of the
168e428f 1751Berkeley DB package. Version 1.85 was stable for a very long time, releases
9b371988
PH
17522.&'x'& and 3.&'x'& were current for a while, but the latest versions are now
1753numbered 4.&'x'&. Maintenance of some of the earlier releases has ceased. All
168e428f 1754versions of Berkeley DB can be obtained from
9b371988
PH
1755&url(http://www.sleepycat.com/).
1756.next
1757.cindex "&'tdb'& DBM library"
1758Yet another DBM library, called &'tdb'&, is available from
1759&url(http://download.sourceforge.net/tdb). It has its own interface, and also
1760operates on a single file.
1761.endlist
1762
1763.cindex "USE_DB"
1764.cindex "DBM libraries" "configuration for building"
168e428f
PH
1765Exim and its utilities can be compiled to use any of these interfaces. In order
1766to use any version of the Berkeley DB package in native mode, you must set
1767USE_DB in an appropriate configuration file (typically
9b371988
PH
1768&_Local/Makefile_&). For example:
1769.code
1770USE_DB=yes
1771.endd
168e428f
PH
1772Similarly, for gdbm you set USE_GDBM, and for tdb you set USE_TDB. An
1773error is diagnosed if you set more than one of these.
1774
1775At the lowest level, the build-time configuration sets none of these options,
1776thereby assuming an interface of type (1). However, some operating system
1777configuration files (for example, those for the BSD operating systems and
1778Linux) assume type (4) by setting USE_DB as their default, and the
1779configuration files for Cygwin set USE_GDBM. Anything you set in
9b371988 1780&_Local/Makefile_&, however, overrides these system defaults.
168e428f
PH
1781
1782As well as setting USE_DB, USE_GDBM, or USE_TDB, it may also be
1783necessary to set DBMLIB, to cause inclusion of the appropriate library, as
1784in one of these lines:
9b371988
PH
1785.code
1786DBMLIB = -ldb
1787DBMLIB = -ltdb
1788.endd
168e428f
PH
1789Settings like that will work if the DBM library is installed in the standard
1790place. Sometimes it is not, and the library's header file may also not be in
1791the default path. You may need to set INCLUDE to specify where the header
1792file is, and to specify the path to the library more fully in DBMLIB, as in
1793this example:
9b371988
PH
1794.code
1795INCLUDE=-I/usr/local/include/db-4.1
1796DBMLIB=/usr/local/lib/db-4.1/libdb.a
1797.endd
168e428f 1798There is further detailed discussion about the various DBM libraries in the
9b371988 1799file &_doc/dbm.discuss.txt_& in the Exim distribution.
168e428f
PH
1800
1801
1802
f89d2485 1803.section "Pre-building configuration" "SECID25"
9b371988
PH
1804.cindex "building Exim" "pre-building configuration"
1805.cindex "configuration for building Exim"
1806.cindex "&_Local/Makefile_&"
1807.cindex "&_src/EDITME_&"
168e428f
PH
1808Before building Exim, a local configuration file that specifies options
1809independent of any operating system has to be created with the name
9b371988
PH
1810&_Local/Makefile_&. A template for this file is supplied as the file
1811&_src/EDITME_&, and it contains full descriptions of all the option settings
168e428f
PH
1812therein. These descriptions are therefore not repeated here. If you are
1813building Exim for the first time, the simplest thing to do is to copy
9b371988 1814&_src/EDITME_& to &_Local/Makefile_&, then read it and edit it appropriately.
168e428f
PH
1815
1816There are three settings that you must supply, because Exim will not build
1817without them. They are the location of the run time configuration file
1818(CONFIGURE_FILE), the directory in which Exim binaries will be installed
1819(BIN_DIRECTORY), and the identity of the Exim user (EXIM_USER and
1820maybe EXIM_GROUP as well). The value of CONFIGURE_FILE can in fact be
1821a colon-separated list of file names; Exim uses the first of them that exists.
1822
1823There are a few other parameters that can be specified either at build time or
1824at run time, to enable the same binary to be used on a number of different
1825machines. However, if the locations of Exim's spool directory and log file
1826directory (if not within the spool directory) are fixed, it is recommended that
9b371988 1827you specify them in &_Local/Makefile_& instead of at run time, so that errors
168e428f
PH
1828detected early in Exim's execution (such as a malformed configuration file) can
1829be logged.
1830
9b371988 1831.cindex "content scanning" "specifying at build time"
068aaea8 1832Exim's interfaces for calling virus and spam scanning software directly from
168e428f
PH
1833access control lists are not compiled by default. If you want to include these
1834facilities, you need to set
9b371988
PH
1835.code
1836WITH_CONTENT_SCAN=yes
1837.endd
1838in your &_Local/Makefile_&. For details of the facilities themselves, see
1839chapter &<<CHAPexiscan>>&.
168e428f
PH
1840
1841
9b371988 1842.cindex "&_Local/eximon.conf_&"
3cb1b51e 1843.cindex "&_exim_monitor/EDITME_&"
168e428f 1844If you are going to build the Exim monitor, a similar configuration process is
9b371988
PH
1845required. The file &_exim_monitor/EDITME_& must be edited appropriately for
1846your installation and saved under the name &_Local/eximon.conf_&. If you are
1847happy with the default settings described in &_exim_monitor/EDITME_&,
1848&_Local/eximon.conf_& can be empty, but it must exist.
168e428f
PH
1849
1850This is all the configuration that is needed in straightforward cases for known
1851operating systems. However, the building process is set up so that it is easy
1852to override options that are set by default or by operating-system-specific
1853configuration files, for example to change the name of the C compiler, which
9b371988
PH
1854defaults to &%gcc%&. See section &<<SECToverride>>& below for details of how to
1855do this.
168e428f
PH
1856
1857
1858
f89d2485 1859.section "Support for iconv()" "SECID26"
9b371988
PH
1860.cindex "&[iconv()]& support"
1861.cindex "RFC 2047"
168e428f
PH
1862The contents of header lines in messages may be encoded according to the rules
1863described RFC 2047. This makes it possible to transmit characters that are not
1864in the ASCII character set, and to label them as being in a particular
9b371988 1865character set. When Exim is inspecting header lines by means of the &%$h_%&
168e428f 1866mechanism, it decodes them, and translates them into a specified character set
1459a03d 1867(default is set at build time). The translation is possible only if the operating system
9b371988
PH
1868supports the &[iconv()]& function.
1869
1870However, some of the operating systems that supply &[iconv()]& do not support
1871very many conversions. The GNU &%libiconv%& library (available from
1872&url(http://www.gnu.org/software/libiconv/)) can be installed on such
1873systems to remedy this deficiency, as well as on systems that do not supply
1874&[iconv()]& at all. After installing &%libiconv%&, you should add
1875.code
1876HAVE_ICONV=yes
1877.endd
1878to your &_Local/Makefile_& and rebuild Exim.
1879
1880
1881
1882.section "Including TLS/SSL encryption support" "SECTinctlsssl"
1883.cindex "TLS" "including support for TLS"
1884.cindex "encryption" "including support for"
1885.cindex "SUPPORT_TLS"
1886.cindex "OpenSSL" "building Exim with"
1887.cindex "GnuTLS" "building Exim with"
168e428f
PH
1888Exim can be built to support encrypted SMTP connections, using the STARTTLS
1889command as per RFC 2487. It can also support legacy clients that expect to
1890start a TLS session immediately on connection to a non-standard port (see the
9b371988 1891&%tls_on_connect_ports%& runtime option and the &%-tls-on-connect%& command
168e428f
PH
1892line option).
1893
1894If you want to build Exim with TLS support, you must first install either the
1895OpenSSL or GnuTLS library. There is no cryptographic code in Exim itself for
1896implementing SSL.
1897
1898If OpenSSL is installed, you should set
9b371988
PH
1899.code
1900SUPPORT_TLS=yes
1901TLS_LIBS=-lssl -lcrypto
1902.endd
1903in &_Local/Makefile_&. You may also need to specify the locations of the
168e428f 1904OpenSSL library and include files. For example:
9b371988
PH
1905.code
1906SUPPORT_TLS=yes
1907TLS_LIBS=-L/usr/local/openssl/lib -lssl -lcrypto
1908TLS_INCLUDE=-I/usr/local/openssl/include/
1909.endd
7e6a8985
PP
1910.cindex "pkg-config" "OpenSSL"
1911If you have &'pkg-config'& available, then instead you can just use:
1912.code
1913SUPPORT_TLS=yes
1914USE_OPENSSL_PC=openssl
1915.endd
9b371988 1916.cindex "USE_GNUTLS"
168e428f 1917If GnuTLS is installed, you should set
9b371988
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1918.code
1919SUPPORT_TLS=yes
1920USE_GNUTLS=yes
1921TLS_LIBS=-lgnutls -ltasn1 -lgcrypt
1922.endd
1923in &_Local/Makefile_&, and again you may need to specify the locations of the
168e428f 1924library and include files. For example:
9b371988
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1925.code
1926SUPPORT_TLS=yes
1927USE_GNUTLS=yes
1928TLS_LIBS=-L/usr/gnu/lib -lgnutls -ltasn1 -lgcrypt
1929TLS_INCLUDE=-I/usr/gnu/include
1930.endd
7e6a8985
PP
1931.cindex "pkg-config" "GnuTLS"
1932If you have &'pkg-config'& available, then instead you can just use:
1933.code
1934SUPPORT_TLS=yes
1935USE_GNUTLS=yes
1936USE_GNUTLS_PC=gnutls
1937.endd
7e6a8985 1938
168e428f 1939You do not need to set TLS_INCLUDE if the relevant directory is already
9b371988
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1940specified in INCLUDE. Details of how to configure Exim to make use of TLS are
1941given in chapter &<<CHAPTLS>>&.
168e428f
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1942
1943
1944
1945
b52ed2b3
NM
1946.section "Use of tcpwrappers" "SECID27"
1947
f89d2485 1948.cindex "tcpwrappers, building Exim to support"
9b371988 1949.cindex "USE_TCP_WRAPPERS"
5dc43717
JJ
1950.cindex "TCP_WRAPPERS_DAEMON_NAME"
1951.cindex "tcp_wrappers_daemon_name"
9b371988
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1952Exim can be linked with the &'tcpwrappers'& library in order to check incoming
1953SMTP calls using the &'tcpwrappers'& control files. This may be a convenient
168e428f 1954alternative to Exim's own checking facilities for installations that are
9b371988
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1955already making use of &'tcpwrappers'& for other purposes. To do this, you
1956should set USE_TCP_WRAPPERS in &_Local/Makefile_&, arrange for the file
1957&_tcpd.h_& to be available at compile time, and also ensure that the library
1958&_libwrap.a_& is available at link time, typically by including &%-lwrap%& in
1959EXTRALIBS_EXIM. For example, if &'tcpwrappers'& is installed in &_/usr/local_&,
1960you might have
1961.code
1962USE_TCP_WRAPPERS=yes
1963CFLAGS=-O -I/usr/local/include
1964EXTRALIBS_EXIM=-L/usr/local/lib -lwrap
1965.endd
5dc43717
JJ
1966in &_Local/Makefile_&. The daemon name to use in the &'tcpwrappers'& control
1967files is &"exim"&. For example, the line
9b371988
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1968.code
1969exim : LOCAL 192.168.1. .friendly.domain.example
1970.endd
1971in your &_/etc/hosts.allow_& file allows connections from the local host, from
1972the subnet 192.168.1.0/24, and from all hosts in &'friendly.domain.example'&.
5dc43717
JJ
1973All other connections are denied. The daemon name used by &'tcpwrappers'&
1974can be changed at build time by setting TCP_WRAPPERS_DAEMON_NAME in
a543079f 1975&_Local/Makefile_&, or by setting tcp_wrappers_daemon_name in the
5dc43717 1976configure file. Consult the &'tcpwrappers'& documentation for
168e428f 1977further details.
168e428f
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1978
1979
f89d2485 1980.section "Including support for IPv6" "SECID28"
9b371988 1981.cindex "IPv6" "including support for"
168e428f 1982Exim contains code for use on systems that have IPv6 support. Setting
9b371988 1983&`HAVE_IPV6=YES`& in &_Local/Makefile_& causes the IPv6 code to be included;
168e428f
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1984it may also be necessary to set IPV6_INCLUDE and IPV6_LIBS on systems
1985where the IPv6 support is not fully integrated into the normal include and
1986library files.
1987
1988Two different types of DNS record for handling IPv6 addresses have been
f89d2485 1989defined. AAAA records (analogous to A records for IPv4) are in use, and are
168e428f
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1990currently seen as the mainstream. Another record type called A6 was proposed
1991as better than AAAA because it had more flexibility. However, it was felt to be
badb25a9 1992over-complex, and its status was reduced to &"experimental"&.
badb25a9 1993Exim used to
cc00f4af
JH
1994have a compile option for including A6 record support but this has now been
1995withdrawn.
168e428f
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1996
1997
1998
0a349494
PP
1999.section "Dynamically loaded lookup module support" "SECTdynamicmodules"
2000.cindex "lookup modules"
2001.cindex "dynamic modules"
2002.cindex ".so building"
2003On some platforms, Exim supports not compiling all lookup types directly into
2004the main binary, instead putting some into external modules which can be loaded
2005on demand.
2006This permits packagers to build Exim with support for lookups with extensive
2007library dependencies without requiring all users to install all of those
2008dependencies.
2009Most, but not all, lookup types can be built this way.
2010
2011Set &`LOOKUP_MODULE_DIR`& to the directory into which the modules will be
2012installed; Exim will only load modules from that directory, as a security
2013measure. You will need to set &`CFLAGS_DYNAMIC`& if not already defined
2014for your OS; see &_OS/Makefile-Linux_& for an example.
2015Some other requirements for adjusting &`EXTRALIBS`& may also be necessary,
2016see &_src/EDITME_& for details.
2017
2018Then, for each module to be loaded dynamically, define the relevant
2019&`LOOKUP_`&<&'lookup_type'&> flags to have the value "2" instead of "yes".
2020For example, this will build in lsearch but load sqlite and mysql support
2021on demand:
2022.code
2023LOOKUP_LSEARCH=yes
2024LOOKUP_SQLITE=2
2025LOOKUP_MYSQL=2
2026.endd
5d758a46 2027
0a349494 2028
f89d2485 2029.section "The building process" "SECID29"
9b371988
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2030.cindex "build directory"
2031Once &_Local/Makefile_& (and &_Local/eximon.conf_&, if required) have been
2032created, run &'make'& at the top level. It determines the architecture and
168e428f
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2033operating system types, and creates a build directory if one does not exist.
2034For example, on a Sun system running Solaris 8, the directory
9b371988
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2035&_build-SunOS5-5.8-sparc_& is created.
2036.cindex "symbolic link" "to source files"
168e428f
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2037Symbolic links to relevant source files are installed in the build directory.
2038
9b371988 2039If this is the first time &'make'& has been run, it calls a script that builds
168e428f 2040a make file inside the build directory, using the configuration files from the
9b371988
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2041&_Local_& directory. The new make file is then passed to another instance of
2042&'make'&. This does the real work, building a number of utility scripts, and
168e428f 2043then compiling and linking the binaries for the Exim monitor (if configured), a
9b371988
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2044number of utility programs, and finally Exim itself. The command &`make
2045makefile`& can be used to force a rebuild of the make file in the build
168e428f
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2046directory, should this ever be necessary.
2047
2048If you have problems building Exim, check for any comments there may be in the
9b371988 2049&_README_& file concerning your operating system, and also take a look at the
168e428f
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2050FAQ, where some common problems are covered.
2051
2052
2053
f89d2485 2054.section 'Output from &"make"&' "SECID283"
9b371988 2055The output produced by the &'make'& process for compile lines is often very
068aaea8
PH
2056unreadable, because these lines can be very long. For this reason, the normal
2057output is suppressed by default, and instead output similar to that which
2058appears when compiling the 2.6 Linux kernel is generated: just a short line for
2059each module that is being compiled or linked. However, it is still possible to
9b371988
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2060get the full output, by calling &'make'& like this:
2061.code
2062FULLECHO='' make -e
2063.endd
2064The value of FULLECHO defaults to &"@"&, the flag character that suppresses
2065command reflection in &'make'&. When you ask for the full output, it is
3cb1b51e 2066given in addition to the short output.
068aaea8
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2067
2068
2069
9b371988 2070.section "Overriding build-time options for Exim" "SECToverride"
f89d2485 2071.cindex "build-time options, overriding"
168e428f
PH
2072The main make file that is created at the beginning of the building process
2073consists of the concatenation of a number of files which set configuration
9b371988 2074values, followed by a fixed set of &'make'& instructions. If a value is set
168e428f
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2075more than once, the last setting overrides any previous ones. This provides a
2076convenient way of overriding defaults. The files that are concatenated are, in
2077order:
9b371988
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2078.display
2079&_OS/Makefile-Default_&
2080&_OS/Makefile-_&<&'ostype'&>
2081&_Local/Makefile_&
2082&_Local/Makefile-_&<&'ostype'&>
2083&_Local/Makefile-_&<&'archtype'&>
2084&_Local/Makefile-_&<&'ostype'&>-<&'archtype'&>
2085&_OS/Makefile-Base_&
2086.endd
2087.cindex "&_Local/Makefile_&"
2088.cindex "building Exim" "operating system type"
2089.cindex "building Exim" "architecture type"
2090where <&'ostype'&> is the operating system type and <&'archtype'&> is the
2091architecture type. &_Local/Makefile_& is required to exist, and the building
2092process fails if it is absent. The other three &_Local_& files are optional,
168e428f
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2093and are often not needed.
2094
9b371988
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2095The values used for <&'ostype'&> and <&'archtype'&> are obtained from scripts
2096called &_scripts/os-type_& and &_scripts/arch-type_& respectively. If either of
168e428f
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2097the environment variables EXIM_OSTYPE or EXIM_ARCHTYPE is set, their
2098values are used, thereby providing a means of forcing particular settings.
9b371988 2099Otherwise, the scripts try to get values from the &%uname%& command. If this
168e428f 2100fails, the shell variables OSTYPE and ARCHTYPE are inspected. A number
9b371988 2101of &'ad hoc'& transformations are then applied, to produce the standard names
168e428f
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2102that Exim expects. You can run these scripts directly from the shell in order
2103to find out what values are being used on your system.
2104
2105
9b371988 2106&_OS/Makefile-Default_& contains comments about the variables that are set
168e428f
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2107therein. Some (but not all) are mentioned below. If there is something that
2108needs changing, review the contents of this file and the contents of the make
9b371988 2109file for your operating system (&_OS/Makefile-<ostype>_&) to see what the
168e428f
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2110default values are.
2111
2112
9b371988
PH
2113.cindex "building Exim" "overriding default settings"
2114If you need to change any of the values that are set in &_OS/Makefile-Default_&
2115or in &_OS/Makefile-<ostype>_&, or to add any new definitions, you do not
168e428f 2116need to change the original files. Instead, you should make the changes by
9b371988
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2117putting the new values in an appropriate &_Local_& file. For example,
2118.cindex "Tru64-Unix build-time settings"
168e428f
PH
2119when building Exim in many releases of the Tru64-Unix (formerly Digital UNIX,
2120formerly DEC-OSF1) operating system, it is necessary to specify that the C
9b371988
PH
2121compiler is called &'cc'& rather than &'gcc'&. Also, the compiler must be
2122called with the option &%-std1%&, to make it recognize some of the features of
168e428f 2123Standard C that Exim uses. (Most other compilers recognize Standard C by
9b371988 2124default.) To do this, you should create a file called &_Local/Makefile-OSF1_&
168e428f 2125containing the lines
9b371988
PH
2126.code
2127CC=cc
2128CFLAGS=-std1
2129.endd
168e428f 2130If you are compiling for just one operating system, it may be easier to put
9b371988 2131these lines directly into &_Local/Makefile_&.
168e428f
PH
2132
2133Keeping all your local configuration settings separate from the distributed
2134files makes it easy to transfer them to new versions of Exim simply by copying
9b371988 2135the contents of the &_Local_& directory.
168e428f
PH
2136
2137
9b371988
PH
2138.cindex "NIS lookup type" "including support for"
2139.cindex "NIS+ lookup type" "including support for"
2140.cindex "LDAP" "including support for"
2141.cindex "lookup" "inclusion in binary"
168e428f
PH
2142Exim contains support for doing LDAP, NIS, NIS+, and other kinds of file
2143lookup, but not all systems have these components installed, so the default is
2144not to include the relevant code in the binary. All the different kinds of file
2145and database lookup that Exim supports are implemented as separate code modules
2146which are included only if the relevant compile-time options are set. In the
9b371988
PH
2147case of LDAP, NIS, and NIS+, the settings for &_Local/Makefile_& are:
2148.code
2149LOOKUP_LDAP=yes
2150LOOKUP_NIS=yes
2151LOOKUP_NISPLUS=yes
2152.endd
168e428f 2153and similar settings apply to the other lookup types. They are all listed in
9b371988 2154&_src/EDITME_&. In many cases the relevant include files and interface
168e428f 2155libraries need to be installed before compiling Exim.
9b371988 2156.cindex "cdb" "including support for"
068aaea8
PH
2157However, there are some optional lookup types (such as cdb) for which
2158the code is entirely contained within Exim, and no external include
168e428f
PH
2159files or libraries are required. When a lookup type is not included in the
2160binary, attempts to configure Exim to use it cause run time configuration
2161errors.
2162
7e6a8985
PP
2163.cindex "pkg-config" "lookups"
2164.cindex "pkg-config" "authenticators"
252e0c7b
PP
2165Many systems now use a tool called &'pkg-config'& to encapsulate information
2166about how to compile against a library; Exim has some initial support for
2167being able to use pkg-config for lookups and authenticators. For any given
2168makefile variable which starts &`LOOKUP_`& or &`AUTH_`&, you can add a new
2169variable with the &`_PC`& suffix in the name and assign as the value the
2170name of the package to be queried. The results of querying via the
2171&'pkg-config'& command will be added to the appropriate Makefile variables
2172with &`+=`& directives, so your version of &'make'& will need to support that
2173syntax. For instance:
2174.code
2175LOOKUP_SQLITE=yes
2176LOOKUP_SQLITE_PC=sqlite3
2177AUTH_GSASL=yes
2178AUTH_GSASL_PC=libgsasl
2179AUTH_HEIMDAL_GSSAPI=yes
2180AUTH_HEIMDAL_GSSAPI_PC=heimdal-gssapi
2181.endd
252e0c7b 2182
9b371988 2183.cindex "Perl" "including support for"
168e428f
PH
2184Exim can be linked with an embedded Perl interpreter, allowing Perl
2185subroutines to be called during string expansion. To enable this facility,
9b371988
PH
2186.code
2187EXIM_PERL=perl.o
2188.endd
2189must be defined in &_Local/Makefile_&. Details of this facility are given in
2190chapter &<<CHAPperl>>&.
168e428f 2191
f89d2485 2192.cindex "X11 libraries, location of"
168e428f 2193The location of the X11 libraries is something that varies a lot between
068aaea8 2194operating systems, and there may be different versions of X11 to cope
168e428f
PH
2195with. Exim itself makes no use of X11, but if you are compiling the Exim
2196monitor, the X11 libraries must be available.
9b371988
PH
2197The following three variables are set in &_OS/Makefile-Default_&:
2198.code
2199X11=/usr/X11R6
2200XINCLUDE=-I$(X11)/include
2201XLFLAGS=-L$(X11)/lib
2202.endd
168e428f 2203These are overridden in some of the operating-system configuration files. For
9b371988
PH
2204example, in &_OS/Makefile-SunOS5_& there is
2205.code
2206X11=/usr/openwin
2207XINCLUDE=-I$(X11)/include
2208XLFLAGS=-L$(X11)/lib -R$(X11)/lib
2209.endd
168e428f
PH
2210If you need to override the default setting for your operating system, place a
2211definition of all three of these variables into your
9b371988 2212&_Local/Makefile-<ostype>_& file.
168e428f 2213
9b371988 2214.cindex "EXTRALIBS"
168e428f
PH
2215If you need to add any extra libraries to the link steps, these can be put in a
2216variable called EXTRALIBS, which appears in all the link commands, but by
2217default is not defined. In contrast, EXTRALIBS_EXIM is used only on the
2218command for linking the main Exim binary, and not for any associated utilities.
2219
9b371988 2220.cindex "DBM libraries" "configuration for building"
168e428f 2221There is also DBMLIB, which appears in the link commands for binaries that
9b371988 2222use DBM functions (see also section &<<SECTdb>>&). Finally, there is
168e428f
PH
2223EXTRALIBS_EXIMON, which appears only in the link step for the Exim monitor
2224binary, and which can be used, for example, to include additional X11
2225libraries.
2226
9b371988 2227.cindex "configuration file" "editing"
168e428f
PH
2228The make file copes with rebuilding Exim correctly if any of the configuration
2229files are edited. However, if an optional configuration file is deleted, it is
9b371988
PH
2230necessary to touch the associated non-optional file (that is,
2231&_Local/Makefile_& or &_Local/eximon.conf_&) before rebuilding.
168e428f
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2232
2233
f89d2485 2234.section "OS-specific header files" "SECID30"
9b371988
PH
2235.cindex "&_os.h_&"
2236.cindex "building Exim" "OS-specific C header files"
2237The &_OS_& directory contains a number of files with names of the form
2238&_os.h-<ostype>_&. These are system-specific C header files that should not
168e428f 2239normally need to be changed. There is a list of macro settings that are
9b371988 2240recognized in the file &_OS/os.configuring_&, which should be consulted if you
168e428f
PH
2241are porting Exim to a new operating system.
2242
2243
2244
f89d2485
PH
2245.section "Overriding build-time options for the monitor" "SECID31"
2246.cindex "building Eximon"
168e428f
PH
2247A similar process is used for overriding things when building the Exim monitor,
2248where the files that are involved are
9b371988
PH
2249.display
2250&_OS/eximon.conf-Default_&
2251&_OS/eximon.conf-_&<&'ostype'&>
2252&_Local/eximon.conf_&
2253&_Local/eximon.conf-_&<&'ostype'&>
2254&_Local/eximon.conf-_&<&'archtype'&>
2255&_Local/eximon.conf-_&<&'ostype'&>-<&'archtype'&>
2256.endd
2257.cindex "&_Local/eximon.conf_&"
168e428f 2258As with Exim itself, the final three files need not exist, and in this case the
9b371988
PH
2259&_OS/eximon.conf-<ostype>_& file is also optional. The default values in
2260&_OS/eximon.conf-Default_& can be overridden dynamically by setting environment
168e428f
PH
2261variables of the same name, preceded by EXIMON_. For example, setting
2262EXIMON_LOG_DEPTH in the environment overrides the value of
2263LOG_DEPTH at run time.
4f578862 2264.ecindex IIDbuex
168e428f
PH
2265
2266
f89d2485 2267.section "Installing Exim binaries and scripts" "SECID32"
9b371988
PH
2268.cindex "installing Exim"
2269.cindex "BIN_DIRECTORY"
2270The command &`make install`& runs the &(exim_install)& script with no
2271arguments. The script copies binaries and utility scripts into the directory
2272whose name is specified by the BIN_DIRECTORY setting in &_Local/Makefile_&.
2273.cindex "setuid" "installing Exim with"
068aaea8
PH
2274The install script copies files only if they are newer than the files they are
2275going to replace. The Exim binary is required to be owned by root and have the
9b371988
PH
2276&'setuid'& bit set, for normal configurations. Therefore, you must run &`make
2277install`& as root so that it can set up the Exim binary in this way. However, in
068aaea8
PH
2278some special situations (for example, if a host is doing no local deliveries)
2279it may be possible to run Exim without making the binary setuid root (see
9b371988 2280chapter &<<CHAPsecurity>>& for details).
168e428f 2281
9b371988 2282.cindex "CONFIGURE_FILE"
168e428f 2283Exim's run time configuration file is named by the CONFIGURE_FILE setting
9b371988
PH
2284in &_Local/Makefile_&. If this names a single file, and the file does not
2285exist, the default configuration file &_src/configure.default_& is copied there
168e428f
PH
2286by the installation script. If a run time configuration file already exists, it
2287is left alone. If CONFIGURE_FILE is a colon-separated list, naming several
2288alternative files, no default is installed.
2289
9b371988
PH
2290.cindex "system aliases file"
2291.cindex "&_/etc/aliases_&"
168e428f
PH
2292One change is made to the default configuration file when it is installed: the
2293default configuration contains a router that references a system aliases file.
2294The path to this file is set to the value specified by
9b371988 2295SYSTEM_ALIASES_FILE in &_Local/Makefile_& (&_/etc/aliases_& by default).
168e428f
PH
2296If the system aliases file does not exist, the installation script creates it,
2297and outputs a comment to the user.
2298
2299The created file contains no aliases, but it does contain comments about the
2300aliases a site should normally have. Mail aliases have traditionally been
9b371988
PH
2301kept in &_/etc/aliases_&. However, some operating systems are now using
2302&_/etc/mail/aliases_&. You should check if yours is one of these, and change
168e428f
PH
2303Exim's configuration if necessary.
2304
2305The default configuration uses the local host's name as the only local domain,
9b371988
PH
2306and is set up to do local deliveries into the shared directory &_/var/mail_&,
2307running as the local user. System aliases and &_.forward_& files in users' home
168e428f
PH
2308directories are supported, but no NIS or NIS+ support is configured. Domains
2309other than the name of the local host are routed using the DNS, with delivery
2310over SMTP.
2311
168e428f
PH
2312It is possible to install Exim for special purposes (such as building a binary
2313distribution) in a private part of the file system. You can do this by a
2314command such as
9b371988
PH
2315.code
2316make DESTDIR=/some/directory/ install
2317.endd
168e428f
PH
2318This has the effect of pre-pending the specified directory to all the file
2319paths, except the name of the system aliases file that appears in the default
9b371988 2320configuration. (If a default alias file is created, its name &'is'& modified.)
168e428f
PH
2321For backwards compatibility, ROOT is used if DESTDIR is not set,
2322but this usage is deprecated.
2323
9b371988
PH
2324.cindex "installing Exim" "what is not installed"
2325Running &'make install'& does not copy the Exim 4 conversion script
40df1be3
TF
2326&'convert4r4'&. You will probably run this only once if you are
2327upgrading from Exim 3. None of the documentation files in the &_doc_&
168e428f 2328directory are copied, except for the info files when you have set
9b371988 2329INFO_DIRECTORY, as described in section &<<SECTinsinfdoc>>& below.
168e428f 2330
9b371988 2331For the utility programs, old versions are renamed by adding the suffix &_.O_&
168e428f
PH
2332to their names. The Exim binary itself, however, is handled differently. It is
2333installed under a name that includes the version number and the compile number,
2aee48d6 2334for example &_exim-&version()-1_&. The script then arranges for a symbolic link
9b371988
PH
2335called &_exim_& to point to the binary. If you are updating a previous version
2336of Exim, the script takes care to ensure that the name &_exim_& is never absent
168e428f
PH
2337from the directory (as seen by other processes).
2338
9b371988
PH
2339.cindex "installing Exim" "testing the script"
2340If you want to see what the &'make install'& will do before running it for
2341real, you can pass the &%-n%& option to the installation script by this
2342command:
2343.code
2344make INSTALL_ARG=-n install
2345.endd
168e428f
PH
2346The contents of the variable INSTALL_ARG are passed to the installation
2347script. You do not need to be root to run this test. Alternatively, you can run
2348the installation script directly, but this must be from within the build
2349directory. For example, from the top-level Exim directory you could use this
2350command:
9b371988
PH
2351.code
2352(cd build-SunOS5-5.5.1-sparc; ../scripts/exim_install -n)
2353.endd
2354.cindex "installing Exim" "install script options"
168e428f
PH
2355There are two other options that can be supplied to the installation script.
2356
9b371988
PH
2357.ilist
2358&%-no_chown%& bypasses the call to change the owner of the installed binary
168e428f 2359to root, and the call to make it a setuid binary.
9b371988
PH
2360.next
2361&%-no_symlink%& bypasses the setting up of the symbolic link &_exim_& to the
168e428f 2362installed binary.
9b371988 2363.endlist
168e428f
PH
2364
2365INSTALL_ARG can be used to pass these options to the script. For example:
9b371988
PH
2366.code
2367make INSTALL_ARG=-no_symlink install
2368.endd
168e428f
PH
2369The installation script can also be given arguments specifying which files are
2370to be copied. For example, to install just the Exim binary, and nothing else,
2371without creating the symbolic link, you could use:
9b371988
PH
2372.code
2373make INSTALL_ARG='-no_symlink exim' install
2374.endd
168e428f
PH
2375
2376
2377
9b371988
PH
2378.section "Installing info documentation" "SECTinsinfdoc"
2379.cindex "installing Exim" "&'info'& documentation"
2380Not all systems use the GNU &'info'& system for documentation, and for this
168e428f
PH
2381reason, the Texinfo source of Exim's documentation is not included in the main
2382distribution. Instead it is available separately from the ftp site (see section
9b371988 2383&<<SECTavail>>&).
168e428f 2384
9b371988
PH
2385If you have defined INFO_DIRECTORY in &_Local/Makefile_& and the Texinfo
2386source of the documentation is found in the source tree, running &`make
2387install`& automatically builds the info files and installs them.
168e428f
PH
2388
2389
2390
f89d2485 2391.section "Setting up the spool directory" "SECID33"
9b371988 2392.cindex "spool directory" "creating"
168e428f
PH
2393When it starts up, Exim tries to create its spool directory if it does not
2394exist. The Exim uid and gid are used for the owner and group of the spool
2395directory. Sub-directories are automatically created in the spool directory as
2396necessary.
2397
2398
2399
2400
f89d2485 2401.section "Testing" "SECID34"
9b371988 2402.cindex "testing" "installation"
168e428f
PH
2403Having installed Exim, you can check that the run time configuration file is
2404syntactically valid by running the following command, which assumes that the
2405Exim binary directory is within your PATH environment variable:
9b371988
PH
2406.code
2407exim -bV
2408.endd
168e428f
PH
2409If there are any errors in the configuration file, Exim outputs error messages.
2410Otherwise it outputs the version number and build date,
2411the DBM library that is being used, and information about which drivers and
2412other optional code modules are included in the binary.
2413Some simple routing tests can be done by using the address testing option. For
2414example,
9b371988
PH
2415.display
2416&`exim -bt`& <&'local username'&>
2417.endd
168e428f 2418should verify that it recognizes a local mailbox, and
9b371988
PH
2419.display
2420&`exim -bt`& <&'remote address'&>
2421.endd
168e428f
PH
2422a remote one. Then try getting it to deliver mail, both locally and remotely.
2423This can be done by passing messages directly to Exim, without going through a
2424user agent. For example:
9b371988 2425.code
068aaea8
PH
2426exim -v postmaster@your.domain.example
2427From: user@your.domain.example
2428To: postmaster@your.domain.example
2429Subject: Testing Exim
168e428f 2430
068aaea8
PH
2431This is a test message.
2432^D
9b371988
PH
2433.endd
2434The &%-v%& option causes Exim to output some verification of what it is doing.
168e428f 2435In this case you should see copies of three log lines, one for the message's
9b371988 2436arrival, one for its delivery, and one containing &"Completed"&.
168e428f 2437
9b371988
PH
2438.cindex "delivery" "problems with"
2439If you encounter problems, look at Exim's log files (&'mainlog'& and
2440&'paniclog'&) to see if there is any relevant information there. Another source
168e428f 2441of information is running Exim with debugging turned on, by specifying the
9b371988 2442&%-d%& option. If a message is stuck on Exim's spool, you can force a delivery
168e428f 2443with debugging turned on by a command of the form
9b371988
PH
2444.display
2445&`exim -d -M`& <&'exim-message-id'&>
2446.endd
2447You must be root or an &"admin user"& in order to do this. The &%-d%& option
168e428f 2448produces rather a lot of output, but you can cut this down to specific areas.
9b371988
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2449For example, if you use &%-d-all+route%& only the debugging information
2450relevant to routing is included. (See the &%-d%& option in chapter
2451&<<CHAPcommandline>>& for more details.)
168e428f 2452
9b371988
PH
2453.cindex '&"sticky"& bit'
2454.cindex "lock files"
168e428f
PH
2455One specific problem that has shown up on some sites is the inability to do
2456local deliveries into a shared mailbox directory, because it does not have the
9b371988 2457&"sticky bit"& set on it. By default, Exim tries to create a lock file before
168e428f 2458writing to a mailbox file, and if it cannot create the lock file, the delivery
9b371988 2459is deferred. You can get round this either by setting the &"sticky bit"& on the
168e428f
PH
2460directory, or by setting a specific group for local deliveries and allowing
2461that group to create files in the directory (see the comments above the
9b371988 2462&(local_delivery)& transport in the default configuration file). Another
168e428f 2463approach is to configure Exim not to use lock files, but just to rely on
9b371988
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2464&[fcntl()]& locking instead. However, you should do this only if all user
2465agents also use &[fcntl()]& locking. For further discussion of locking issues,
2466see chapter &<<CHAPappendfile>>&.
168e428f
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2467
2468One thing that cannot be tested on a system that is already running an MTA is
2469the receipt of incoming SMTP mail on the standard SMTP port. However, the
9b371988
PH
2470&%-oX%& option can be used to run an Exim daemon that listens on some other
2471port, or &'inetd'& can be used to do this. The &%-bh%& option and the
2472&'exim_checkaccess'& utility can be used to check out policy controls on
168e428f
PH
2473incoming SMTP mail.
2474
2475Testing a new version on a system that is already running Exim can most easily
2476be done by building a binary with a different CONFIGURE_FILE setting. From
2477within the run time configuration, all other file and directory names
2478that Exim uses can be altered, in order to keep it entirely clear of the
2479production version.
2480
2481
f89d2485 2482.section "Replacing another MTA with Exim" "SECID35"
9b371988 2483.cindex "replacing another MTA"
168e428f
PH
2484Building and installing Exim for the first time does not of itself put it in
2485general use. The name by which the system's MTA is called by mail user agents
9b371988
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2486is either &_/usr/sbin/sendmail_&, or &_/usr/lib/sendmail_& (depending on the
2487operating system), and it is necessary to make this name point to the &'exim'&
168e428f 2488binary in order to get the user agents to pass messages to Exim. This is
9b371988
PH
2489normally done by renaming any existing file and making &_/usr/sbin/sendmail_&
2490or &_/usr/lib/sendmail_&
2491.cindex "symbolic link" "to &'exim'& binary"
2492a symbolic link to the &'exim'& binary. It is a good idea to remove any setuid
168e428f
PH
2493privilege and executable status from the old MTA. It is then necessary to stop
2494and restart the mailer daemon, if one is running.
2495
f89d2485 2496.cindex "FreeBSD, MTA indirection"
9b371988 2497.cindex "&_/etc/mail/mailer.conf_&"
168e428f
PH
2498Some operating systems have introduced alternative ways of switching MTAs. For
2499example, if you are running FreeBSD, you need to edit the file
9b371988 2500&_/etc/mail/mailer.conf_& instead of setting up a symbolic link as just
168e428f
PH
2501described. A typical example of the contents of this file for running Exim is
2502as follows:
9b371988
PH
2503.code
2504sendmail /usr/exim/bin/exim
2505send-mail /usr/exim/bin/exim
2506mailq /usr/exim/bin/exim -bp
2507newaliases /usr/bin/true
2508.endd
2509Once you have set up the symbolic link, or edited &_/etc/mail/mailer.conf_&,
2510your Exim installation is &"live"&. Check it by sending a message from your
168e428f
PH
2511favourite user agent.
2512
2513You should consider what to tell your users about the change of MTA. Exim may
2514have different capabilities to what was previously running, and there are
2515various operational differences such as the text of messages produced by
2516command line options and in bounce messages. If you allow your users to make
2517use of Exim's filtering capabilities, you should make the document entitled
9b371988 2518&'Exim's interface to mail filtering'& available to them.
168e428f
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2519
2520
2521
f89d2485 2522.section "Upgrading Exim" "SECID36"
9b371988 2523.cindex "upgrading Exim"
168e428f
PH
2524If you are already running Exim on your host, building and installing a new
2525version automatically makes it available to MUAs, or any other programs that
2526call the MTA directly. However, if you are running an Exim daemon, you do need
9b371988
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2527to send it a HUP signal, to make it re-execute itself, and thereby pick up the
2528new binary. You do not need to stop processing mail in order to install a new
068aaea8
PH
2529version of Exim. The install script does not modify an existing runtime
2530configuration file.
2531
168e428f
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2532
2533
2534
f89d2485 2535.section "Stopping the Exim daemon on Solaris" "SECID37"
9b371988 2536.cindex "Solaris" "stopping Exim on"
168e428f 2537The standard command for stopping the mailer daemon on Solaris is
9b371988
PH
2538.code
2539/etc/init.d/sendmail stop
2540.endd
2541If &_/usr/lib/sendmail_& has been turned into a symbolic link, this script
2542fails to stop Exim because it uses the command &'ps -e'& and greps the output
2543for the text &"sendmail"&; this is not present because the actual program name
2544(that is, &"exim"&) is given by the &'ps'& command with these options. A
2545solution is to replace the line that finds the process id with something like
2546.code
2547pid=`cat /var/spool/exim/exim-daemon.pid`
2548.endd
168e428f
PH
2549to obtain the daemon's pid directly from the file that Exim saves it in.
2550
9b371988 2551Note, however, that stopping the daemon does not &"stop Exim"&. Messages can
168e428f
PH
2552still be received from local processes, and if automatic delivery is configured
2553(the normal case), deliveries will still occur.
2554
2555
2556
2557
9b371988
PH
2558. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2559. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
168e428f 2560
9b371988 2561.chapter "The Exim command line" "CHAPcommandline"
4f578862
PH
2562.scindex IIDclo1 "command line" "options"
2563.scindex IIDclo2 "options" "command line"
168e428f
PH
2564Exim's command line takes the standard Unix form of a sequence of options,
2565each starting with a hyphen character, followed by a number of arguments. The
2566options are compatible with the main options of Sendmail, and there are also
2567some additional options, some of which are compatible with Smail 3. Certain
2568combinations of options do not make sense, and provoke an error if used.
2569The form of the arguments depends on which options are set.
2570
2571
f89d2485 2572.section "Setting options by program name" "SECID38"
9b371988
PH
2573.cindex "&'mailq'&"
2574If Exim is called under the name &'mailq'&, it behaves as if the option &%-bp%&
168e428f 2575were present before any other options.
9b371988 2576The &%-bp%& option requests a listing of the contents of the mail queue on the
168e428f
PH
2577standard output.
2578This feature is for compatibility with some systems that contain a command of
2579that name in one of the standard libraries, symbolically linked to
9b371988
PH
2580&_/usr/sbin/sendmail_& or &_/usr/lib/sendmail_&.
2581
2582.cindex "&'rsmtp'&"
2583If Exim is called under the name &'rsmtp'& it behaves as if the option &%-bS%&
2584were present before any other options, for compatibility with Smail. The
2585&%-bS%& option is used for reading in a number of messages in batched SMTP
2586format.
2587
2588.cindex "&'rmail'&"
2589If Exim is called under the name &'rmail'& it behaves as if the &%-i%& and
2590&%-oee%& options were present before any other options, for compatibility with
2591Smail. The name &'rmail'& is used as an interface by some UUCP systems.
2592
2593.cindex "&'runq'&"
2594.cindex "queue runner"
2595If Exim is called under the name &'runq'& it behaves as if the option &%-q%&
2596were present before any other options, for compatibility with Smail. The &%-q%&
168e428f
PH
2597option causes a single queue runner process to be started.
2598
9b371988
PH
2599.cindex "&'newaliases'&"
2600.cindex "alias file" "building"
2601.cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "calling Exim as &'newaliases'&"
2602If Exim is called under the name &'newaliases'& it behaves as if the option
2603&%-bi%& were present before any other options, for compatibility with Sendmail.
168e428f
PH
2604This option is used for rebuilding Sendmail's alias file. Exim does not have
2605the concept of a single alias file, but can be configured to run a given
9b371988 2606command if called with the &%-bi%& option.
168e428f
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2607
2608
9b371988
PH
2609.section "Trusted and admin users" "SECTtrustedadmin"
2610Some Exim options are available only to &'trusted users'& and others are
2611available only to &'admin users'&. In the description below, the phrases &"Exim
2612user"& and &"Exim group"& mean the user and group defined by EXIM_USER and
2613EXIM_GROUP in &_Local/Makefile_& or set by the &%exim_user%& and
2614&%exim_group%& options. These do not necessarily have to use the name &"exim"&.
168e428f 2615
9b371988 2616.ilist
f89d2485 2617.cindex "trusted users" "definition of"
9b371988 2618.cindex "user" "trusted definition of"
168e428f 2619The trusted users are root, the Exim user, any user listed in the
9b371988
PH
2620&%trusted_users%& configuration option, and any user whose current group or any
2621supplementary group is one of those listed in the &%trusted_groups%&
168e428f 2622configuration option. Note that the Exim group is not automatically trusted.
9b371988
PH
2623
2624.cindex '&"From"& line'
2625.cindex "envelope sender"
2626Trusted users are always permitted to use the &%-f%& option or a leading
2627&"From&~"& line to specify the envelope sender of a message that is passed to
2628Exim through the local interface (see the &%-bm%& and &%-f%& options below).
2629See the &%untrusted_set_sender%& option for a way of permitting non-trusted
2630users to set envelope senders.
2631
2632.cindex "&'From:'& header line"
2633.cindex "&'Sender:'& header line"
1e4519cc
JH
2634.cindex "header lines" "From:"
2635.cindex "header lines" "Sender:"
9b371988
PH
2636For a trusted user, there is never any check on the contents of the &'From:'&
2637header line, and a &'Sender:'& line is never added. Furthermore, any existing
2638&'Sender:'& line in incoming local (non-TCP/IP) messages is not removed.
2639
168e428f
PH
2640Trusted users may also specify a host name, host address, interface address,
2641protocol name, ident value, and authentication data when submitting a message
2642locally. Thus, they are able to insert messages into Exim's queue locally that
2643have the characteristics of messages received from a remote host. Untrusted
9b371988 2644users may in some circumstances use &%-f%&, but can never set the other values
168e428f 2645that are available to trusted users.
9b371988
PH
2646.next
2647.cindex "user" "admin definition of"
2648.cindex "admin user" "definition of"
168e428f 2649The admin users are root, the Exim user, and any user that is a member of the
9b371988 2650Exim group or of any group listed in the &%admin_groups%& configuration option.
168e428f 2651The current group does not have to be one of these groups.
9b371988 2652
168e428f
PH
2653Admin users are permitted to list the queue, and to carry out certain
2654operations on messages, for example, to force delivery failures. It is also
2655necessary to be an admin user in order to see the full information provided by
2656the Exim monitor, and full debugging output.
9b371988
PH
2657
2658By default, the use of the &%-M%&, &%-q%&, &%-R%&, and &%-S%& options to cause
2659Exim to attempt delivery of messages on its queue is restricted to admin users.
2660However, this restriction can be relaxed by setting the &%prod_requires_admin%&
2661option false (that is, specifying &%no_prod_requires_admin%&).
2662
2663Similarly, the use of the &%-bp%& option to list all the messages in the queue
2664is restricted to admin users unless &%queue_list_requires_admin%& is set
168e428f 2665false.
9b371988 2666.endlist
168e428f
PH
2667
2668
9b371988 2669&*Warning*&: If you configure your system so that admin users are able to
168e428f
PH
2670edit Exim's configuration file, you are giving those users an easy way of
2671getting root. There is further discussion of this issue at the start of chapter
9b371988 2672&<<CHAPconf>>&.
168e428f
PH
2673
2674
2675
2676
f89d2485 2677.section "Command line options" "SECID39"
db9452a9
PH
2678Exim's command line options are described in alphabetical order below. If none
2679of the options that specifies a specific action (such as starting the daemon or
2680a queue runner, or testing an address, or receiving a message in a specific
2681format, or listing the queue) are present, and there is at least one argument
2682on the command line, &%-bm%& (accept a local message on the standard input,
2683with the arguments specifying the recipients) is assumed. Otherwise, Exim
2684outputs a brief message about itself and exits.
168e428f 2685
9b371988
PH
2686. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
2687. Insert a stylized XML comment here, to identify the start of the command line
2688. options. This is for the benefit of the Perl script that automatically
2689. creates a man page for the options.
2690. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
168e428f 2691
9b371988 2692.literal xml
168e428f 2693<!-- === Start of command line options === -->
9b371988 2694.literal off
168e428f
PH
2695
2696
9b371988
PH
2697.vlist
2698.vitem &%--%&
2699.oindex "--"
2700.cindex "options" "command line; terminating"
168e428f
PH
2701This is a pseudo-option whose only purpose is to terminate the options and
2702therefore to cause subsequent command line items to be treated as arguments
2703rather than options, even if they begin with hyphens.
2704
9b371988
PH
2705.vitem &%--help%&
2706.oindex "&%--help%&"
168e428f
PH
2707This option causes Exim to output a few sentences stating what it is.
2708The same output is generated if the Exim binary is called with no options and
2709no arguments.
2710
4b2241d2
PP
2711.vitem &%--version%&
2712.oindex "&%--version%&"
2713This option is an alias for &%-bV%& and causes version information to be
2714displayed.
2715
a3fb9793
PP
2716.vitem &%-Ac%& &&&
2717 &%-Am%&
2718.oindex "&%-Ac%&"
2719.oindex "&%-Am%&"
2720These options are used by Sendmail for selecting configuration files and are
2721ignored by Exim.
a3fb9793 2722
9b371988
PH
2723.vitem &%-B%&<&'type'&>
2724.oindex "&%-B%&"
2725.cindex "8-bit characters"
2726.cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "8-bit characters"
168e428f
PH
2727This is a Sendmail option for selecting 7 or 8 bit processing. Exim is 8-bit
2728clean; it ignores this option.
2729
9b371988
PH
2730.vitem &%-bd%&
2731.oindex "&%-bd%&"
2732.cindex "daemon"
f89d2485 2733.cindex "SMTP" "listener"
9b371988 2734.cindex "queue runner"
168e428f 2735This option runs Exim as a daemon, awaiting incoming SMTP connections. Usually
9b371988
PH
2736the &%-bd%& option is combined with the &%-q%&<&'time'&> option, to specify
2737that the daemon should also initiate periodic queue runs.
2738
2739The &%-bd%& option can be used only by an admin user. If either of the &%-d%&
2740(debugging) or &%-v%& (verifying) options are set, the daemon does not
168e428f
PH
2741disconnect from the controlling terminal. When running this way, it can be
2742stopped by pressing ctrl-C.
9b371988 2743
168e428f
PH
2744By default, Exim listens for incoming connections to the standard SMTP port on
2745all the host's running interfaces. However, it is possible to listen on other
2746ports, on multiple ports, and only on specific interfaces. Chapter
9b371988
PH
2747&<<CHAPinterfaces>>& contains a description of the options that control this.
2748
168e428f 2749When a listening daemon
9b371988
PH
2750.cindex "daemon" "process id (pid)"
2751.cindex "pid (process id)" "of daemon"
2752is started without the use of &%-oX%& (that is, without overriding the normal
2753configuration), it writes its process id to a file called &_exim-daemon.pid_&
2754in Exim's spool directory. This location can be overridden by setting
2755PID_FILE_PATH in &_Local/Makefile_&. The file is written while Exim is still
168e428f 2756running as root.
9b371988
PH
2757
2758When &%-oX%& is used on the command line to start a listening daemon, the
2759process id is not written to the normal pid file path. However, &%-oP%& can be
168e428f 2760used to specify a path on the command line if a pid file is required.
9b371988 2761
168e428f 2762The SIGHUP signal
9b371988 2763.cindex "SIGHUP"
3cb1b51e
PH
2764.cindex "daemon" "restarting"
2765can be used to cause the daemon to re-execute itself. This should be done
2766whenever Exim's configuration file, or any file that is incorporated into it by
2767means of the &%.include%& facility, is changed, and also whenever a new version
2768of Exim is installed. It is not necessary to do this when other files that are
9b371988
PH
2769referenced from the configuration (for example, alias files) are changed,
2770because these are reread each time they are used.
2771
2772.vitem &%-bdf%&
2773.oindex "&%-bdf%&"
2774This option has the same effect as &%-bd%& except that it never disconnects
2775from the controlling terminal, even when no debugging is specified.
2776
2777.vitem &%-be%&
2778.oindex "&%-be%&"
2779.cindex "testing" "string expansion"
2780.cindex "expansion" "testing"
168e428f
PH
2781Run Exim in expansion testing mode. Exim discards its root privilege, to
2782prevent ordinary users from using this mode to read otherwise inaccessible
2783files. If no arguments are given, Exim runs interactively, prompting for lines
4f578862 2784of data. Otherwise, it processes each argument in turn.
9b371988
PH
2785
2786If Exim was built with USE_READLINE=yes in &_Local/Makefile_&, it tries
2787to load the &%libreadline%& library dynamically whenever the &%-be%& option is
2788used without command line arguments. If successful, it uses the &[readline()]&
168e428f
PH
2789function, which provides extensive line-editing facilities, for reading the
2790test data. A line history is supported.
9b371988 2791
168e428f 2792Long expansion expressions can be split over several lines by using backslash
068aaea8 2793continuations. As in Exim's run time configuration, white space at the start of
168e428f
PH
2794continuation lines is ignored. Each argument or data line is passed through the
2795string expansion mechanism, and the result is output. Variable values from the
9b371988 2796configuration file (for example, &$qualify_domain$&) are available, but no
374dc194 2797message-specific values (such as &$message_exim_id$&) are set, because no message
f89d2485 2798is being processed (but see &%-bem%& and &%-Mset%&).
168e428f 2799
9b371988
PH
2800&*Note*&: If you use this mechanism to test lookups, and you change the data
2801files or databases you are using, you must exit and restart Exim before trying
2802the same lookup again. Otherwise, because each Exim process caches the results
2803of lookups, you will just get the same result as before.
9b371988 2804
9650d98a
JH
2805Macro processing is done on lines before string-expansion: new macros can be
2806defined and macros will be expanded.
2807Because macros in the config file are often used for secrets, those are only
2808available to admin users.
9650d98a 2809
3cb1b51e
PH
2810.vitem &%-bem%&&~<&'filename'&>
2811.oindex "&%-bem%&"
2812.cindex "testing" "string expansion"
2813.cindex "expansion" "testing"
2814This option operates like &%-be%& except that it must be followed by the name
2815of a file. For example:
2816.code
2817exim -bem /tmp/testmessage
2818.endd
2819The file is read as a message (as if receiving a locally-submitted non-SMTP
2820message) before any of the test expansions are done. Thus, message-specific
2821variables such as &$message_size$& and &$header_from:$& are available. However,
2822no &'Received:'& header is added to the message. If the &%-t%& option is set,
2823recipients are read from the headers in the normal way, and are shown in the
2824&$recipients$& variable. Note that recipients cannot be given on the command
2825line, because further arguments are taken as strings to expand (just like
2826&%-be%&).
3cb1b51e 2827
9b371988
PH
2828.vitem &%-bF%&&~<&'filename'&>
2829.oindex "&%-bF%&"
2830.cindex "system filter" "testing"
2831.cindex "testing" "system filter"
2832This option is the same as &%-bf%& except that it assumes that the filter being
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PH
2833tested is a system filter. The additional commands that are available only in
2834system filters are recognized.
2835
9b371988
PH
2836.vitem &%-bf%&&~<&'filename'&>
2837.oindex "&%-bf%&"
2838.cindex "filter" "testing"
2839.cindex "testing" "filter file"
2840.cindex "forward file" "testing"
2841.cindex "testing" "forward file"
2842.cindex "Sieve filter" "testing"
168e428f
PH
2843This option runs Exim in user filter testing mode; the file is the filter file
2844to be tested, and a test message must be supplied on the standard input. If
2845there are no message-dependent tests in the filter, an empty file can be
2846supplied.
168e428f 2847
9b371988
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2848If you want to test a system filter file, use &%-bF%& instead of &%-bf%&. You
2849can use both &%-bF%& and &%-bf%& on the same command, in order to test a system
2850filter and a user filter in the same run. For example:
2851.code
2852exim -bF /system/filter -bf /user/filter </test/message
2853.endd
168e428f
PH
2854This is helpful when the system filter adds header lines or sets filter
2855variables that are used by the user filter.
168e428f 2856
9b371988
PH
2857If the test filter file does not begin with one of the special lines
2858.code
2859# Exim filter
2860# Sieve filter
2861.endd
2862it is taken to be a normal &_.forward_& file, and is tested for validity under
2863that interpretation. See sections &<<SECTitenonfilred>>& to
2864&<<SECTspecitredli>>& for a description of the possible contents of non-filter
2865redirection lists.
2866
2867The result of an Exim command that uses &%-bf%&, provided no errors are
168e428f
PH
2868detected, is a list of the actions that Exim would try to take if presented
2869with the message for real. More details of filter testing are given in the
9b371988
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2870separate document entitled &'Exim's interfaces to mail filtering'&.
2871
168e428f 2872When testing a filter file,
9b371988
PH
2873.cindex "&""From""& line"
2874.cindex "envelope sender"
f89d2485 2875.oindex "&%-f%&" "for filter testing"
9b371988
PH
2876the envelope sender can be set by the &%-f%& option,
2877or by a &"From&~"& line at the start of the test message. Various parameters
2878that would normally be taken from the envelope recipient address of the message
2879can be set by means of additional command line options (see the next four
2880options).
2881
2882.vitem &%-bfd%&&~<&'domain'&>
2883.oindex "&%-bfd%&"
f89d2485 2884.vindex "&$qualify_domain$&"
168e428f 2885This sets the domain of the recipient address when a filter file is being
9b371988
PH
2886tested by means of the &%-bf%& option. The default is the value of
2887&$qualify_domain$&.
168e428f 2888
9b371988
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2889.vitem &%-bfl%&&~<&'local&~part'&>
2890.oindex "&%-bfl%&"
168e428f 2891This sets the local part of the recipient address when a filter file is being
9b371988 2892tested by means of the &%-bf%& option. The default is the username of the
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PH
2893process that calls Exim. A local part should be specified with any prefix or
2894suffix stripped, because that is how it appears to the filter when a message is
2895actually being delivered.
2896
9b371988
PH
2897.vitem &%-bfp%&&~<&'prefix'&>
2898.oindex "&%-bfp%&"
168e428f 2899This sets the prefix of the local part of the recipient address when a filter
9b371988 2900file is being tested by means of the &%-bf%& option. The default is an empty
168e428f
PH
2901prefix.
2902
9b371988
PH
2903.vitem &%-bfs%&&~<&'suffix'&>
2904.oindex "&%-bfs%&"
168e428f 2905This sets the suffix of the local part of the recipient address when a filter
9b371988 2906file is being tested by means of the &%-bf%& option. The default is an empty
168e428f
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2907suffix.
2908
9b371988
PH
2909.vitem &%-bh%&&~<&'IP&~address'&>
2910.oindex "&%-bh%&"
2911.cindex "testing" "incoming SMTP"
2912.cindex "SMTP" "testing incoming"
2913.cindex "testing" "relay control"
2914.cindex "relaying" "testing configuration"
2915.cindex "policy control" "testing"
2916.cindex "debugging" "&%-bh%& option"
168e428f
PH
2917This option runs a fake SMTP session as if from the given IP address, using the
2918standard input and output. The IP address may include a port number at the end,
2919after a full stop. For example:
9b371988
PH
2920.code
2921exim -bh 10.9.8.7.1234
2922exim -bh fe80::a00:20ff:fe86:a061.5678
2923.endd
168e428f 2924When an IPv6 address is given, it is converted into canonical form. In the case
9b371988
PH
2925of the second example above, the value of &$sender_host_address$& after
2926conversion to the canonical form is
2927&`fe80:0000:0000:0a00:20ff:fe86:a061.5678`&.
2928
168e428f 2929Comments as to what is going on are written to the standard error file. These
9b371988 2930include lines beginning with &"LOG"& for anything that would have been logged.
168e428f
PH
2931This facility is provided for testing configuration options for incoming
2932messages, to make sure they implement the required policy. For example, you can
9b371988
PH
2933test your relay controls using &%-bh%&.
2934
2935&*Warning 1*&:
2936.cindex "RFC 1413"
db9452a9
PH
2937You can test features of the configuration that rely on ident (RFC 1413)
2938information by using the &%-oMt%& option. However, Exim cannot actually perform
2939an ident callout when testing using &%-bh%& because there is no incoming SMTP
2940connection.
9b371988
PH
2941
2942&*Warning 2*&: Address verification callouts (see section &<<SECTcallver>>&)
2943are also skipped when testing using &%-bh%&. If you want these callouts to
2944occur, use &%-bhc%& instead.
2945
168e428f
PH
2946Messages supplied during the testing session are discarded, and nothing is
2947written to any of the real log files. There may be pauses when DNS (and other)
9b371988 2948lookups are taking place, and of course these may time out. The &%-oMi%& option
db9452a9
PH
2949can be used to specify a specific IP interface and port if this is important,
2950and &%-oMaa%& and &%-oMai%& can be used to set parameters as if the SMTP
2951session were authenticated.
9b371988
PH
2952
2953The &'exim_checkaccess'& utility is a &"packaged"& version of &%-bh%& whose
168e428f 2954output just states whether a given recipient address from a given host is
9b371988 2955acceptable or not. See section &<<SECTcheckaccess>>&.
168e428f 2956
3cb1b51e 2957Features such as authentication and encryption, where the client input is not
f89d2485
PH
2958plain text, cannot easily be tested with &%-bh%&. Instead, you should use a
2959specialized SMTP test program such as
3cb1b51e 2960&url(http://jetmore.org/john/code/#swaks,swaks).
3cb1b51e 2961
9b371988
PH
2962.vitem &%-bhc%&&~<&'IP&~address'&>
2963.oindex "&%-bhc%&"
2964This option operates in the same way as &%-bh%&, except that address
168e428f
PH
2965verification callouts are performed if required. This includes consulting and
2966updating the callout cache database.
2967
9b371988
PH
2968.vitem &%-bi%&
2969.oindex "&%-bi%&"
2970.cindex "alias file" "building"
2971.cindex "building alias file"
2972.cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&%-bi%& option"
2973Sendmail interprets the &%-bi%& option as a request to rebuild its alias file.
168e428f 2974Exim does not have the concept of a single alias file, and so it cannot mimic
9b371988 2975this behaviour. However, calls to &_/usr/lib/sendmail_& with the &%-bi%& option
168e428f
PH
2976tend to appear in various scripts such as NIS make files, so the option must be
2977recognized.
9b371988
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2978
2979If &%-bi%& is encountered, the command specified by the &%bi_command%&
168e428f 2980configuration option is run, under the uid and gid of the caller of Exim. If
9b371988
PH
2981the &%-oA%& option is used, its value is passed to the command as an argument.
2982The command set by &%bi_command%& may not contain arguments. The command can
2983use the &'exim_dbmbuild'& utility, or some other means, to rebuild alias files
2984if this is required. If the &%bi_command%& option is not set, calling Exim with
2985&%-bi%& is a no-op.
2986
36a3ae5f 2987. // Keep :help first, then the rest in alphabetical order
98a90c36
PP
2988.vitem &%-bI:help%&
2989.oindex "&%-bI:help%&"
2990.cindex "querying exim information"
2991We shall provide various options starting &`-bI:`& for querying Exim for
2992information. The output of many of these will be intended for machine
2993consumption. This one is not. The &%-bI:help%& option asks Exim for a
2994synopsis of supported options beginning &`-bI:`&. Use of any of these
2995options shall cause Exim to exit after producing the requested output.
2996
36a3ae5f
PP
2997.vitem &%-bI:dscp%&
2998.oindex "&%-bI:dscp%&"
2999.cindex "DSCP" "values"
3000This option causes Exim to emit an alphabetically sorted list of all
3001recognised DSCP names.
3002
98a90c36
PP
3003.vitem &%-bI:sieve%&
3004.oindex "&%-bI:sieve%&"
3005.cindex "Sieve filter" "capabilities"
3006This option causes Exim to emit an alphabetically sorted list of all supported
3007Sieve protocol extensions on stdout, one per line. This is anticipated to be
3008useful for ManageSieve (RFC 5804) implementations, in providing that protocol's
3009&`SIEVE`& capability response line. As the precise list may depend upon
3010compile-time build options, which this option will adapt to, this is the only
3011way to guarantee a correct response.
3012
9b371988
PH
3013.vitem &%-bm%&
3014.oindex "&%-bm%&"
3015.cindex "local message reception"
168e428f 3016This option runs an Exim receiving process that accepts an incoming,
a543079f 3017locally-generated message on the standard input. The recipients are given as the
9b371988 3018command arguments (except when &%-t%& is also present &-- see below). Each
168e428f
PH
3019argument can be a comma-separated list of RFC 2822 addresses. This is the
3020default option for selecting the overall action of an Exim call; it is assumed
3021if no other conflicting option is present.
9b371988 3022
168e428f 3023If any addresses in the message are unqualified (have no domain), they are
9b371988
PH
3024qualified by the values of the &%qualify_domain%& or &%qualify_recipient%&
3025options, as appropriate. The &%-bnq%& option (see below) provides a way of
168e428f 3026suppressing this for special cases.
9b371988 3027
168e428f 3028Policy checks on the contents of local messages can be enforced by means of
9b371988
PH
3029the non-SMTP ACL. See chapter &<<CHAPACL>>& for details.
3030
3031.cindex "return code" "for &%-bm%&"
3032The return code is zero if the message is successfully accepted. Otherwise, the
3033action is controlled by the &%-oe%&&'x'& option setting &-- see below.
3034
168e428f 3035The format
9b371988
PH
3036.cindex "message" "format"
3037.cindex "format" "message"
3038.cindex "&""From""& line"
3039.cindex "UUCP" "&""From""& line"
3040.cindex "Sendmail compatibility" "&""From""& line"
168e428f
PH
3041of the message must be as defined in RFC 2822, except that, for
3042compatibility with Sendmail and Smail, a line in one of the forms
9b371988
PH
3043.code
3044From sender Fri Jan 5 12:55 GMT 1997
3045From sender Fri, 5 Jan 97 12:55:01
3046.endd
168e428f
PH
3047(with the weekday optional, and possibly with additional text after the date)
3048is permitted to appear at the start of the message. There appears to be no
3049authoritative specification of the format of this line. Exim recognizes it by
9b371988 3050matching against the regular expression defined by the &%uucp_from_pattern%&
168e428f 3051option, which can be changed if necessary.
9b371988 3052
f89d2485
PH
3053.oindex "&%-f%&" "overriding &""From""& line"
3054The specified sender is treated as if it were given a